A Meeting of Different Worlds: A Meeting of Different Worlds Chapter 3 Europeans Reach the Americas: Europeans Reach the Americas 9. Explain how each changed Europe.
Crusades – introduced Europeans to Asian goods and technology
Renaissance – led to discoveries in fields such as medicine, astronomy, and chemistry. Slide3: Why did Europeans look for new sea routes to Asia?
They wanted to grow rich by bypassing the
Arabs and Italians who controlled the trade routes Spain Builds an Empire: Spain Builds an Empire 11. Why were a handful of Spanish conquistadors able to conquer the empires of the Aztecs and Incas?
Superior weapons such as steel armor and guns; horses that frightened Native Americans; European diseases that devastated their populations
12. How did the Spanish use the Law of the Indies to govern their empire?
Organized colonies into three types of settlements; Pueblos, Presidios, Missions
regulated the social system; Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos
was a code of law;
encomiendas – the right to demand labor or taxes from Native Americans
Africans Come to the Americas: Africans Come to the Americas 13. Describe how slavery changed in Africa as Europeans built overseas empires.
Europeans wanted slaves; African slave traders raided the interior to meet this demand; enslaved Africans were sent across the Atlantic
Slide7: 14. What was the Middle Passage? Describe the conditions.
Africans were crammed into small, filthy spaces below deck; disease spread rapidly, causing many deaths. Some jumped overboard to avoid slavery
Slide8: This drawing of slaves on deck of a slave ship hides the unbelievably harsh conditions that the slaves endured during the Middle Passage between Africa and the Caribbean.
Slaves were frequently brutalized, mistreated and forced to live for weeks on end in individual spaces no larger than a grave with little food and water.
The toll of these conditions was horrendous. A voyage which resulted in less than one-quarter of the cargo dying was considered successful. Brutal conditions in the Middle Passage Question 15: Question 15 Colonizing North America: Colonizing North America 16. How did the arrival of Europeans affect Native Americans in North America?
Diminished Animal Habitat
Loss of Land Slide11: Prior to European arrival it is estimated that as many as 50 million people lived in the Americas
Although smallpox, measles, and influenza were widespread throughout Europe, the disease had never infested North and South America
Native Americans had no immunity to these new diseases
It is believed that as many as 90 percent of the population was wiped out within 75 years of contact
Although there were many instances where Native Americans resisted European colonization, disease contributed greatly to European dominance Disease played a major role in the colonizer’s success First English Colonies: First English Colonies 17. What happened to the colony at Roanoke?
First founded by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585 in Roanoke Colony in North Carolina but later abandoned
Second group of colonists to settle were led by John White in 1587
White went back to England for supplies, but due to tensions between Spain and England wasn’t able to return for 3 years
When he came back, the settlers had vanished
No one knows what happened to the settlers The “Lost Colony” Slide13: 18. How did representative government take root in Virginia.
House of Burgesses – male settlers elected representatives (Burgesses) who would make laws for the colony Virginia House of Burgesses First legislative body in the New World
Originally created by the Virginia Company as a governmental reform
First legislative body in the colonies
Members first elected by all free males in the Virginia colony; later voters had to be landholders Slide14: 19. How were the reasons for founding Jamestown different from the reasons for founding Plymouth?
Jamestown was founded to create wealth for the Virginia Company
Plymouth was founded for religious freedom Jamestown, 1607
The first successful English colony The 13 English Colonies: The 13 English Colonies Chapter 4 Slide16: New England Colonies Slide17: Middle Colonies Slide18: Southern Colonies The New England Colonies: The New England Colonies 20. Describe what life was like in a New England Colony.
Puritans believed that people should worship and tend to local matters as a community. New England became a land of tightly knit towns and villages.
Slide20: 21. How did the Puritans govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Male Puritan church members elected the governor and representatives to the General Court Slide21: Puritans did not seek to create a “democratic” colony, however, they did spread political power more completely than in the mother country.
The Massachusetts Bay Company extended the right to vote to all adult males who were members of the Puritan Church.
Nearly 40% of the male inhabitants of the colony were therefore eligible to vote. Puritan Democracy pic Original Share in the Massachusetts Bay Company Slide22: 22. How did the New England colonists make a living?
farming, hunting, fishing, and setting up businesses such as shipbuilding
Slide23: 23. Why do you think the Puritan leaders felt threatened by settlers who voiced opposing views?
The colony was built on religious doctrines, so they felt that to question their authority threatened their world.
The Middle Colonies: The Middle Colonies 24. Why were the Middle Colonies known as the Breadbasket Colonies?
Slide25: Middle Colonies Economy Called the breadbasket of the colonies because of the large amount of grain they produced
Forests provided raw materials for ship building and lumber industries
Manufacturers also sold iron, glass, and pottery products
Some estates were similar to southern plantations, but relied on free labor and indentured servants rather than slaves Slide26: This early drawing shows the layout for the city of Philadelphia, made around 1682 by Thomas Holme, Surveyor-General of Pennsylvania. Penn was determined to make his Pennsylvania a “holy experiment” in which no one would be considered aristocratic.
To ensure this, he gave each male settler 50 acres of land, and ensured their right to vote. He also called for a representative assembly as well as guaranteeing freedom of religion. Penn’s “Holy Experiment” Slide27: The Puritans believed they had a covenant with God to create a society that would be so moral that it would be a model for others… as John Winthrop put it, “a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are on us”.
The Puritans, however, did not believe all would be equal in society. Winthrop noted that God had decreed that “some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity, others common and in subjugation.” Massachusetts Bay Colony “Holy Experiment” vs “City on a Hill”: “Holy Experiment” vs “City on a Hill” Model for the colonies Tolerance and Religious Freedom Refuge for themselves, not tolerance for others The Southern Colonies: The Southern Colonies 26. Explain why the Southern Colonies were founded.
Slide30: What two ways of life developed in the Southern Colonies?
Tidewater Plantations – grow tobacco and rice, slaves, Costal Plains
Backcountry – smaller farms, close knit communities, Appalachian Mts
Slide31: 28. Why did slavery become so important in the South?
Cheap labor used to clear land, plant and harvest crops, tend livestock
Showed English settlers how to grow rice.
Large plantations depended on a large amount of labor Governing the Colonies: Governing the Colonies 29.Why did England pass the Navigation Acts?
Mercantilism – a nation becomes strong by building up its gold supply and expanding trade.
The purpose of the laws was to ensure that only England benefited from colonial trade Slide33: All goods traded to and from the colonies had to be shipped in either colonial or British ships
All crews of these ships had to be at least 75% British or colonial
Certain products (tobacco, sugar, rice, molasses, and furs) could only be sold from the colonies to Britain
Goods traded from colonies and Europe had to be unloaded at a British port Britain responded to illegal colonial trade by passing a series of laws known as the “Acts of Trade and Navigation”, or more commonly known, the Navigation Acts. Beginning in 1651, these acts restricted colonial trade in various ways, including: The Navigation Acts Slide34: An economic theory and policy which presumed that wealth and trade were limited; there’s only so much to go around
A nation gained wealth and power only by amassing more gold and silver than other nations
Mercantilism depended on maintaining a “Favorable Balance of Trade”, meaning exporting more than importing
Mercantilism encouraged nations who accepted the theory to become self-sufficient, and colonies helped secure that Mercantilism Exports Imports Favorable balance of trade Slide35: Colonies provided the following:
A powerful merchant fleet, necessary because goods, materials, and people needed to be transported from the colonies to the mother country.
A source of raw materials for the manufacturers in the mother country.
A market for the manufactured goods to be sold. Role of colonies in a mercantile system Slide36: 30.Describe a typical English Colonial Government.
A governor, appointed by the monarch or colony’s proprietor, directed the colony and enforce the laws. Most colonial legislatures had a governor-appointed upper house and an elected lower house. (bicameral legislature)
Slide37: 31. What rights did English colonists enjoy?
The colonist enjoyed all the rights of British citizens. Slide38: Chapter 4.4 Triangular Trade page 114 Unit 1 – First Am. – 13 Colonies – Page 11 of 13 A Changing Colonial Culture: A Changing Colonial Culture 32. What was the Great Awakening and how did the Great Awakening contribute to the spread of democratic feeling in the colonies?
The Great Awakening was a religious movement in the 1730’s and 40’s.
The rise of new churches led to more religious tolerance. Preachers encouraged people to challenge authority. Slide41: 33. How did colonists educate their children? Public School?
Puritans believed that all people had a duty to study the Bible.
Massachusetts law – all parents had to teach their children “to read and understand the principles of religion”
Public School – school supported by taxes
Tutors – private teachers
Apprenticeship – work to learn a trade
Dame schools – schools for girls
Slide42: 34. What was the Enlightenment? How was Ben Franklin a good example of the Enlightenment Spirit?
Enlightenment – Age of Reason
He used reason/logic to understand and improve the world. Slide43: 35. Why do you think there was a greater social equality in the colonies than in England?
In Massachusetts, the schools educated rich and poor, lowering class barriers. Settlers often faced the same problems, so they learned to work together