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Gonçalves Luis Santos Pereira Centro de Estudos de Engenharia Rural, 1349-017 Lisboa, PortugalSlide2: Surface irrigation systems are of great importance in the Mediterranean irrigated agriculture. Commonly, farmers apply traditional irrigation methods but related performances are often low. Surface irrigation has high potential to achieve high performances, requires relatively low level technology and low investment, and low energy costs. Thus, the modernization and improvement of surface irrigation systems are recommended. Slide3: This is the case for the Northeast of Syria, where wheat and cotton are grown under surface irrigation, predominantly short basins and furrow irrigation. This study refers to cotton in the Ras-El-Ain area, where a project developed by the Italian Cooperation and the IAM-Bari is being implemented aiming at rationalizing irrigation in the region, and focus on irrigation water savings and agriculture sustainabilityAl Hassakeh Province and Ras el Ain district: Al Hassakeh Province and Ras el Ain district Bab Al Faraj ArnanClimate: Climate Annual rainfall ranges 250-350 mm and is erratic in time and space Significant water deficit occurs due to the high evapotranspiration and low precipitation Slide6: The predominant wind blows from east and rises up in summer The soil is dominantly clay with low infiltration rate and compacted in the upper layers Arnan: Arnan Total cultivated surface 32,62 ha main crops are wheat and cotton Maximum Slope=0.1% Heavy soils (Clay) TAW = 123-141mm/m Irrigation - Traditional - Improved surface Irrig - Sprinklers - Drip Bab AL Faraj is a Private farm (cotton, wheat) – Maximum slope=1,9% Irrigation: improved surface irrigation and Sprinkler Center-Pivot Systems Arnan B A D2 D1 C1 C2 C3 C4 E Surface irrigation field assessmentSlide8: Arnan Trials for improved surface irrigation with gated pipesSlide9: Trials for improved surface irrigation, furrow irrigationCrop data: Crop data Soil data Cotton Irrigation Scheduling Using the ISAREG ModelIrrigation Strategies for Cotton (ETm=923mm): Irrigation Strategies for Cotton (ETm=923mm) To maximize yields adopting variable net depths (In) close to 80mm, 11 applications MAD=100%Өp, without stress, 12 irrigations with constant In=80mm Controlled Deficit MAD=70%Өp, 11 irrigations In=80mm (1) (3) Surface irrigation assessment and modeling: Surface irrigation assessment and modelingFurrow irrigation evaluations at Arnan: Furrow irrigation evaluations at Arnan Advance and Recession time Observed and Simulated with SIRMOD 0.71 l/s open 0.32 l/s open 0.77 l/s diked 0.35 l/s dikedInfiltration curves for Arnan 2005-2006 compared with SCS curves for low, medium and high infiltration rates: Infiltration curves for Arnan 2005-2006 compared with SCS curves for low, medium and high infiltration ratesInfiltration curves at Bab Al Faraj 2005-2006: Infiltration curves at Bab Al Faraj 2005-2006Slide16: SADREG data structure Searching improved surface irrigation design solutions with DSS SADREGSlide17: Workspace | Open SADREG operationSlide18: Workspace | FieldSlide19: Projects | OpenSlide20: Crop data Field data Water-yield functionsSlide21: Costs labourWorkspaces and projects: Workspaces and projectsWeights of attributes used to select the alternatives: Weights of attributes used to select the alternatives These weights balance the priorities assigned for water saving, minimizing costs and maximizing economic benefits.Final results of DSS application to cotton furrow and border irrigation projects in Arnan : Final results of DSS application to cotton furrow and border irrigation projects in Arnan Global utility furrow irrigation is sensitive to slope (0.5 and 0.8%) and length (50 and 100m) Best results for 0.5% and 50 m or 0.8% and 100 m Yield-Costs ratio Beneficial water use ratioFinal results of DSS application to cotton furrow irrigation projects in Bab Al Faraj : Final results of DSS application to cotton furrow irrigation projects in Bab Al Faraj Global utility Beneficial water use ratio Yield-Costs ratio Best results for long furrows, 150-200 m and slope 1.0 - 1.5%. Conclusions: From the study with the model ISAREG, improved irrigation scheduling solutions could be obtained for no stress and deficit irrigation with net depths of 80 mm. The actual schedules adopt excessive irrigation depths and applications are often delayed; thus, despite excess water application, crop stress may be induced. ConclusionsSlide27: The traditional zigzag furrowed basin allows farmers to overcome the non uniformity of the slope and the low intake rate of the soil. However, the distribution uniformity and application efficiency are low and labour demand is relatively high Field evaluations of different alternatives of furrow length and slope allowed model parameterization and to verify that graded furrows, graded borders and flat basins may be considered as improved solutionsSlide28: The DSS application for cotton in Arnan let to select furrow and border solutions as those having the best beneficial water use ratio and acceptable yield – costs ratio. The best results were obtained for the slope/length combinations 0.5% - 50m and 0.8% - 100m. Slide29: For cotton in Bab Al Faraj, the best results were for furrows with 150-200 m and slope 1.0 - 1.5%. Slide30: Further DSS applications are required to assess land leveling impacts, in-field water distribution and runoff reuse options if open furrows and borders are used. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.