fruit batteries (1)

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Introduction : 

Introduction Enclosed materials convert chemical energy to electrical energy through redox reactions. Fruit (enclosed material) can produce electric currents.

Research : 

Research The energy to light a bulb comes from the reduction-oxidation reactions when metals and certain solutions meet. Oxidation: zinc nail loses electrons. Reduction: copper gains electrons that were lost by the zinc nail. Overtime, zinc anode becomes positive and copper cathode becomes negative, lighting the bulb with the circuit of electrons.

Problem : 

Problem How will different fruits’ pH affect the amount of electrical current generated?

Hypothesis : 

Hypothesis The lower the pH of a fruit is, the more energy it will generate, and the brighter the bulb will light.

The Experiment : 

The Experiment

Preparation : 

Preparation Experimental Group Control Group Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Group

Materials : 


Procedure : 

Procedure Measure pH of fruit with pH paper Cut fruit with knife in four equal pieces

Slide 10: 

Insert zinc nail and copper penny into fruit Connect the cathodes and anodes to make a circuit with the LED

Slide 11: 

Repeat with other fruits Use the same system with water

Data: Lemon : 

Data: Lemon

Data: Orange : 

Data: Orange

Observation: Orange & Lemon : 

Observation: Orange & Lemon

Data: Apples : 

Data: Apples

Data: Pineapple : 

Data: Pineapple

Observation: Pineapple & apple : 

Observation: Pineapple & apple

Data: Banana : 

Data: Banana

Data: Water (control) : 

Data: Water (control)

Observation: Banana & Water (control) : 

Observation: Banana & Water (control)

Sources of Error/Improvement : 

Sources of Error/Improvement Micro Ammeter Pennies

The Real World : 

The Real World

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Our hypothesis was correct! When a fruit has a zinc anode and a copper cathode connected to a LED bulb, the higher the pH, the more electrical current will be generated. The most acidic fruits created the strongest electric current because acids are the base for the redox reactions to take place. (ex. Lemons, oranges)

Bibliography : 

Bibliography “Battery (electricity).” Wikipedia. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <>. Buckley, Patrick, and Lily Binns. The Hungry Scientist Handbook. London: Harper Paperbacks, 2008. Print. Cooperative Extension Service; University of Kentucky, and College of Agriculture. “Water Content of Fruits and Vegetables.” College of Agriculture. University of Kentucky, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <>. “Electrical Conductivity: Measuring Salts in Water.” lake. Access. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <>. “Lenntech”. “Water Conductivity.” Lenntech, Water Treatment Solutions. Lenntech, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <>. "Make Your Own Lemon Battery." EMR Labs. Quantum balancing, n.d. Web. 26 Oct.2010. <>.   O'Malley, John. Schaum's Outline of Basic Circuit Analysis. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1992. Print. Parker, Lorin. Electric Curcuit Experiments: Conductivity of Acids. eHow. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <>.   Schlesinger, Henry. The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution. New York City: Smithsonian, 2010. Print. “Fruit Battery Power.” Sciencefairadventure. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <>. VanCleave, Janice. Janice VanCleave's Electricity: Mind-boggling Experiments You Can Turn Into Science Fair Projects. N.p.: Willey, 1994. Print.