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Slide1: 

Kara Steeland kstee@umich.edu Adena Kass adenaka@umich.edu William Finnicum wleasfin@umich.edu Global Change 1-Section 5

Slide2: 

Non-Renewable Resources: coal, gas, oil Combustion of fossil fuels in urban buildings is responsible for approximately half of the global carbon dioxide emissions each year (Beascochea and Filippin, 2005) Buildings are responsible for about 37% of energy consumed in the United States and consumed 68% of the electricity produced (LEED-NC Reference Guide) Fossil fuel emissions add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere which increases greenhouse effect and global warming Image taken from: https://ctools.umich.edu/access/content/group/db7fe7ed-e073-46a4-80bc-358b887d9cc9/Lecture%20Powerpoints/George%20Kling/Climate_models_lecture.pdf

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Our case study will examine how we can reduce fossil fuel consumption in the construction and maintenance of a building. By following the guidelines of sustainable architecture, we will minimize the amount of fossil fuels consumed in the construction and maintenance of a building. Sustainable architecture attempts to decrease energy use and create buildings that generate their own energy

Slide4: 

Image taken from www.mcgill.ca Used interchangeably with the term ‘green building’ Aspects of sustainable architecture (Gissen, 2002): Energy: redesign mechanical systems to use less energy; use renewable sources (wind, water, solar power) Light: shading Air: ventilation Greenery: use plants to treat water Water Waste Construction : use recycled, local, and renewable materials Renewable materials: resources that can be replenished at the same rate they are being used

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Building a visitor’s center in the Nichols Arboretum in order to determine the decrease in CO2 emissions as a result of using sustainable building practices Image taken from: http://www.enfo.ie/leaflets/Sustainable%20Building.htm Compare the materials used and energy sources in a green building and a conventional building Sustainable designreduces need for fossil fuels

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The orientation of the building within the Arboretum is essential in order to maximize the use of natural energy sources such as the river and the sun: be built on a hill with the largest side facing south more windows will be placed on the side of the building with southern exposure, allowing the radiation to enter the building in the winter deciduous trees on the southern side of the building will shield the visitor’s center from sun in the summertime ventilation: large vents under the roof of the visitor’s center (Gissen, 2002) two stories so that it can have a slim shapemaximize ventilation caused by breezes naturally flowing through its windows (Battle, 2002) (Kim, 2005)

Slide7: 

Conceptual model of green energy and fossil fuel energy: Energy used for heating, cooling, and lighting Green energy: solar and wind Fossil fuel energy: oil, coal, natural gas Differences in energy use between conventional and green building conventional building: uses only .1% green energy (United States Energy, 1998) green building: uses 75% green energy (LEED-NC Reference Guide)

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Conventional building utilizes only .07% solar energy and .04% wind energy (United States Energy, 1998) Green building uses 45% wind energy and 30% solar energy (LEED-NC Reference Guide)

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Conceptual model of types of materials and the resulting pollution during building construction: Compare local, non-local, renewable, and non-renewable resources Best source: local and renewableleast fossil fuel emissions and environmental impact

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No standards for recycled or renewable materials in conventional buildings Use mainly recycled material in green building; 25-80% recycled materials (Hunt, 2002) Wood is considered to be the most renewable resources: only 6% used in conventional building (Keoleian, 2000) According to LEED (leadership in energy and environmental design), at least 50% wood must be used in green building (LEED-NC Reference Guide)

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Local resources: materials that are produced or recovered within 500 miles of a project site LEED standards require a building to utilize 50% of materials that are extracted or recovered locally and 20% that are manufactured locally (LEED-NC Reference Guide) By using mostly local materials for construction, the impacts on the environment due to fossil fuel emissions are decreased

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our proposed visitor’s center will use energy and materials efficiently conventional building: .1% renewable energy (United States Energy, 1998) non-renewable and non-local materials sustainable building: 75% renewable energy (LEED-NC Reference Guide) recycled and renewable materials 70% local materials (LEED-NC Reference Guide) conclusion: the visitor’s center built according to sustainable guidelines will have reduced fossil fuel emissions and have a decreased impact on the environment

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Beascochea, A., and C. Filippin.  2005. Energy-efficient housing for low-income students in a highly variable environment of central Argentina. Renewable Energy 32: 1-20. Energy and Atmosphere. LEED-NC Reference Guide, 2.1: 109-181 Gissen, D., ed. 2002. Big & Green: Toward Sustainable Architecture in the 21st Century. Princeton Architectural Press, New York. Hunt, H.D. 2002. Green Building. Construction Technology, 1569. Keoleian, G.A., Blanchard, & S., Reppe, P. 2000. Life Cycle Energy, Costs, and Strategies for Improving a Single-Family House. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 4: 135-156. Kim, D.K. 2005. The natural environment control system of Korean traditional architecture: Comparison with Korean contemporary architecture. Building and Environment, 41: 1905-1912. Materials and Resources. LEED Reference Guide, 2.1: 185-238. “United States Energy and World Energy Production and Consumption Statistics.” 1998. <http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/stats_ctry/Stat1.html> (28 November 2006)