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What is Soil???:

Wh at is Soil??? Soil is the layer of organic and inorganic material that forms the top surface of earth’s crust. Organic material is derived from decayed remains of plants and animals. Inorganic material is made up of rock fragments.

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All soil (weather polluted or non-polluted) contain a variety of compounds which naturally present . e.g metals, inorganic ions and salts (Phosphates, carbonates, sulfates, nitrates), and many organic compounds (lipids, proteins, fatty acids, hydrocarbons etc) . These compounds are mainly formed through soil microbial activity and decomposition of organisms. Various compounds get into soil from atmosphere (by wind and precipitation), from surface water bodies and shallow ground water flowing through the soil. When amount of soil contaminants exceed natural levels pollution is generated.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

Causes of Soil Pollution

Causes of Soil Pollution There are following main causes that generate soil pollution: 1. Anthropogenic- through human activity 2. Natural:

Causes of Soil Pollution There are following main causes that generate soil pollution: 1. Anthropogenic- through human activity 2. Natural

1. Anthropogenic Activities:

1. Anthropogenic Activities Anthropogenic activities includes: Accidental spills and leaks Mining activities Agricultural activities Transportation activities Dumping of chemicals Storage of wastes in landfills Lead cracked paint chips

2. Natural:

2. Natural Natural activities includes: Natural accumulation of compounds in soil (e.g., concentration and accumulation of perchlorate in soil in arid environments). Natural production in soil under certain environmental conditions ( e.g., natural formation of perchlorate in soil in the presence of a chlorine source and using the energy generated by thunderstorm).

Main causes of Soil pollution:

Main causes of Soil pollution

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Industial activity Agricultural activities Waste Disposal Accidental Oil Spills Acid Rain Mining activities Overcowded land fills Construction activities Nuclear waste Sewages treatment

2. Agricultural Activity:

2. Agricultural Activity Modern day pesticides & fertilizers have to deal with the local pests. Once they has been sprayed, it does not disappear completely. Some of it mixes with the water and seeps into the ground. The rest of is absorbed by the plant itself. As a result, the local streams that are supplied water from the ground become contaminated, as do the animals that eat these crops and plants.

Waste Disposal:

Waste Disposal

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6. Mining acti

Construction activities:

Construction activities

Nuclear waste:

Nuclear waste Storage and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants causes soil pollution. They gets deposited on the top soil and emit continuously gamma radiations. Examples: strontium 90, iodine 131, barium 140

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Effects of Soil Pollution

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There are following major effects of Soil Pollution: Effects on Health of Human Effects on Agriculture and Plants Decreased Soil fertility Toxic dust Changes in soil structure Change in climate patterns Environmental Impact Distraction for Tourist Effect on wildlife

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Change in Climate pattern

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Distraction for Tourist Pollution in China lake

Preventions From Soil Pollution :

Preventions From Soil Pollution

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Pakistan is not rich country, it doesn’t have enough money to spend on waste disposal systems. As a result most of the home waste and other kinds of wastage is usually thrown away on empty plots next to houses and is burned which may be harmful to the people living in the area. Only less than 5% of waste is recycled and most of it is disposed directly on ground, these attract flies which then spread diseases. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act was enacted on 6th December 1997. In 1993, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) was established under Section 6 (d) of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance, 1983. Its objective is Undertake inquiries of investigation into environmental issues, either of its own accord or upon complaint of any person or organization.

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There are following Preventions for Soil Pollution: Promotion of Bio-fertilizers Option for Organic products Forestation Reduce Toxic Waste Reuse Public awareness Solid Waste Treatment What can we do??

1. Promote Bio Fertilizers:

1. Promote Bio Fertilizers To increase agricultural yield, most farmers using chemical fertilizers. No doubt that the yield did indeed increase, but at thr cost of soil losing its fertility. Farmers should be encourage to start using bio-fertilizers. Ban on Toxic chemicals, DDT etc which are fatal to plants and animals. Microorganisms will help in increasing fertility of soil e.g Bacillus subtilis is also used to control plant pathogens.

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2. Opt for Organic products 3. Forestation 4. Reduce toxic wastes

5. Reuse:

5. Reuse After plastic was invented, people thought it was convenient to opt for plastic containers, bags etc., which could be disposed off after use. However, plastic is one of the main cause of soil pollution, as it takes a very long time to disintegrate. Although paper does disintegrate faster, a lot of trees are cut for producing paper bags. Therefore, it is best to option for cloth bags. Similarly instead of using tissue papers in kitchen etc., one should option using cloth, napkins, handkerchief etc., Example: Recovery of one tone of paper can save 17 trees.

Radioactive material:

Radioactive material

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More radiation is absorbed into the body while eating a banana than an entire year of living within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant.

Solid Waste Treatment :

Solid Waste Treatment

Plants indicators of Polluted Soil :

Plants indicators of Polluted S o il Psoralea  indicates a sandy loam type of soil, whereas the presence of grasses  Andropogon indicates sandy soil.  Rumex acetosella indicates an acid grassland soil, whereas  Spermacoce stricta  the iron rich soil in the area.  Shorea robusta ,  Cassia obtusifolia ,  Geranium sp . and Impatiens sp . indicate proper aeration of soil. A dead lichen thalii are capable of absorbing , heavy metals including SO 2  and Pb . Cyanobacteria like  Nostoc, Microscopium , Haplosiphon , Welwitschii  are the indicators of soil pesticides as dithane , deltan , BHC, aldrex , rogor .

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Medicago sativa  grow in low SO 2 . Rumex acetosella  grow in acidic soil.

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