ANIMAL CLONING

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ANIMAL CLONING:

ANIMAL CLONING BY MAHVISH BANO M.Sc. Biotech

Definition Of Cloning :

Production of genetically identical individuals that have identical nuclear DNA by asexual reproduction. Examples :- * Bacteria, Fungus * Plants-cutting-potato * Farm animals Definition Of Cloning

Cloning Techniques:

Cloning Techniques Recombinant DNA Technology * DNA cloning Reproductive Cloning Therapeutic Cloning * Embryo cloning

DNA Cloning:

DNA Cloning Transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. Plasmid – Self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules distinct from normal bacterial genome.

DNA cloning uses:

DNA cloning uses Gene therapy Genetic engineering of organism Genome sequencing

Reproductive Cloning:

Reproductive Cloning A technique use to generate an animal that has same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly How is reproductive cloning done ? * Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

SCNT:

SCNT Starts with removal of polar body and chromosomes from an oocyte . * Enucleated oocyte . Donar cell then inserted into perivitteline space of enucleated oocyte .

SCNT:

SCNT Oocyte and donor cell are fused and activated by an electric pulse to begin cell division. Developed embryos transferred to surrogate females. Birth of an individual.

Asexual Reproduction:

Asexual Reproduction

Cloning Dolly:

Cloning Dolly 1997 - 2003

Cloning A Sheep:

Cloning A Sheep

Therapeutic Cloning:

Therapeutic Cloning Production of human embryos for use in research. Goal * To harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease.

Stem cells:

Stem cells Cells have ability to divide and give rise to both specialized cells and more stem cells. Derived from * Adults * Preimplantation embryos (Embryonic stem cells)

Human Stem Cell Production:

Human Stem Cell Production

Risks Of Cloning:

Risks Of Cloning Reproductive cloning expensive and highly inefficient. > 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. High rate of fetal loss during pregnancy. Higher rates of infection. Tumor growth . Abnormally large at birth. Die mysteriously.

THANK YOU :

THANK YOU