Computer Hardware : Computer Hardware Hardware: The internal structure of computers, how they operate and how they are used in solving problems. General Overview Programming -is about Software…why do we have to learn about Hardware and other stuff? : Programming -is about Software…why do we have to learn about Hardware and other stuff? psychiatrist Doctor of the………….? From the OCR Specification : From the OCR Specification AS Unit F451: Computer Fundamentals
3.1.1 Components of a Computer System
Types of hardware
Types of software
Candidates should be able to:
define the terms hardware, software, input device, storage device and output device;
describe the purpose of input devices, storage devices and output devices;
describe the different roles and functions of systems software and applications packages. What is a Computer System? : What is a Computer System? What is it comprise of?
How would you define it? Robots = Computer Systems? : Robots = Computer Systems? How are computer systems different from a -HUMAN? : How are computer systems different from a -HUMAN? Human Beings: Body (Flesh) Soul (Mind, Emotions etc) Spirit (Spiritual) HUMANS AND ANIMALS… : HUMANS AND ANIMALS… What is the difference? Do Animals
Have the capacity to be spiritual?
Complex Choices? Body Mind (intuitive)
Survival Instinct Computer Systems : Computer Systems Hardware
Hardware=The physical components (electrical circuits) that make up the computer
Software=The computer programs (sequences of instructions) that tell the computer what to do in response to a command or some event. How do we communicate with computers? : How do we communicate with computers? What does this symbol
Mean? Language called BINARY : Language called BINARY The only thing a computer understands is : The only thing a computer understands is 1
0 Components of a Computer : Components of a Computer MAIN MEMORY PROCESSOR INPUT DEVICES AUXILIARYSTORAGE OUTPUT DEVICES For reading data into
Main Memory For processing the data For printing, displaying
Or out-put of info For permanent storage
of programs and data The program currently being executed is stored here.
(it is divided into storage units called BYTES) Fix
Mistakes Components of a Computer : Components of a Computer MAIN MEMORY PROCESSOR INPUT DEVICES AUXILIARYSTORAGE OUTPUT DEVICES For reading data into
Main Memory For processing the data For printing, displaying
Or out-put of info For permanent storage of programs and data The program currently being executed is stored here.
(it is divided into storage units called BYTES) Think of the Brain (System) : Think of the Brain (System) INPUT
OUTPUT Exam Results! Information for the Exam…. Computer Systems are the same : Computer Systems are the same Data is INPUT
Data is PROCESSED
Something is OUTPUT
GIGO (Garbage in…Garbage out..) Types of Computer : Types of Computer Minicomputers
Supercomputers Minicomputers : Minicomputers Multi-user systems
100’s of workstations or terminals attached to central minicomputer
E.g. EPOS (Electronic Point of Sale) Systems Mainframe computers : Mainframe computers Large Organisations –banks, building societies, airlines, governments
May have 1000’s of terminals –geographically remote locations
Could occupy a whole site
100’s of disk drives & hardware units
Location often kept secret! (terrorist attacks) Supercomputers : Supercomputers Largest Category of computer
Mostly used by scientific and industrial research departments
NASA –government agencies
Large Commercial Organisations PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? NASA Goddard Space Centre : NASA Goddard Space Centre Fourth Largest Supercomputer in the world
Linux Operating System
Processing Power –unparalleled! PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? : PC, Mini, Mainframe or Supercomputer? Dr. Mark Seager of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory inspects the world's fastest __________________a 64-rack Blue Gene complex. : Dr. Mark Seager of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory inspects the world's fastest __________________a 64-rack Blue Gene complex. From picasaweb.google.com/.../KyPjMrKhtXMLpvIkZ4Jhtw The processor : The processor PROCESSES!
Faster the processor, better the PC? What is the equivalent (in humans) to the processor? : What is the equivalent (in humans) to the processor? How does the Brain process?
-receives an instruction (stimulus)
-decodes & produces an appropriate instruction
-executes the instruction! -slap on the cheek –anger/revenge etc logged
-anger decoded –instruction to slap back
(OR TURN THE OTHER CHEEK?) Processor : Processor Brain of the computer
1) Fetches Instructions
2) Decodes Instruction
3) Executes Instruction What is a Processor? : What is a Processor? Most computers use integrated chips….or integrated circuits for their processors or main memory
A chip is about 1cm square…and can hold MILLIONS of electronic components such as transistors and resistors
CPU of a microcomputer is a microprocessor
Processor and MAIN MEMORY of a PC are held on a single board called a motherboard. PROCESSORS : PROCESSORS Either chips or integrated circuits
Integrated circuits are also found in almost every modern electrical device such as cars, television sets, CD players, cellular phones, etc. CHIP : CHIP A computer chip is an electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. An electric circuit is made from different electrical components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors and diodes, that are connected to each other in different ways. These components have different behaviors. The transistor acts like a switch
Resistor –resists electricity –so you can control current
Capacitor –controls electricity
Diode –also allows control of current and flow Why Integrated Circuits (transistors)? : Why Integrated Circuits (transistors)? Before –there were VACUUM TUBE
They were huge –costly –bulky –easily burned out
The first Computer –ENIAC –huge 30 ton monster! *use of 18000 or so vacuum tubes* Types of Processors : Types of Processors INTEL A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. : A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. Jack Kilby's Integrated circuit, the first working Integrated circuit created New Super-Efficient Chip Could Run on Body Heat : New Super-Efficient Chip Could Run on Body Heat MAIN MEMORY : MAIN MEMORY The program currently being executed and the data used by the program is held in MAIN MEMORY
MM is divided into millions of individually addressable storage units called BYTES
One byte can hold one character
Or one byte can hold a code representing something –i.e a part of a picture, or a sound, or a program instruction.
The total number of bytes in MM = The computers MEMORY SIZE. Computer Memory Sizes : Computer Memory Sizes 1 KB (KB) =1024 Bytes
1 MB =1024KB
1 GB =1024MB
1Tb =1024GB (about 1 trillion bytes) Main Memory : Main Memory Processing power and Main Memory in a computer has increased exponentially in the past year! It has grown at a rate that no one could have predicted.
1980 –Microcomputers with 32K of memory were bought for thousands of homes and schools! Bill Gates made the famous remark… : Bill Gates made the famous remark… “640 K ought to be enough for anybody..” 1981….
Things have changed drastically!
2004 –PC with 512 MB of MM was standard…. Today? : Today? Watch this (hilarious!) Notice how excited they were on unveiling this machine… : Watch this (hilarious!) Notice how excited they were on unveiling this machine… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zJ12vNZ5yMY *also notice how the audience CLAPS when the floppy
Disk is taken out of his pocket! (in those days the thought
Of storage that could be moved around was revolutionary!) RAM and ROM : RAM and ROM There are two kinds of Memory
RAM –Random Access Memory (MM)
(this is used for storing programs that are currently running and data that is being processed)
ROM –Read Only Memory
(its contents are PERMANENTLY etched into the memory chip at the manufacturing stage. It is used –for example –to load the bootstrap loader (the program that loads as soon as you start the machine) RAM : RAM Random Access memory
Stores info about applications that are open and data
When you switch off the machine, it disappears!!! ROM : ROM Read only memory
Non-Volatile (does not change)
Programs that are necessary for the computer to run
Boot up program
etc Cache Memory : Cache Memory This is a very FAST type of memory that is used to improve the spped of a computer, DOUBLING it ….in some cases.
Acts as an intermediate store between CPU and MM
It works by storing most frequently or recently used instructions so that it is fast to retrive them again.
Cache is usually between 1KB and 512KB Internet Explorer –Clearing the Cache : Internet Explorer –Clearing the Cache Clearing the Cache : Clearing the Cache Netscape Navigator Cache Size –between 1KB and 512KB Disk Storage : Disk Storage Auxiliary storage is also called
The most common secondary memory (auxiliary storage) is DISK! Hard disk & Floppy Disk : Hard disk & Floppy Disk All standalone PC’s come equipped with an in-built hard disk –the capacity of which is also measured in BYTES.
A typical hard disk nowadays is several gigabytes - - is used for storing software including the OPERATING SYSTEM..and other systems software. Other types of Storage : Other types of Storage Flash Memory Cards
Disks INPUT AND OUTPUT devices : INPUT AND OUTPUT devices Input devices are the means whereby computers can accept data or instructions
Keyboards, magnetic strip cards, smart cards, magnetic ink character recognition devices,
Output –printer, VDU monitors, speakers, etc Embedded Computers and special-purpose computers : Embedded Computers and special-purpose computers Not necessarily all computers are general purpose compuers with a screen, keyboard and disk drive.
Special-purpose or dedicated computers can do all sorts of things from controlling the temperature in a greenhouse to controlling traffic lights or using a cash point
Embedded Computers are used in household goods automobiles and in industry All Computer Systems : All Computer Systems Have the same basic components
(INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MEMORY)
Special-purpose computers however usually have the programs etched onto the ROM so that they cannot be altered. (Firmware) What is this an example of? : What is this an example of? Combined Washing machine-Toilet : Combined Washing machine-Toilet Household goods…all examples of..? : Household goods…all examples of..? Devices/Machines with Embedded Computers Programs are in ROM (cannot be altered) All Examples of…!? : All Examples of…!? Wireless Temperature Control unit for Greenhouse Special Purpose or Dedicated Computers. Traffic Light Control Board All Examples of? : All Examples of? INPUT DEVICES Odd one out? : Odd one out? Scanner is INPUT, the rest are OUTPUT devices Monitor Printers Scanner Storage Devices : Storage Devices Edison cylinder phonograph ca. 1899. The Phonograph cylinder is a storage medium. The phonograph may or may not be considered a storage device. Many different consumer electronic devices can store data. The Future of Storage? : The Future of Storage? Genetics! : Genetics! Storage Medium and Memory : Storage Medium and Memory From the Specification…. : From the Specification…. describe the different roles and functions of systems software and applications packages.