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Improving School Leadership byBuilding Cohesive Leadership Systems : 

Improving School Leadership byBuilding Cohesive Leadership Systems NASBE: Expanding Effective Practices in Teaching and Leadership to Promote Student Learning March 17, 2010 Catherine Augustine

We Conducted Cross-Case Analyses on Ten Purposively Sampled Sites : 

We Conducted Cross-Case Analyses on Ten Purposively Sampled Sites

States Pursued a Variety of Policies and Initiatives in Six Policy Areas : 

States Pursued a Variety of Policies and Initiatives in Six Policy Areas Broadening positions addressed by standards Revising evaluation processes and tools Revising requirements for initial licensure and re-licensure Sunsetting programs Mandating mentoring Providing necessary data Standards Evaluation Pre-service and recruitment Licensure In-service Conditions District and state roles converging

Prevalence of Policy Areas Varied : 

Prevalence of Policy Areas Varied Most common policy areas: Standards Pre-service & recruitment In-service Less common policy areas: Licensure Evaluation Conditions

Favorable ConditionsPositively Related to Instructional Leadership : 

Favorable ConditionsPositively Related to Instructional Leadership Most conditions positively associated with time spent on instructional leadership practices Professional development, tools, and evaluations associated with all but one practice Better resources, support, and data all associated with satisfaction with time spent on most instructional leadership practices Better resources related to greater satisfaction on time spent on all practices

Creating Positive Conditions Necessitates Coordinated System-Building between State and District Actors : 

Creating Positive Conditions Necessitates Coordinated System-Building between State and District Actors Increasing authority over various schooling decisions could require both legislative and collective bargaining agreement changes Legislatures can shape quality of evaluation systems and professional development Then implemented by districts States impact school funding And districts make allocation decisions

States Pursued Eight Strategies to Build Cohesive Leadership Systems : 

States Pursued Eight Strategies to Build Cohesive Leadership Systems Identifying strong individuals with political and social capital to lead the work Building trust Creating formal and informal networks Fostering communications Exerting pressure and influence Promoting improved quality of leadership policies and initiatives Building capacity for the work Connecting to other reform efforts

Across The Ten Sites, Many Contextual Factors Favored CLS Work : 

Across The Ten Sites, Many Contextual Factors Favored CLS Work Common structures and policies History of collaboration Strong pre-existing social networks Wallace funding and technical assistance Political support

Other Contextual Factors Inhibited Progress : 

Other Contextual Factors Inhibited Progress Limited resources (people and time) Key staff turnover Limited SEA capacity Too many organizations, too far apart Culture of independence Discord across organizations

Recommendations for States Considering Development of CLS : 

Recommendations for States Considering Development of CLS Consider their context, particularly whether they have A culture and history of collaboration and strong social networks Identify strong lead organizations and individuals Willing and able to combine pressure with support Skilled at system-building Engage a broad coalition of stakeholders Build trust Identifying “lead learner” districts Establish networks and communications media

Challenges of Sustaining and Expanding CLS : 

Challenges of Sustaining and Expanding CLS Funding uncertainty after Wallace grant ends Staff turnover Weak organizational commitment Difficulty of staying faithful to original intent with scale-up Tension between value of cohesion across state and value of respecting local context

Strategies for Sustaining, Expanding CLS : 

Strategies for Sustaining, Expanding CLS Anchor work in standards Legislate and regulate initiatives Demonstrate results and advocate for new funding Develop and maintain common understandings, shared goals, joint ownership, buy-in Do succession planning and provide ongoing professional development, technical assistance Establish distributed leadership systems and vest leadership of efforts in apolitical organizations Document work and develop products to outlast people Create incentives for ongoing participation

Ultimately, Many Felt That Achieving Cohesion Was a Hedge Against Failure in the Future : 

Ultimately, Many Felt That Achieving Cohesion Was a Hedge Against Failure in the Future Achieved widespread commitment to goals Established new norms and behaviors for communicating and conducting joint work “No turning back now.”

Important to Both Shape the Workforce and Support the School Leaders : 

Important to Both Shape the Workforce and Support the School Leaders Many states have made progress on standards, some have made progress on pre-service training Policies necessary for shaping the workforce Equally important to support the new workforce Meaningful evaluations tied to the standards Timely data Sufficient authority Adequate resources (staff, time to learn, funding)

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http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG885/

Principals’ Satisfaction with Their Conditions Mixed : 

Principals’ Satisfaction with Their Conditions Mixed State and district data are organized, reliable, useful State data not timely Have authority over various schooling decisions Want more authority over removing teachers Districts provide them with quality professional development, evaluations, and other tools Do not have sufficient leadership support Desire assistant principals, coaches, etc. Do not have sufficient resources (funding, time, staff)

Different Paths Taken to Build Cohesive Leadership Systems : 

Different Paths Taken to Build Cohesive Leadership Systems In some states, districts took the lead Structures for convening and leading stakeholders varied Lead organizations varied across states As did extent to which CLS efforts were aligned to other reform efforts in the state Primary focus varied In-service vs pre-service, for example

States Rated Most Cohesive Shared Some Common Approaches : 

States Rated Most Cohesive Shared Some Common Approaches Pursued all eight strategies Especially building capacity, identifying strong leaders, and connecting to other reform efforts These states also fostered more strategic communications They also used a combination of pressure and support to further CLS agenda