journalism ppt


Presentation Description

presentation on journalism


Presentation Transcript




Journalism is the craft of conveying news, descriptive material and opinion via a widening spectrum of media. DEFINITION OF JOURNALISM

And the widening spectrum of media includes:

*Newspapers and magazines *Television and radio And the widening spectrum of media includes


Contd. *THE INTERNET *Mobile phones,PDAs…

The elements of journalism :

There are some of the elements of journalism . In order for a journalist to fulfill their duty of providing the people with the information they need to be free and self-governing. They must follow these guidelines: Journalism's first obligation is to the truth. *Its first loyalty is to the citizens. *Its essence is discipline of verification. *Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover. The elements of journalism


CONT…. *It must serve as an independent monitor of power. *It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. *It must strive to make the significant interesting, and relevant. *It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional. *Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience.


* The common man gets the latest news within a fraction of seconds *It provides us all the information we need from all over the world *By reading newspaper, the children learn many things, their reading habit increases and their vocabulary enhances by learning new words. *The media conducts polls and let public to take part in social issues. POSITIVE EFFECTS OF MEDIA

Graph depicting distrust on media :

Graph depicting distrust on media

Deviation from its path:

*MEDIA BIAS Media bias refers to the bias of journalists and news producer within the mass media, in the selection of which events and stories are reported and how they are covered. The term "media bias" usually implies a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed, although its causes are both practical and theoretical. Deviation from its path


Types of bias Political bias, including bias in favour of or against a particular political party, candidate, or policy. Advertising bias, corporate media depends on advertising revenue for funding. This relationship promotes a bias to please the advertisers. Corporate bias , coverage of political campaigns in such a way as to favour or oppose corporate interests, and the reporting of issues to favour the interests of the owners of the news media or its advertisers. Some critics view the financing of news outlets through advertising as an inherent cause of bias. Mainstream bias, a tendency to report what everyone else is reporting, and to gather news from a relatively small number of easily available sources. Religious bias, including bias in which one religious or nonreligious viewpoint is given preference over others. Bias for or against a group based because of their race, gender, age, class, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. Sensationalism , bias in favour of the exceptional over the ordinary, giving the impression that rare events, such as airplane crashes, are more common than common events, such as automobile crashes.


History of bias in the mass media Political bias has been a feature of the mass media since its birth with the invention of the printing press. The expense of early printing equipment restricted media production to a limited number of people. Historians have found that publishers often served the interests of powerful social groups In the United states, in 1798, Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts , which prohibited newspapers from publishing “false, scandalous, or malicious writing” against the government, including any public opposition to any law or presidential act. This act was in effect until 1801. Politicians who favored the United States entering World War II on the German side asserted that the international media were controlled by jews , and that reports of German mistreatment of Jews were biased and without foundation. Hollywood was said to be a hotbed of Jewish bias, and films such as Charlie Chaplin ’s The Great Dictator were offered as proof.


In the USA during the labor union movement and the civil rights movement, newspapers supporting liberal social reform were accused by conservative newspapers of communist bias. Film and television media were accused of bias in favor of mixing of the races, and many television programs with racially mixed casts, such as I spy and Star trek, were not aired on Southern stations. *Not all accusations of bias are political. Science writer Martin Gardner has accused the entertainment media of anti-science bias. He claims that television programs such as The X-Files promote superstition. In contrast, the Competitive Enterprise Institute accuses the media of being biased in favor of science and against business interests, and of credulously reporting scAgenda-setting theory


* Agenda-setting theory The agenda-setting theory is the theory that the mass - news media have a large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them . Agenda-setting theory’s main postulate is salience transfer. Salience transfer is the ability of the mass media to transfer issues of importance from their mass media agendas to public agendas *Trial by media Trial by Media is a phrase popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century to describe the impact of television and newspaper coverage on a person's reputation by creating a widespread perception of guilt regardless of any verdict in a court of law.


There are different reasons why the media attention is particularly intense surrounding a legal case: the first is that the crime itself is in some way sensational, by being horrific or involving children; the second is that it involves a celebrity either as victim or accused. Trial by Media in India In India , trial by media has assumed significant proportions. Some famous criminal cases that would have gone unpunished but for the intervention of media are Priyadarshini Mattoo case, Jessica Lal case, Nitish Katara murder case and Bijal Joshi rape case. The media however drew flak in the reporting of murder of Aarushi Talwar , when it preempted the court and reported that her own father Dr. Rajesh Talwar , and possibly her mother Nupur Talwar were involved in her murder. The CBI later declared that Rajesh was not the killer. Between September 2004 and March 2005, the media - print, audio and visual all wrote about His Holiness Sri Jayendra Saraswathi a Hindu religious leader, suggesting his guilt in a murder case, but the High Courts of Madras and Andhra Pradesh and the Supreme Court of India repeatedly found that there was no material evidence to find him guilty and came down heavily on the media .


*Yellow journalism Yellow journalism is a type of journalism that downplays legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines that sell more newspapers. It may feature exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering , sensationalism , or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or journalists. Yellow Press newspapers have those daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts ,heavy reliance on unnamed sources, and unabashed self-promotion. By extension the term is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion, such as systematic political bias.


Frank Luther Mott (1941) defines yellow journalism in terms of five characteristics: scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudo-science, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts emphasis on full-colour Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips (which is now normal in the U.S.) dramatic sympathy with the "underdog" against the system.


thank you

authorStream Live Help