The War in Europe and North Africa

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The War in Europe and North Africa: 

The War in Europe and North Africa 1942-1944.

I. The United States and Britain Join Forces: 

I. The United States and Britain Join Forces Early in the war, Churchill and FDR agree to make the defeat of Germany the top priority. Casablanca 1943 Agree to unconditional surrender of the Axis.

C. Battle of the Atlantic: 

C. Battle of the Atlantic 1. Operation Drumbeat Hitler orders submarine raids off the coast of the U.S. Adm. Karl Doenitz plans the operation. U-123 sank 19 ships on the American coast

1. Operation Drumbeat: 

1. Operation Drumbeat Over 300 vessels were sunk off U.S. coast line. Formation of convoys brings to the end of the “Happy Times”.

C. Battle of the Atlantic: 

C. Battle of the Atlantic German Battle ship Bismarck becomes the terror of the Atlantic. Sink it at all costs. Finally sunk 27 May 1941.

C. Battle of the Atlantic: 

C. Battle of the Atlantic Tide turns against Germany. Destroyers escort convoys. Use of Sonar and Radar. Hitler refuses to replenish lost U-Boats.

II. The Battle of Stalingrad: 

II. The Battle of Stalingrad Summer 1942 Hitler eyes Stalingrad. By September, the Nazi’s controlled 9/10ths of the city. First turning point of the war in Europe-Battle of Stalingrad

II. The Battle of Stalingrad: 

II. The Battle of Stalingrad Snipers were very effective at Stalingrad Vasiliy Zaitsev In but ten days' time he had killed nearly forty Germans SS Colonel Heinz Thorwald was dispatched to Stalingrad to kill him. Zaitsev killed Heinz.

II. The Battle of Stalingrad: 

II. The Battle of Stalingrad First turning point of the war in Europe-Battle of Stalingrad 91,000 Germans surrendered out of 330,000. The Soviets lost 1,200,000 soldiers/civilians.

War in North Africa, Sicily and Italy.: 

War in North Africa, Sicily and Italy. 1942-1945

A. The Desert Fox: 

A. The Desert Fox Gen. Erwin Rommel is sent in with his Afrika Korps to reinforce the Italians. Rommel pushes the British to the border of Egypt. Rommel’s craftiness earned him the nick name “Desert Fox”

B. Gen Montgomery: 

B. Gen Montgomery Rommel’s army had driven to El Alamein. Gen. Bernard “Monty” Montgomery takes command of the British 8th Army.

C. Battle of El Alamein: 

C. Battle of El Alamein Monty attacks El Alamein. Breaks the German lines. The Second turning point of the war. Begins to push the Afrika Korps back to Tunisia

D. Operation Torch: 

D. Operation Torch 8 Nov 1942 - the first major Allied amphibious operation with Gen Dwight Eisenhower landed at Oran, Casablanca and Algiers in North Africa.

D. Operation Torch: 

D. Operation Torch Surprised Vichy French forces, who offered little resistance.

D. Operation Torch: 

D. Operation Torch American Army suffers first defeat at Kasserine Pass. General George S. Patton Jr. placed in command of II Corps.

Gen. George S. Patton USA: 

Gen. George S. Patton USA Patton quickly disciplines the army after Kasserine Pass. Patton is given the name “Old Blood and Guts.”

5. Tunisia: 

5. Tunisia 10 May1943 -Tunisia falls to the Allies. Germans in North Africa surrendered along with 250,000 Axis troops, effectively taking Germany out of North Africa.


IV. INVASION OF SICILY A. Gen George S. Patton 's 7th Army and Gen Bernard Montgomery's British 8th Army invaded Sicily.

B. Messina: 

B. Messina Patton races to Palermo while Monty pushes toward Messina. Palermo falls. Patton uses amphibious landings to take Messina

C. Palermo: 

C. Palermo Patton takes Palermo first. 25 July 1943- Mussolini abdicated to King Victor Emanuel and PM Bagdogho sought to end the war. 17 Aug 1943 - Sicily fell to the Allies


V. INVASION OF ITALY 8 Sept 1943 - Italy, led by Pietro Bagdoglio, accepted an unconditional surrender 13 Oct 1943 - Italy declared war on Germany.

C. Monte Cassino: 

C. Monte Cassino Germans hold out in Monte Casino a Monastary. After much debate , Monte Cassino is bombed by B-17’s

D. Italy Liberated: 

D. Italy Liberated 4 June 44 - The Allies liberated Rome when German forces in southern Italy surrendered. 2 May 45 - German troops in Northern Italy finally surrender

Liberation of Europe: 

Liberation of Europe 1944-1945

I. The Big Three: 

I. The Big Three Joseph Stalin USSR Franklin D. Roosevelt US Winston Churchill UK All meet in Tehran in Nov. 1943 agree to open up a third front in Europe.

II. Dwight David Eisenhower: 

II. Dwight David Eisenhower Is selected to be Supreme Allied Commander. He proved to be extremely adept at getting others to work together. Plans Operation Overlord for the Invasion of Europe.

III. D-Day 6 June 1944 : 

III. D-Day 6 June 1944 Invasion begins with an airborne assault. This invasion, largest amphibious operation in world history, involved 4,000 ships, 600 warships, 10,000 planes and 176,000 troops.

C. The Beaches: 

C. The Beaches The British and land on Gold and Juno. The Canadians land on Sword The Americans land on Utah and Omaha

Bloody Omaha: 

Bloody Omaha The American beach at Omaha was the sight of the worst fighting on D-Day. Over 2,000 Americans were killed.

D. Deceptions: 

D. Deceptions Germany, partially decoyed by Gen. Patton's operations, expected an Allied invasion between Dover and Calais. Hitler refused to unleash his Panzer Divisions.

D-Day +1: 

D-Day +1

E. Breakout: 

E. Breakout The Hedgerows kept the Allies inland. Gen. Bradley planned the break out from Normandy (Operation Cobra). By July 2nd - 1 million+ Allied troops landed (566,648 tons of supplies + 171,532 vehicles).

IV. Liberation: 

IV. Liberation Final Allied Push Into Germany 20 July - A bomb attempt against Hitler by some of his Generals to end the war failed. 25 Aug - Paris was liberated by the Allies. 28 Aug - Southern France was liberated by the advancing Allies.

IV. Liberation: 

IV. Liberation 11 Sept - Luxembourg was liberated from the Nazis. 12 Sept - Americans entered Germany and by Dec, Allied forces pushed toward Berlin

V. New Ranks: 

V. New Ranks New Military Rank Created - 15 Dec - Congress created the rank of 5-star General of the Army and elevated Eisenhower, Henry "Hap" Arnold, Douglas MacArthur and George C. Marshall.

VI. Battle of the Bulge: 

VI. Battle of the Bulge Germany's Final Counter Offensive 16 Dec 44 - Germany mounted its last major offensive with the Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes Forest in Belgium against the American 101st Airborne Division. BG G.C. McAuliffe, who, when asked to surrender, replied, "Nuts”

C. Malmedy Massacre: 

C. Malmedy Massacre Waffen SS Lieut. Colonel Joachim Pieper orders the murder of 120 captured Americans. 86 are machine gunned. Word spread through the lines. American resolve stiffened.

D. Relief of Bastogne: 

D. Relief of Bastogne Gen. Patton’s Third Army relieve the 101st Airborne at Bastogne. By December 30 1944- American forces regrouped to slow the German advance. By January 31 1945 - The German offensive was halted. The Germans will never mount another defensive.

VI. The Air War: 

VI. The Air War British bombers bombed at night. American’s continued to bomb in daylight. The workhorse of the 8th Army Air Corp was the B-17 Flying Fortress.

D. The Memphis Belle: 

D. The Memphis Belle A bombing crew had to complete 25 bombing missions in order to rotate home. The Memphis Belle was the first to complete 25 missions on 17 May 1943

Sectional View of a B-17: 

Sectional View of a B-17

VII. Remagen Bridge: 

VII. Remagen Bridge 25 March 1945 - The Allies pushed German forces to East of the Rhine. The Germans began to blow up the bridges along the Rhine.

VII. Remagen Bridge: 

VII. Remagen Bridge The Americans finally took the last bridge at Remagen on March 8th 1945.

VIII. Liberation of Concentration Camps.: 

VIII. Liberation of Concentration Camps. In July 1944 Soviet troops liberate the first camp. U.S. troops liberate Buchenwald and Dachau.


“ The men say they do not know why they are fighting this war. Now they know what they are fighting against.” Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower “ The men say they do not know why they are fighting this war. Now they know what they are fighting against.” Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower

IX. End of the War in Europe 1945: 

IX. End of the War in Europe 1945 25 April - The Allies linked up with Soviet forces at the Elbe River. 12 April - FDR died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage at Warm Springs GA. Vice-President Harry Truman

C. Fuhrer Bunker: 

C. Fuhrer Bunker 30 April - Hitler (age 63) committed suicide in his Berlin bunker 1 May - The German Provisional Government announced his death Mussolini, captured, shot by "anti-Fascists" hanging his body upside down.

D. Fall of Berlin: 

D. Fall of Berlin 25 April , the Soviets enter Berlin. 2 May - Berlin fell to the Allies as German forces in Italy finally surrendered 4 May - German forces in Netherlands, Denmark, northwest Germany surrendered.

X. Victory in Europe Day: 

X. Victory in Europe Day 7 May - German unconditional surrender accepted at Allied headquarters Rheims 8 May - V-E Day was proclaimed.

Lt. Audie Murphy: 

Lt. Audie Murphy Audie Leon Murphy, son of poor Texas sharecroppers, rose to national fame as the most decorated U.S. combat soldier of World War II. Among his 33 awards and decorations was the Medal of Honor, the highest military award for bravery that can be given to any individual in the United States of America.

Lt. Audie Murphy: 

Lt. Audie Murphy



I. Doolittle Raid: 

I. Doolittle Raid Ltc. Jimmy Doolittle leads a group of B-24 bombers off the U.S.S. Yorktown to bomb Tokyo. The raid caused little damage but increased moral.

II. Philippine Islands 7 December 1941-10 May 1942: 

II. Philippine Islands 7 December 1941-10 May 1942 11 March - Gen. Douglas MacArthur secretly left the Philippines for Australia after establishing headquarters on Bataan Peninsula at the fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay.

B. Corregidor: 

B. Corregidor 7 May - US forces surrendered Corregidor while 75,000 Philippine and US troops surrender the Bataan Peninsula.

C. The Bataan Death March: 

C. The Bataan Death March Bataan Death March began with Gen. Jonathan Wainwright and 11,500 men, many of whom died enroute. 2 June - Manila fell to the Japanese

2. Motts Tonelli: 

2. Motts Tonelli Tonelli was part of the infamous Bataan Death March that began six days after American troops surrendered in 1942 to avoid certain annihilation. He then survived a 60-mile march at the hands of his captors while many died around him.

III. Gen. Douglas MacArthur: 

III. Gen. Douglas MacArthur Named Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific. Vowed “I shall Return.” Awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

IV. Battle of Coral Sea: 

IV. Battle of Coral Sea The Japanese planned to take Australia and strike at Hawaii again. 4-8 May - Battle of Coral Sea - First naval engagement in world history where no surface vessels met in combat (no ships fighting ships All combat was done by carrier-based planes.

IV. Battle of Coral Sea: 

IV. Battle of Coral Sea Japan's Southward advance toward Australia was halted, turned back from Port Moresby, New Guinea. US lost the carrier USS Lexington and USS Yorktown was damaged. Japan lost one carrier and suffered damage to two others

V. Battle of Midway: 

V. Battle of Midway 3-6 June 1942 Central Pacific, Japan suffered their first major defeat at Midway Island. Admiral Chester Nimitz (1885-1966), commander of the Central Pacific, halted their threat to Hawaii, and restored the balance of Naval power in the Pacific.

V. Battle of Midway: 

V. Battle of Midway US lost 2 ships, including the carrier Yorktown, and 300 men while Japan lost 4 carriers, 275 planes and 4800 men and its naval superiority after Pearl Harbor The Turning point in the Pacific

VI. Adm. Chester Nimitz: 

VI. Adm. Chester Nimitz Was given command of all Naval forces in the Pacific.

VII. Island Hopping: 

VII. Island Hopping US forces planned to recapture the Central Islands, the Gilberts, the Marshalls, the Carolines, the Marianas and the Bonins, in order to prevent the Japanese from using these islands as bases for strikes against MacArthur and Nimitz. b. Once rid of Japanese troops, all Allied forces would push into the Philippines, the coast of China and eventually the Japanese mainland

VIII. Return to the Philippines: 

VIII. Return to the Philippines Taking the Philippines - Began 19 June 44 Battle of Philippine Sea fought entirely with carrier based aircraft, resulted in the US loss of 50 planes , while Japan lost 500 planes and 3 carriers.

VIII. Return to the Philippines: 

VIII. Return to the Philippines 18 July 44 - Premier Tojo resigned as head of the Japanese government. 23-26 Oct - Battle of Leyte Gulf , largest naval battle of war (3 separate engagements), was a decisive Japanese defeat 4 - 24 Feb 45 - Manilla was liberated by the Allied forces.


Kamikaze E. Japanese resort to Kamikaze (Divine Wind) to fight the American Naval forces at Leyte

IX. Iwo Jima: 

IX. Iwo Jima 19 Feb - 16 Mar - On Iwo Jima, US Marines forced Japan's withdrawal after 25 days. U.S. Marines plant the American flag on top of Mount Saribachi.

X. Okinawa: 

X. Okinawa Mar 45 - Philippines were returned to Allied control completely by 5 July (US: 12,000 dead; Japan 400,000 casualties). Apr - 21 Jun - Ryukyus (Okinawa) taken (8,000 US, 120,000 Japanese casualties). Japanese civilians committed suicide.

XI. Air Strikes Against Japan Begin: 

XI. Air Strikes Against Japan Begin Having captured the central islands forcing the Japanese to withdraw, the Allies began an air assault against Japan with the Superfortress B-29 attacks on Tokyo. Tokyo was fired bombed.

XII. Manhattan Project: 

XII. Manhattan Project The closer Allies came to main islands of Japan, the greater the Allied casualties, causing Truman to consider using a new weapon against Japan to quickly end the war.

XII. Manhattan Project: 

XII. Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer as chief scientist of the project. 16 July 45 - First atomic bomb, code named Trinity , was exploded in Almagordo NM.

XII. Manhatten Project: 

XII. Manhatten Project At the Potsdam conference, the Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of Japan. 26 July - The Allies warned Japan at that time that they must surrender or face sudden destruction from a newly developed weapon.

XII. Manhattan Project : 

XII. Manhattan Project Truman's use of the new weapon against Japan made good sense at the time. (1) Revenge for Pearl Harbor sneak attack; (2) To serve as a warning to the Soviet Union of our potential power; (3) To speed up the end of the war without thousands of Allied casualties . 6 Aug - An atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima resulting in over 70,000 dead and 110,000 wounded or missing.

G. Hiroshima: 

G. Hiroshima


Nagasaki 9 Aug - A second atomic device was dropped on Nagasaki - 80,000 casualties 10 Aug - Japan surrendered asking to let emperor Hirohito keep his throne.

XIII. V-J Day 14 August 1945.: 

XIII. V-J Day 14 August 1945. g. 14 Aug - Japan accepted the Allied terms of surrender and its troops in Korea surrendered to the Soviets above the 38th parallel and to Allied forces below it. h. 15 Aug - V-J Day was declared.

XIV. The War is Over. 2 September 1945: 

XIV. The War is Over. 2 September 1945 15 Aug - V-J Day was declared. 2 Sept - Japan formally signed the surrender agreement on board of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay before Gen. MacArthur

Aftermath of World War II: 

Aftermath of World War II

I. Preparations for Peace: 

I. Preparations for Peace Yalta Conference – the Big Three meet in Feb. ’45 and create The United Nations. Stalin promised to enter the war against Japan after the defeat of Germany, and free elections.

C. The United Nations: 

C. The United Nations Apr. 1945 50 nations meet in San. Francisco creating the General Assembly. 11-member Security council U.S., U.K., USSR, France and China were permanent members.

D. Potsdam Conference: 

D. Potsdam Conference Meet in July 1945. Atlee (UK), Truman (US) and Stalin (USSR). Decide to bring top Nazi’s to trial for war crimes.

II. The Nuremberg War Trials : 

II. The Nuremberg War Trials An international tribunal (23 nations) tried Nazi war criminals. For the first time leaders of a nation are held responsible.

C. Indictments: 

C. Indictments Conspiracy to Wage Aggressive War Waging Aggressive War, or "Crimes Against Peace“ War Crimes Crimes Against Humanity

D. The Verdicts: 

D. The Verdicts 22 defendants were tried. 12 were sentenced to death 12 more at Nuremberg - 175 convicted 10,000 Germans convicted - 250 death sentences

III. Occupation of Germany: 

III. Occupation of Germany Germany was split into four zones of occupation –U.S., UK.,USSR, and French as well as the city of Berlin

IV. Occupation of Japan: 

IV. Occupation of Japan Occupied under U.S. forces under Gen. MacArthur. 1,100 Japanese put on trial. Seven including Tojo were hanged. MacArthur reformed the government and economy of Japan.

V. The Marshall Plan: 

V. The Marshall Plan Secretary of State George C. Marshall develops a plan giving away 12.5 billion dollars to rebuild Western Europe.

VI. Military Service: 

VI. Military Service A total of 110 million persons were mobilized for military service, more than half of those by three countries: the USSR (22-30 million), Germany (17 million), and the United States (16 million).

VII. Human Costs: 

VII. Human Costs The human cost of the war fell heaviest on the USSR, more than 20 million killed. The Allied military and civilian losses were 44 million; those of the Axis, 11 million. The U.S., which had no significant civilian losses, sustained 292,131 battle deaths and 115,187 deaths from other causes.

VIII. Economic Costs: 

VIII. Economic Costs The U.S. spent the most money on the war, an estimated $341 billion, including $50 billion for lend-lease supplies, of which $31 billion went to Britain, $11 billion to the Soviet Union, $5 billion to China, and $3 billion to 35 other countries.

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