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Essential technologies and concepts for home networks : 

Essential technologies and concepts for home networks Yasuo Tan School of Information Science Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology


Topics Home networks Architecture, Components, Examples Physical and Datalink for home networks Ethernet family Old and modern Ethernet IEEE1394 Serial bus technology Isochronous transfer Protocol stacks Summary

Home networks: 

Home networks A network in the home Internet to home Network of home appliances New networked devices Huge market Severe requirements Cost Safety Ease of use

3 types of home networks: 

3 types of home networks Audio Visual (A/V) TV, Stereo set VCR, Camera, DVD Amenity Air conditioning Security Bathroom Health check Information Telephone, FAX Internet (WWW, mail)

Audio Visual home network: 

Audio Visual home network Network of A/V equipments Tuner, Camera, CD, DVD, Video tape CD Player, VCR, DVD Player Stereo set, TV Playback (broadcasting from source to end device) and control One way (during a session) and bi-directional control Very high bit rate (100Mbps - 1Gbps) Home area (may be controlled from wide area) HAVi, VESA Home Network

Amenity home network: 

Amenity home network Environment management for residence (Home automation) Air conditioning Security Bathroom Health check Control Bi-directional Low bit rate (9600bps - 15Mbps) Home area, (access from wide area) X10, LonWorks, CEBus, Echonet

Information home network: 

Information home network Originates from telephone Telephone, Video-phone FAX, e-mail WWW, streaming Communication Bi-directional High bit rate (64kbps - 100Mbps) Wide area Telephone line, Internet

VESA Home Network: 

VESA Home Network

VESA Home Network: 

VESA Home Network


HAVi Network of A/V equipments IEEE1394 as the network cabling and transport


HAVi device class Full AV (FAV) Intermediate AV (IAV) Base AV (BAV) Legacy AV (LAV) Java Object oriented modeling


Echonet Energy consumption Health care for seniors


Echonet Proposed vision of the Echonet


Echonet Scope of Echonet development


Echonet Applications


Echonet Gateways


Echonet Gateway architecture

Components of home networks: 

Components of home networks Different types of networks different purpose different technologies for the same purpose Connection to external networks Gateways between heterogeneous networks Application servers

Service location: 

Service location Location of the service must be discovered before use URL and DNS are the most powerful tools in the Internet Plug and play, zero administrative work is required in home networks Peer to peer communication/application is required for home appliances


Jini Service lookup and software(driver) download mechanism for home appliances Java, RMI, Java spaces Service Federation Lookup service Discovery and Join http://www.sun.com/jini



Network protocol stacks: 

Network protocol stacks application transport network datalink physical application presentation session transport network datalink physical application transport network physical OSI 5 Layer TCP/IP

Physical and Datalink for HN (wired): 

Physical and Datalink for HN (wired)

Physical and Datalink for HN (wireless): 

Physical and Datalink for HN (wireless)

Physical and Datalink for HN: 

Physical and Datalink for HN Cost new cabling system or not Ease of use plug and play physical strength mechanism of connectors Speed maximum speed total speed (bridging / switching / shared media) QoS control


Ethernet Packet switching Variable length frame based communication MAC address on each frame Old Ethernet Shared media (CSMA/CD) 10 Mbps Co-ax cable Modern Ethernet Dedicated media with switching hub (multi-port bridge) 100-1000 Mbps UTP cable

old Ethernet: 

old Ethernet host A host B host C MAC A MAC B MAC C host A host B host C MAC A MAC B MAC C

modern Ethernet: 

modern Ethernet host A host B host C MAC A MAC B MAC C host D MAC D P1 P2 P3 P4 Buffer CPU CAM Switching Hub


VLAN Priority and multiplexing on a link


Ethernet Evolved to quite different technology Scalable from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps Same frame format and compatibility Plug and play with hardware (MAC) address Priority and QoS control in bridged network Huge install base (low cost) Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) Ethernet frame on the telephone line Under development in the IEEE802.3ah task force


IEEE1394 High performance serial bus IEEE1394 -1995 IEEE1394a -2000 "Not a Network" (slide 7) but used as a network now Compatible with other busses (slide 8, 9) Shares memory space Live attach and detach Low cost, High performance, and Unsupervised communication channel Isochronous and Asynchronous communication Fair arbitration for Asynchronous communication

Addressing of IEEE1394: 

Addressing of IEEE1394 64bit IEEE1212 addressing Shares one address space with all devices Specifies the location of register/memory in each device

Addressing example: 

Addressing example slide9

Real-time traffic: 

Real-time traffic Real-time traffic (voice, movie) require constant delivery Data traffic tends to send data at a burst Data traffic can block the delivery of real-time data

Isochronous communication: 

Isochronous communication Slide 4 Reserves the bandwidth before communication A channel is allocated for each communication Guaranteed bandwidth and interval Ideal for video data transfer

Asynchronous communication: 

Asynchronous communication Ordinary packet communication Application can use 3 types of transactions Write Transaction Read Transaction Lock Transaction compare swap mask swap fetch add wrap add Split transactions are available for read and lock transactions

Cycle structure of IEEE1394: 

Cycle structure of IEEE1394 Iso and Async on the same bus! c.f. CSMA/CD of Ethernet

Fairness Interval: 

Fairness Interval Fairness in Asynchronous transfer slide 31, 32 All nodes who has async data take part in the arbitration Winner is determined based on the ID (which is dynamically assigned in the boot up process of the bus depending on the topology) If once the winner makes the asnync communication, it must wait until all other nodes finish their async transfer A fairness interval ends when all nodes have done Fairness interval is independent of the cycle

Protocol Stack of IEEE1394: 

Protocol Stack of IEEE1394 Only the serial bus layer is defined in IEEE1394 Other layers must be developed for each application classes

Video Transfer on IEEE1394: 

Video Transfer on IEEE1394


AV/C Control of Audio Visual equipments A equipment is divided into some logical subunits Sending a command and receiving its response using FCP (Function Control Protocol, an async transaction) Descriptors for Tuner, VCR, Disc, Camera, etc.


IP/1394 FIFO model Asynchronous Streams Broadcast for IP/1394 nodes only 1500byte MTU 1394 under 200Mbps cannot carry 1500byte packet Fragments in "IP1394 layer" IP packet encapsulation header 1394 header IP layer IP1394 layer 1394 layer


Discussion What is the home network? What should be the home network? What kind of upper (layer 3 and above) protocol will fit? What kind of physical and datalink technology will fit? What will be the killer application for home networks? How home network can contribute to solve the social problems? How home network can rise your quality of life? When will you introduce a home network in your home? How home network change the human beings?


Summary Home network is a emerging system which will have an impact on our daily life Home networks require different technologies from LAN or Internet, and will contain some different types of networks in a system Gateway, middleware, and datalink/physical layer technologies are the key points Ethernet and IEEE1394 are the most promising datalinks IEEE1394 is quite different technology from packet switching technology like Ethernet, and has some features especially valuable for home networks

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