ANIMAL CLONING

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ANIMAL CLONING: 

ANIMAL CLONING BY MAHVISH BANO M.Sc. Biotech

Definition Of Cloning : 

Production of genetically identical individuals that have identical nuclear DNA by asexual reproduction. Examples :- * Bacteria, Fungus * Plants-cutting-potato * Farm animals Definition Of Cloning

Cloning Techniques: 

Cloning Techniques Recombinant DNA Technology * DNA cloning Reproductive Cloning Therapeutic Cloning * Embryo cloning

DNA Cloning: 

DNA Cloning Transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. Plasmid – Self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules distinct from normal bacterial genome.

DNA cloning uses: 

DNA cloning uses Gene therapy Genetic engineering of organism Genome sequencing

Reproductive Cloning: 

Reproductive Cloning A technique use to generate an animal that has same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly How is reproductive cloning done ? * Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

SCNT: 

SCNT Starts with removal of polar body and chromosomes from an oocyte . * Enucleated oocyte . Donar cell then inserted into perivitteline space of enucleated oocyte .

SCNT: 

SCNT Oocyte and donor cell are fused and activated by an electric pulse to begin cell division. Developed embryos transferred to surrogate females. Birth of an individual.

Asexual Reproduction: 

Asexual Reproduction

Cloning Dolly: 

Cloning Dolly 1997 - 2003

Cloning A Sheep: 

Cloning A Sheep

Therapeutic Cloning: 

Therapeutic Cloning Production of human embryos for use in research. Goal * To harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease.

Stem cells: 

Stem cells Cells have ability to divide and give rise to both specialized cells and more stem cells. Derived from * Adults * Preimplantation embryos (Embryonic stem cells)

Human Stem Cell Production: 

Human Stem Cell Production

Risks Of Cloning: 

Risks Of Cloning Reproductive cloning expensive and highly inefficient. > 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. High rate of fetal loss during pregnancy. Higher rates of infection. Tumor growth . Abnormally large at birth. Die mysteriously.

THANK YOU : 

THANK YOU