AGE OF ANXIETY: AGE OF ANXIETY THE INTERWAR YEARS World War I was a Staggering Blow to Western Civilization: World War I was a Staggering Blow to Western Civilization Many people felt themselves increasingly adrift in a strange, uncertain, and uncontrollable world.
People saw themselves living in an age of continual crisis (until at least the early 1950s) Modern Philosophy: Modern Philosophy Before 1914 most people still believed in progress, reason and the rights of the individual.
Optimistic view was the result of progress of the past two centuries.
After the war, new and upsetting ideas began to spread through the entire population
Critics of the pre-war world anticipated many of the post-war ideas.
Rejected the general faith in progress and the power of the rational human mind. Friedrich Nietzsche : Friedrich Nietzsche "God is Dead" -- Claimed Christianity embodied a “slave morality,” which glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity.
Believed that only the creativity of a few supermen could successfully reorder the world. Bergson & Sorel: Bergson & Sorel Henri Bergson: 1890s, convinced many young people that immediate experience and intuition were as important as rational and scientific thinking for understanding reality.
Georges Sorel: Syndicalism (a manifestation of anarchism)
Believed socialism would come to power through a great, violent strike of all working people.
Ideas foreshadowed the Bolshevik Revolution; control by an elite few Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism: Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism Paul Valéry: “cruelly injured mind” besieged by doubts and suffering from anxieties due to economic, political ,and social disruptions of the 1920s. Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism: Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism Logical empiricism (logical positivism) -- took root in English-speaking universities
Developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein (part of Vienna Circle in 1920s and 1930s)
Philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts
Abstract concepts regarding God, freedom, morality, etc, are senseless since they can neither be tested by scientific experiments nor demonstrated by the logic of mathematics.
Only experience is worth analyzing. Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism: Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism Existentialism took root in Continental countries.
Saw life as absurd
Viewed a world where the individual has to find his own meaning; most were atheists
Jean-Paul Sartre: Humans simply exist
Martin Heidegger, Karl Japers and Albert Camus also prominent Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism: Post-war Thinkers Expanded on Earlier Pessimism Christian Existentialists shared the loneliness and despair of atheistic existentialists.
Stressed human beings’ sinful nature, need for faith, and the mystery of God’s forgiveness
Broke with Christian "modernists" of late 19th century who reconciled Bible & science Christian Existentialists Cont.: Christian Existentialists Cont. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855): rediscovery of his 19th century works led to revival of fundamental Christian belief after WWI.
Believed Christian faith could anchor the individual caught in troubling modern times.
T.S. Eliot created his work within a perceived traditional Christian framework.
Advocated literary allegiance to tradition. Science: Science By the late 19th century, science was a major pillar supporting Western society’s optimistic and rationalistic view of the world.
"New Physics," much popularized after WWI, challenged long-held ideas and led to uncertainty Science - Max Planck : Science - Max Planck Developed basis for quantum physics in 1900
Postulated matter & energy might be different forms of the same thing.
Shook foundations of 19th century physics that viewed atoms as the stable, basic building blocks of nature, with a different kind of unbreakable atom for each element. Science - Albert Einstein (1879-1955): Science - Albert Einstein (1879-1955) 1905, Theory of relativity of time and space challenged traditional ideas of Newtonian physics (E=MC2)
United apparently infinite universe with incredibly small, fast-moving subatomic world.
Matter and energy are interchangeable and that even a particle of matter contains enormous levels of potential energy Rutherford & Heisenberg: Rutherford & Heisenberg Ernest Rutherford: 1919, demonstrated the atom could be split.
Werner Heisenberg: 1927, “principle of uncertainty”-as it is impossible to know the position and speed of an individual election, it is therefore impossible to predict its behavior.
Heisenberg’s principle: The dynamics of an experiment alters the state of the subject. Impact of “New Physics” on the Common Mind : Impact of “New Physics” on the Common Mind The new universe seemed strange and troubling.
Universe was now “relative,” dependent on the observer’s frame of reference.
Universe was uncertain and undetermined, without stable building blocks.
Physics no longer provided easy, optimistic answers, or any answers for that matter. Freudian Psychology : Freudian Psychology Was first developed in the late 1880s by Sigmund Freud
Freud one of three most important thinkers of 19th century (along with Marx and Darwin)
Traditional psychology assumed a single, unified conscious mind processed sense experiences in a rational and logical way.
Freudian psychology seemed to reflect the spirit of the early 20th century, with its emphasis on men and women as greedy, grasping, irrational creatures.
Became an international movement by 1910 and received popular attention after 1918, especially in Protestant countries of Northern Europe and the U.S. Freudian Psychology: Freudian Psychology Freud asserted that because the human unconscious (ID) is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires, humans are therefore NOT rational! ID battles Ego & Superego
ID: Human unconsciousness
Ego: Rationalizing conscious mediates what a person can do.
Superego: Ingrained moral values specifies what a person should do. Freudian Psychology: Freudian Psychology Shattered enlightenment view of rationality and progress.
Freud agreed with Nietzsche that mechanisms of rational thinking and traditional morals values can be too strong on the human psyche
They can repress sexual desires too effectively, crippling individuals and entire peoples with guilt and neurotic fears
Many opponents and some enthusiasts interpreted Freud as saying that the first requirement for mental health is an uninhibited sex life
After WWI, the popular interpretation of Freud reflected and encouraged growing sexual experimentation, particularly among middle-class women. Literary Figures: Literary Figures Such as Marcel Proust, T.S. Eliot, and James Joyce (Ulysses) experimented with language in an attempt to reflect the dynamics of society.
“Stream-of-consciousness” developed by Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
Entire novel seen through mind of a single character
Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front Anti-Utopian Authors: Anti-Utopian Authors Oswald Spengler (1880-1936) – The Decline of the West
Every culture experiences a life cycle of growth and decline; Western civilization was in its old age, and death was approaching in the form of conquest by the yellow race.
T. S. Eliot, "The Wasteland": Depicted a world of growing desolation. T.S. Eliot Anti-Utopian Authors: Anti-Utopian Authors Franz Kafka: Portrays helpless individuals crushed by inexplicably hostile forces.
The Trial; The Castle; The Metamorphosis
George Orwell (1903-1950) – 1984: "Big Brother" (the dictator) & his totalitarian state use a new kind of language, sophisticated technology, and psychological terror to strip a weak individual of his last shred of human dignity. Art: Art Functionalism in architecture
Late 19th century U.S.: Louis Sullivan pioneered skyscrapers -- "form follows function"
In 1905, architectural leadership shifted to German-speaking countries (until Hitler in 1930s)
Bahaus movement: Walter Gropius broke sharply with the past in his design of the Fagus shoe factory at Alfeld, Germany.
Clean, light, elegant building of glass and iron.
Represented a jump into the middle of the 20th century. Painting: Painting Modern art grew out of a revolt against French impressionism (firmly established in 1890s)
Impressionists like Monet, Renoir, and Pissaro sought to capture the momentary overall feeling, or impression, of light falling on a real-life scene before their eyes. Painting: Painting Post-impressionists (also known as Expressionists) in 1890s were united in their desire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world of fact.
Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890): Starry Night
Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
Henri Matisse (1869-1954): most important French artist of 20th century
Pioneered the Fauves movement ("the wild beasts")
Painted real objects, but primarily concern was the arrangement of color (often primitive), line, and form as an end in itself. Painting: Painting Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): most important artist of the 20th century
Developed cubism along with Georges Braque
Cubism concentrated on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping planes.
Often tried to portray all perspectives simultaneously Non-Representational Art: Non-Representational Art Some expressionists like Wassily Kandinsky sought to evoke emotion through non-figural painting
Dadaism: "Dada" was a nonsensical word that mirrored a post-WWI world that no longer made sense.
Attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior, delighting in outrageous conduct.
e.g., Mona Lisa painted with a mustache;
Surrealism: Salvador Dali most important (influenced by Freud's emphasis on dreams)
After 1924, painted a fantastic world of wild dreams and complex symbols, where watches melted and giant metronomes beat time in impossible alien landscapes. Slide27: Monet Picasso Dali Vincent van Gogh Music: Music Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971): Most important composer of the 20th century
"Rite of Spring" experimented with new tonalities (many of them dissonant) and aggressive primitive rhythms
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951): pioneered "12-tone" technique (atonality) Movies: Movies Moving pictures first shown as a popular novelty in naughty peepshows and penny arcades in the 1890s, esp. in Paris.
Charlie Chaplin (1889-1978), Englishman, became the king of the “silver screen” in Hollywood during the 1920s.
German studios excelled in expressionist dramas—e.g., The Cabinet of Dr., Caligari (1919).
Advent of “talkies” in 1927 resulted in revival of national film industries in 1930s, esp. France
Motion pictures became the main entertainment of the masses until after WWII. Movies: Movies Motion pictures, like radio, became powerful tools of indoctrination, esp. in countries with dictatorial regimes.
Lenin encouraged development of Soviet film making leading to epic films in the mid-1920s.
Most famous directed by Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) brilliantly dramatized the communist view of Russian history.
In Germany, Leni Riefenstahl directed a masterpiece of documentary propaganda, The Triumph of the Will, based on the Nazi party rally at Nuremberg in 1934. Radio : Radio Guglielmo Marconi developed transatlantic “wireless” communication in 1901 (used in WWI)
Not until 1920 were first major public broadcasts of special events made in Great Britain & US
Most countries established direct control of radio by the gov’t (only in U.S. was there private ownership)
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Radio became used effectively for political propaganda (e.g. Hitler, Mussolini and FDR) POLITICS IN THE 1920s: POLITICS IN THE 1920s 1919ism: 1919ism Fear of Bolshevism swept through Europe (also known as "Red Scare")
“Spartacists” : Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg took over Berlin for a week in January Weimar Republic : Weimar Republic To Germans of all political parties, the Versailles Treaty represented a harsh, dictated peace, to be revised or repudiated as soon as possible.
France was most eager to punish Germany
Britain believed a healthy German economy was essential to a healthy British economy.
John Maynard Keynes (most significant economist of 20th century) criticized Versailles Treaty declaring its punishing of Germany would damage the European economy. Weimar Republic: New Constitution in August 1919: Weimar Republic: New Constitution in August 1919 Reichsrat: upper chamber represented the Federal states.
Reichstag: lower house elected by universal suffrage supplied the Chancellor and Cabinet.
President elected for a 7-year term. Weimar Republic: Problems Faced the New Gov't : Weimar Republic: Problems Faced the New Gov't Its forced acceptance of “the dictated peace” (Versailles Treaty) undermined its prestige.
Communist rebellions in various parts of the country created climate of instability.
Ruhr Crisis, 1923 Weimar Republic: Ruhr Crisis: Weimar Republic: Ruhr Crisis Reparations: Allies announced in 1921 Germany had to pay almost $34 billion
Germany's economy weak and it could not pay all the reparations.
1923, France, led by Raymond Poincarè, occupied industrial Ruhr region of Germany.
German gov’t ordered Ruhr people to stop working & passively resist French occupation.
Runaway inflation occurred when Germany printed money to pay reparations
Brought about social revolution in Germany: Accumulated savings of many retired and middle-class people were wiped out; middle-class resented gov't; blamed Western gov't, big business, workers, Jews, and communists for nation's woes. Weimar Republic: Beer Hall Putsch 1923 : Weimar Republic: Beer Hall Putsch 1923 Adolf Hitler failed to take overthrow state Bavaria and sentenced to jail where he wrote Mein Kampf. Weimar Republic: End of Ruhr Crisis: Weimar Republic: End of Ruhr Crisis Gustav Stresemann assumed leadership in 1923
Called off passive resistance in Ruhr; agreed to pay reparations (but also consideration of Germany's ability to pay); Poincarè agreed
Streseman restored Germany to normal status in European community with Locarno Pact Weimar Republic: Pacts & Plans: Weimar Republic: Pacts & Plans Dawes Plan, 1924: Restructured Germany's debt with U.S. loans to Germany to pay back Britain and France, who likewise paid back U.S.; resulted in German economic recovery
Young Plan (1929): continuation of Dawes Plan (moot when Great Depression hit)
Locarno Pact, 1925: Germany agreed to existing borders ("spirit of Locarno" = peace)
Germany joined League of Nations, 1926
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928: Renounced war as "illegal" except for self-defense; signed by 62 nations but had no real enforcement mechanism France: Economic problems (similar to Germany): France: Economic problems (similar to Germany) Death, devastation, and debt of WWI created economic chaos and political unrest
Throughout the 1920s, the gov’ (multi-party system) dominated by the parties on the right (conservatives), which supported status quo and had backing of business, army, and Church.
1926, Raymond Poincaré recalled to office while prime minister Briand replaced but remained minister of foreign affairs.
Gov’t slashed spending and raised taxes, restoring confidence in the economy. Great Britain: Great Britain Wartime trend toward greater social equality continued, helping maintain social harmony.
Representation of the Peoples Act (1928): women over 21 gained the right to vote. (Representation of Peoples Act of 1918 had given women over 30 the right to vote).
Unemployment was Britain's biggest problem in 1920s: about 12%
Did not recover from economic losses suffered during WWI
1926, General Strike: support of miners who feared a dramatic drop in their low wages swept the country.
Gov’t outlawed such labor actions in 1927 Great Britain: Great Britain Labour party rose as a champion of the working classes and of greater social equality and took power briefly (9 months); led by Ramsay MacDonald
Came to replace Liberal Party as main opposition to conservatives.
Conservatives under Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947) ruled Britain between 1924 and 1929. Great Britain - The Irish Question: Great Britain - The Irish Question After Easter Rebellion (1916) the extremist Sinn Fein faction gained prominence in Ireland.
Prompted a civil war between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the Black and Tan, England’s special occupation forces there.
October 1921, London created the Irish Free State, from which Ulster withdrew, as part of the British Commonwealth (Northern Ireland)
In 1922, Britain granted southern, Catholic Ireland full autonomy after failing to suppress a bitter guerrilla war. The Great Depression: The Great Depression (1929-1933) Great Depression: Great Depression Shattered the fragile optimism of political leaders in the late 1920s
Long-term problems with the U.S. economy: weak international economy, overproduction, unstable banking, certain weak industries, 1/2 of all Americans lived below poverty line.
Stock Market Crash (1929) may have triggered U.S. depression that spread world wide Impact on Europe: Impact on Europe Decline of production occurred in every country (except Russia with its command economy).
Mass unemployment resulted: Germany hit hardest (43%); Britain 18%, U.S. 25%
In 1931, Britain went off the gold standard; 20 other countries followed suit
1930, U.S. instituted extremely high tariff which resulted in retaliation by 23 other countries.
New York bankers began recalling loans made to Germany and other European countries, thus exacerbating Europe’s economic crisis.
Mass unemployment “New Deal”: “New Deal” Franklin Roosevelt's "New Deal" in U.S. sought to reform capitalism with increased gov't intervention in the economy
Influenced certain European countries
Keynesian approach (developed by John Maynard Keynes) used after 1938 to permanently prop up the economy through public works programs and subsidies. British Recovery: British Recovery Orthodox economic theory followed after 1929: went off gold-standard, reorganized industry, increased tariffs, reformed finances, cut gov’t spending, balanced budget (although unemployed workers received barely enough welfare to live on)
Economy recovered considerably after 1932.
Years after 1932 actually better than in the 1920s.
Like the U.S. Britain came out permanently from depression due to rearmament for WWII France & Great Depression: France & Great Depression Felt impact of depression later as it wasn't as highly industrialized as Britain, Germany & US
The depression increased class tensions and gave birth to a radical right that supported gov’t reorganization along fascist lines.
Popular Front: Threat of fascism prompted coalition of republicans, socialists, communists and radicals; led by Leon Blum “French New Deal”: “French New Deal” Inspired by US New Deal, encouraged union movement and launched far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a 40-hr work week.
Failed due to high inflation and agitation from fascists and frightened conservatives in the Senate. France: France French divisions resulting from Spanish Civil War destroyed Popular Front in 1936
France remained divided as Germany continued its rearmament in late 1930s Leon Blum