Introduction to Electronic Commerce

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Commerce :

Chapter 1: Introduction to Electronic Commerce Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition

Objectives:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 2 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: What electronic commerce is and how it is experiencing a second wave of growth with a new focus on profitability Why companies now concentrate on revenue models and the analysis of business processes instead of business models when they undertake electronic commerce initiatives

Objectives (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 3 Objectives (continued) How economic forces have created a business environment that is fostering the second wave of electronic commerce How businesses use value chains and SWOT analysis to identify electronic commerce opportunities The international nature of electronic commerce and the challenges that arise in engaging in electronic commerce on a global scale

Electronic Commerce: The Second Wave:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 4 Electronic Commerce: The Second Wave Electronic commerce (e-commerce) Businesses trading with other businesses and internal processes Electronic business (e-business) Term used interchangeably with e-commerce The transformation of key business processes through the use of Internet technologies

Categories of Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 5 Categories of Electronic Commerce Five general e-commerce categories: Business-to-consumer Business-to-business Business processes Consumer-to-consumer Business-to-government Supply management or procurement Departments are devoted to negotiating purchase transactions with suppliers

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Categories of Electronic Commerce (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 7 Categories of Electronic Commerce (continued) Transaction An exchange of value Business processes The group of logical, related, and sequential activities and transactions in which businesses engage Telecommuting or telework Employees log in to company computers through the Internet instead of traveling to the office

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The Development and Growth of Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 10 The Development and Growth of Electronic Commerce Electronic funds transfers (EFTs) Also called wire transfers Electronic transmissions of account exchange information over private communications networks Electronic data interchange (EDI) Transmitting computer-readable data in a standard format to another business

The Development and Growth of Electronic Commerce (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 11 The Development and Growth of Electronic Commerce (continued) Trading partners Businesses that engage in EDI with each other Value-added network (VAN) Independent firm that offers connection and transaction-forwarding services to buyers and sellers engaged in EDI

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The Second Wave of Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 13 The Second Wave of Electronic Commerce Defining characteristics of the first wave: Dominant influence of U.S. businesses Extensive use of the English language Many new companies started with outside investor money Unstructured use of e-mail Over-reliance on advertising as a revenue source

The Second Wave of Electronic Commerce (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 14 The Second Wave of Electronic Commerce (continued) Second wave: Global enterprises in many countries are participating in electronic commerce Established companies fund electronic commerce initiatives with their own capital Customized e-mail strategies are now integral to customer contact

Business Models, Revenue Models, and Business Processes:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 15 Business Models, Revenue Models, and Business Processes Business model A set of processes that combine to yield a profit Revenue model A specific collection of business processes used to: Identify customers Market to those customers Generate sales to those customers

Role of Merchandising:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 16 Role of Merchandising Merchandising Combination of store design, layout, and product display knowledge

Product/Process Suitability to Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 17 Product/Process Suitability to Electronic Commerce Commodity item Hard to distinguish from the same products or services provided by other sellers Features have become standardized and well known

Product/Process Suitability to Electronic Commerce (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 18 Product/Process Suitability to Electronic Commerce (continued) Shipping profile Collection of attributes that affect how easily a product can be packaged and delivered High value-to-weight ratio Can make overall shipping cost a small fraction of the selling price

Advantages of Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 19 Advantages of Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce can increase sales and decrease costs If advertising is done well on the Web, it can get a firm’s promotional message out to potential customers in every country Using e-commerce sales support and order-taking processes, a business can: Reduce costs of handling sales inquiries Provide price quotes

Advantages of Electronic Commerce (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 20 Advantages of Electronic Commerce (continued) It increases purchasing opportunities for buyers Negotiating price and delivery terms is easier The following cost less to issue and arrive securely and quickly: Electronic payments of tax refunds Public retirement Welfare support

Disadvantages of Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 21 Disadvantages of Electronic Commerce Perishable grocery products are much harder to sell online It is difficult to: Calculate return on investment Integrate existing databases and transaction-processing software into software that enables e-commerce Cultural and legal obstacles also exist

Economic Forces and Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 22 Economic Forces and Electronic Commerce Economics Study of how people allocate scarce resources Two conditions of a market Potential sellers of a good come into contact with potential buyers A medium of exchange is available

Transaction Costs:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 23 Transaction Costs Transaction costs are the total costs that a buyer and seller incur Significant components of transaction costs: Cost of information search and acquisition Investment of the seller in equipment or in the hiring of skilled employees to supply products or services to the buyer

Using Electronic Commerce to Reduce Transaction Costs:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 24 Using Electronic Commerce to Reduce Transaction Costs Businesses and individuals can use electronic commerce to reduce transaction costs by: Improving the flow of information Increasing coordination of actions

Network Economic Structures:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 25 Network Economic Structures Network economic structures Neither a market nor a hierarchy Companies coordinate their strategies, resources, and skill sets by forming long-term, stable relationships with other companies and individuals based on shared purposes Strategic alliances (strategic partnerships) Relationships created within the network economic structure

Network Economic Structures (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 26 Network Economic Structures (continued) Virtual companies Strategic alliances that occur between or among companies operating on the Internet Strategic partners Entities that come together as a team for a specific project or activity

Network Effects:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 27 Network Effects Law of diminishing returns Most activities yield less value as the amount of consumption increases Network effect As more people or organizations participate in a network, the value of the network to each participant increases

Identifying Electronic Commerce Opportunities:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 28 Identifying Electronic Commerce Opportunities Firm Multiple business units owned by a common set of shareholders Industry Multiple firms that sell similar products to similar customers

Strategic Business Unit Value Chains:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 29 Strategic Business Unit Value Chains Value chain A way of organizing the activities that each strategic business unit undertakes Primary activities include: Designing, producing, promoting, marketing, delivering, and supporting the products or services it sells Supporting activities include: Human resource management and purchasing

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Industry Value Chains:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 31 Industry Value Chains Value system Larger stream of activities into which a particular business unit’s value chain is embedded Also referred to as industry value chain

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SWOT Analysis: Evaluating Business Unit Opportunities:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 33 SWOT Analysis: Evaluating Business Unit Opportunities In SWOT analysis: An analyst first looks into the business unit to identify its strengths and weaknesses The analyst then reviews the operating environment and identifies opportunities and threats

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International Nature of Electronic Commerce:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 36 International Nature of Electronic Commerce Companies with established reputations: Often create trust by ensuring that customers know who they are Can rely on their established brand names to create trust on the Web Customers’ inherent lack of trust in “strangers” on the Web is logical and to be expected

Language Issues:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 37 Language Issues To do business effectively in other cultures a business must adapt to those cultures Researchers have found that customers are more likely to buy products and services from Web sites in their own language Localization Translation that considers multiple elements of the local environment

Culture Issues:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 38 Culture Issues An important element of business trust is anticipating how the other party to a transaction will act in specific circumstances Culture: Combination of language and customs Varies across national boundaries Varies across regions within nations

Infrastructure Issues:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 39 Infrastructure Issues Internet infrastructure includes: Computers and software connected to the Internet Communications networks over which message packets travel Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) Statements on Information and Communications Policy deal with telecommunications infrastructure development issues

Infrastructure Issues (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 40 Infrastructure Issues (continued) Flat-rate access system Consumer or business pays one monthly fee for unlimited telephone line usage Contributed to rapid rise of U.S. electronic commerce Targets for technological solutions include paperwork and processes that accompany international transactions

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Summary:

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 42 Summary Commerce Negotiated exchange of goods or services Electronic commerce Application of new technologies to conduct business more effectively First wave of electronic commerce Ended in 2000 Second wave of electronic commerce New approaches to integrating Internet technologies into business processes

Summary (continued):

Electronic Commerce, Seventh Annual Edition 43 Summary (continued) Using electronic commerce, businesses have: Created new products and services Improved promotion, marketing, and delivery of existing offerings The global nature of electronic commerce leads to many opportunities and few challenges To conduct electronic commerce across international borders, you must understand the trust, cultural, language, and legal issues