Wilson Jihad in Europe

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Islamic Radicalization in Europe: 

Islamic Radicalization in Europe Dr. Mia Bloom University of Georgia miambloom@yahoo.com

Background: 

Background Islam in Europe is a story of 3 waves of immigration. 1st wave WWII till 1970s 2nd wave 1970s and 1980s repatriation of families 3rd Wave of asylum seekers from conflict zones During the reconstruction after World War II, Britain and France drew manpower from their former colonies in South Asia and North Africa. Germany opened its doors to "guest workers" from Turkey. Most of these guests never went home, and their children were born and grew up as Europeans without the rights of citizenship. Muslim communities in these three countries are the biggest in Europe: France 5 million in, Germany 3.4 million, Britain > 2 million. Recent waves of immigration to Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium and Scandinavia. Estimated that as many as 35 to 50 million Muslims live in Europe but exact numbers not known for sure. US Dept of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2003 states 23 million, higher than the 13-18 million (5% of total) cited by Europeans

Slide 3: 

If Turkey admitted to EU, will increase Muslim population to 90 million, 15% of total

Roots of the Problem: 

Roots of the Problem Experience of being transplanted virtually overnight from villages to modern cities may have led to disorientation and dislocation. Europeans consider radical Islamism a defensive reaction from transplantation: “frozen clock syndrome” = culture shock, possible psychotic overload. However, such analyses divide Muslims and Europeans: one rational (Europeans) and one not (yet) free and irrational (Muslims)

There are some reasons for this perception: 

There are some reasons for this perception Some Muslims in Europe Openly Support Terrorism and Martyrdom Operations In Iraq, in Palestine…

European Muslim Recruitment: 

European Muslim Recruitment Three distinct phases of Violent Recruitment: The Mujahedeen - ad-hoc affiliation/volunteering The Vanguard of Conquest - the Afghan camps and infrastructure The Awakening -the ”real” Al Qaeda

Ethnic Stereotyping: 

Ethnic Stereotyping Media portrays Muslims in a negative way In Holland, NVJ Bureau Media and Migranten examined Salman Rushdie affair, the WTC 1993, El Moumni Affair, and the Ede Affair -- all showed media bias Muslim support of Palestinians during first Gulf War described as being pro Saddam; second Intifada, support suicide terror Stereotyping as part of the electoral campaigns aimed against immigrants and increasing popularity of xenophobic (far right) parties Even moderates criticize immigrants for not succeeding (low status)

Increasing Anti-Immigration Sentiment: 

Increasing Anti-Immigration Sentiment 33% of Europeans described themselves as "racist." Large and growing voting blocs go to right-wing extremists: e.g., Jean-Marie Le Pen in France, Joerg Haider in Austria, and Umberto Bossi of the Northern League in Italy. No longer a lunatic fringe, such xenophobes now such parties garner a fifth or a fourth of the popular vote in most European countries. Lithuania elected a Le Pen clone, and a female Haider supporter in Austria got 47.6% of the vote. Vlaams Blok (Flemish Bloc) garnered one-third of the vote in municipal elections Increasing bias crimes against Muslims reported

Perception of Hostility: 

Perception of Hostility Some 80 percent of Muslims polled in a recent survey of the Islamic Human Rights Commission reported feeling harassed and discriminated against, this is up from 35 percent in 1999. Unequal treatment in the workplace Significantly higher rates of unemployment 16% - 23% vs. 5% European perception of rights bias 1:4 are on the dole; receive welfare

Key sparks for Islamophobia: 

Key sparks for Islamophobia Debate over European Union membership for Turkey (concern that Muslims will overwhelm) The ban on head scarves in French schools The commuter-train bombings in Madrid 3/11 (linked to a Moroccan terrorist cell) The murder of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh, by a Dutch-Moroccan radical Muhammad Bouyeri Assassination of Pim Fortuyn July 7 bombings against London transport Cartoon controversy

Slide 12: 

Though Van Gogh Was a Controversial Figure, the ensuing backlash included burning Churches and Muslim schools, cafes and mosques (106 incidents).

Madrid Bombings 3/11/04: 

Madrid Bombings 3/11/04

London Bombings 7/7/05: 

London Bombings 7/7/05

THE TERRORISTS: 

THE TERRORISTS

THE TERRORISTS: 

THE TERRORISTS Shehzhad Tanweer Age 22 Age 22 Germaine Lindsay Age 19 Age 19

Inequality?: 

Inequality? Christian churches receive generous public subsidies but mosques do not get financial support (one exception: Belgium) There is also frequent hostility by public agencies to approving plans for constructing new mosques. With 13-15 million Muslims living in Europe, most mosques in Europe are cheap storefront places. Another example is that European laborers get smoke breaks but there are not prayer breaks for Muslims. Few -- If Any -- Muslims involved in community policing or CT

A Failure of Integration?: 

A Failure of Integration? European liberal tradition rests on a credo of secular conversion to a common set of secular rationalist values. When it encounters into a population that won't convert -- it reacts with hostility. European Muslims refuse to “assimilate,” even after generations. Muslims Congregate in ethnic ghettos, form their own exclusive organizations. Forbid their children to attend public schools or attend Qur’anic schools to “unlearn” what is taught in the public schools. Wear distinctive clothes. Is this a failure of Integration or assimilation? Europeans persist in seeing the Muslims as “inferior other.” Problems of racism, xenophobia, socioeconomic status

Slide 19: 

The overwhelming majority of Europe's Muslims see their religion as a moderate one. A Mori agency survey for Eastern Eye, Britain's biggest selling Asian newspaper, shows that 87% of the Muslims polled are loyal to Britain 64% oppose the U.S.-led strikes against Afghanistan and over 90% oppose the war in Iraq.

Acculturation versus Assimilation?: 

Acculturation versus Assimilation? For many of Europe's Muslims, it is time to redefine Islam in the context of their identities as believers who were born and bred in Europe. The result is a Euro-Islam, with its prohibitions against alcohol and interest-bearing loans marked by the "Western" values of tolerance, democracy and civil liberties.

Increasing Religiosity: 

Increasing Religiosity Euro-Islam is a bridge between two cultures. The new generations has the confidence to practice their religion more openly, unlike their parents or grandparents who thought their time in Europe was temporary and so expressed their faith in private. This generation views Europe as their home and worships more publicly.

Slide 22: 

Muslim Council of Britain is considering new laws against inciting religious hatred that could have the effect of restricting free speech. Similar laws being promulgated by EU Commission At same time, new arrest warrants, profiling etc Inconsistent response

Slide 23: 

These initiatives assist but do not empower. Muslims are largely excluded from designing programs aimed at them.

American Model for Europe?: 

American Model for Europe? "America's race laws are more advanced than here," says Abou Jahjah of the Arab European League . "I have relatives in Detroit and they are Arab-Americans but they feel American. I don't feel European. Europe needs to make its concept of citizenship inclusive to all cultures and religions. I'm a practicing Muslim but I'm not a freak. I'm not a fundamentalist." Bases of Identity different between Europe and the US: Jus Soli (where you are born) versus Jus Sanguinis (based on racial-blood lines)

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