Hard disk

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Performance Storage capacity Software support Reliability

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Why we call it as……. Hard disk Fixed disk Winchester disk

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Hard Disk Drive Components Disk platter Read/Write head Head arm/Head slider Head actuator mechanism Spindle motor Logic board Air filter Cables & Connectors

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Disk platter

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The data’s are stored in this media Form factor 5.5” - actual size is 5.12” 3.5” - actual size is 3.74” 2.5” 1 1/8” 1 1/3” 1”

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The 5.25” platter were used in earlier days Now a days it is replaced by the 3.5” platter The 2.5”,1 1/8”, 1 1/3” & 1” platters are using in the laptop computers Among this the 1” platter are known as “Microdrive”

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Substrate The material by which a disk platter is manufactured Aluminum Glass or Glass Ceramic compounds To hold the data on the substrate, it must be coated with magnetic media Iron Oxide media Thin Film media

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Iron Oxide media It gives around 30 meu inch thickness Looks brown or amber in colour Semi liquid coating of the iron oxide compound Thin Film media Very thin coating Only 1-4 meu inch thickness It is coated over the substrate by using two types of process

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Plating process The media is produced by electroplating process Substrate is immersed in different chemicals Sputtering process It provides better thin film coating This provides thinnest, hardest and finest media surface 3 substances are coated Nickel phosphorous, Cobalt alloy, carbon coating +ve points & cost are high

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Read / Write heads Ferrite heads MIG heads TF heads MR/AMR heads GMR heads CMR heads TMR heads

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Ferrite heads For Winchester disks Made of iron oxide core wrapped with electro magnetic coils It is a u shaped iron core wrapped with electrical windings They are not so small in size Used in hard disk up to 50 MB

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Metal –In- Gap head Same design as ferrite heads Added a special metallic alloy on the head Usually found in hard disks of about 50 MB – 100 MB

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Thin Film Head Very small & light weight heads Instead of iron oxide, iron nickel alloy core is used Magnetically more powerful It is costly compared to the other two heads Usually used in hard disks of 100 – 1000 MB capacities

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Magneto Resistive Heads Also known as Anisotropic MR (AMR) heads It is the key invention that led to the creation of hard disks over 1 GB in size Two separate heads, one for reading & one for writing on a single assembly Read head based on MR design & write head based on Thin film head design Commonly used in hard disks about 1 GB – 30 GB capacities

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Giant MR Heads Works on the same general principles of MR heads But uses some what different design that makes them superior in several ways The name “Giant” is not due to the size, but due to the superior technology They are more sensitive By December 1997, IBM introduced their first hard disk with GMR heads GMR are used in latest technology drives which capacities up to 75 GB

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Colossal MR Heads Know the GMR heads are taking over the market It is more sensitive & powerful than the GMR heads Tunnelling MR Heads It is latest head design which will increase the areal density too much It is still under research

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Head Arm/Head Slider The arm on which the Read/Write head is located The size of a slider in a 3.5” size hard disk is 0.08*0.063*0.017 inch Slider of this size is called “Nano Slider”

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Spindle Motor It is the main motor which rotates the hard disk drive platter It is called Spindle motor because it is directly connected to the Spindle on which the platters are connected Spindle motor rotates at a speed of 3600 to 7200 RPM or more

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Logic Board An intelligent circuit board is in built to the hard disk in the modern days It contains the electronic components that controls various sections of the hdd It also acts as an interface between the hard disk drive and the computer

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Air filter To filter the air Most hdd will have two air filters The two air filters are One is called the Recirculating Air filter & the second one is called Breather filter

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Cables & Connectors Cables & connectors are used to connect the hdd to the main computer system Head Actuator Mechanism The Read/Write head is moved on the platter using a mechanism Two types of head actuator mechanism They are stepper motor actuator & voice coil actuator Data/Control interface cable of 40 pins A 4 pin Molex power connector

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Stepper Motor Actuator It is a motor which rotates in steps Stepper motor turns in a fixed angle The smallest fixed angle is called a “detent” The stepper motor is connected to the R/W head by using two mechanism They are Split metal band mechanism & Rack and pinion gear mechanism

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Voice Coil Actuator In the voice coil actuator head moves in & out in a straight line It is more faster and accurate Stepper motor is used in the Open loop disk drive and the Voice coil actuator is used in the closed loop disk drive

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Disk Geometry To arrange the data on the disk surface, the disk surface is divided in to different sections called Tracks, Sectors, Cylinders, Sides etc Two types of disk geometry Physical geometry & Logical geometry

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Sides/Heads Each platter of a hard disk will have two sides Each side will have each heads Total no of sides = Total no of heads When addressing either, heads or sides is denoted Total no of heads may range from 2-256 (in logical geometry) Total no of sides may range from 2-20(in physical geometry) The head numbering starts from 0-….. It starts from the uppermost of the platter

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Tracks Each side of the platter’s surface is divided in to so many concentric circles The track numbering starts from 0-…. The outermost tracks is given the track number 0 and next 1, next2 and so on The innermost track will have the highest number No of tracks on a platter may range from 300-3000 Modern hard disk will have thousands of tracks on each platter

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Cylinders Same tracks on different platters or sides forms an imaginary cylinder In a hard disk the data is stored in a cylinder by cylinder method The reason is due to the single head assembly A track & cylinder are two different things, but they are used simultaneously Total no of tracks on a side = Total no of cylinders The cylinder numbering starts from 0-…. It starts from the outermost of the platter

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Sectors It is the smallest unit of data storage (in physical geometry) It can hold up to 512 MB of data only The sector numbering starts from 1-…. The storage capacity of the hdd will vary according to the no of sectors/track present in it

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Clusters A group of sector is called Clusters It is the smallest unit of data storage which can identified by the operating system

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Zone Bit Recording Normal Data Recording Interleave Factors Head Skewing Cylinder Skewing Head Parking

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Park & Lock Head Crashes Floating Height/Head Gap Formatting Types Of Formatting Low Level Formatting High Level Formatting Re-Formatting/Re-Initializing

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Data Encoding & Decoding FM MFM RLL PRML EPRML

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Hard Disk Interfaces ST-506/412 ESDI IDE EIDE SCSI

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