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By: amitgg (118 month(s) ago)

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF LIGHTHOUSES & LIGHTSHIPS By P.P. SINHA, Director (Electronics),

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF LIGHTHOUSES & LIGHTSHIPS What is an AIS ? Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a ship and shore based data broadcast system, operating in the VHF maritime band. Its characteristics and capability make it a powerful tool for enhancing situational awareness, thereby contributing to the safety of navigation and efficiency of shipping traffic management. IALA NAVGUIDE

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA IMO's provisions for AIS shore infrastructure: IMO's SOLAS Convention, as revised, Regulation 19, §2.4.5, states with regard to the purpose of the AIS: "AIS shall provide automatically to appropriate equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including ship's identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information; receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships; monitor and track ships; and exchange data with shore-based facilities."

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA In addition, the IMO Performance Standards for the AIS state: 1.1 The AIS should improve the safety of navigation by assisting in the efficient navigation of ships, protection of the environment, and operation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), by satisfying the following functional requirements: (a) in a ship-to-ship mode for collision avoidance; (b) as a means for littoral States to obtain information about a ship and its cargo; and (c) as a VTS tool, i.e. ship-to-shore (traffic management). 1.2 The AIS should be capable of providing to ships and to competent authorities, information from the ship, automatically and with the required accuracy and frequency, to facilitate accurate tracking. Transmission of the data should be with the minimum involvement of ship's personnel and with a high level of availability.

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM IN INDIA DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF LIGHTHOUSES & LIGHTSHIPS 1.3 The installation, in addition to meeting the general requirements as set out in IMO resolution should meet the following requirements to applicable ITU-R Recommendations - (a) that such a system should be used primarily for surveillance and safety of navigation purposes in ship to ship use, ship reporting and vessel traffic services (VTS) applications. It could also be used for other maritime safety related communications, provided that the primary functions were not impaired; (b) that such a system would be capable of expansion to accommodate future expansion in the numbers of users and diversification of applications, including vessels which are not subject to IMO AIS carriage requirement, Aids-to-Navigation and Search and Rescue." (Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-1)

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF LIGHTHOUSES & LIGHTSHIPS Governing Organisations Following are the organisations that govern the regulations on AIS: IMO IMO has laid out the regulations for AIS through the following: IMO Regulation 19 – Carriage Requirements for SOLAS Vessels Performance Standard for a Universal Shipborne AIS MSC 74 (69) ITU – R Technical Characteristics of AIS - Regulation M.1371; IALA Recommendations - Provision of shore based AIS Recommendation A–123 Shore Stations and networking aspects related to AIS Service A–124 AIS for Aids to Marine Navigation A–126

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AIS Information Ship to shore Shore to ship Ship’s Identification (MMSI) Speed, course, position Destination Type of cargo (Hazmat) Aid to Navigation Search & Rescue Port related information Channel management DGNSS correction Maritime Safety Information (MSI) AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)IN INDIA NATIONAL AIS NETWORK CONCEPT In an AIS Network, real time AIS data is typically routed to multiple clients who wish to be a part of the AIS data service. Typically these clients are Port Authorities, Regulators, VTS Centres, Civil Defence, National Defence, Lighthouse, Customs and/or offshore authorities. These various authorities may already have tracking and surveillance systems to which the AIS data is sent or may require a situational awareness display. Most AIS networks have a data repository (database) for logging AIS data for replaying any incident and for performing statistical analysis of vessel traffic.

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)IN INDIA NATIONAL AIS NETWORK What is an AIS shore station? An AIS shore station is a ship’s AIS with additional functionalities Some of these additional functionalities are: Channel Management Broadcast of DGNSS correction Broadcast of maritime safety information Initiate polling

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA NATIONAL AIS NETWORK Why an AIS shore station ? All the SOLAS vessels above 300 tons have been fitted with ship’s AIS (Dec 2004) All the ports and port facilities have been complied with the ISPS (International Ship and Port Facility Security) code (July 2004) As a requirement of ISPS, ports are required to monitor vessel movement within their port limits Monitor ship movement in the territorial waters & pass on safety related messages to ships, thus avoiding accidents Carry out effective Search & Rescue Provide more accurate navigation by broadcast of DGNSS corrections

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA Who all should be involved: PORTS for compliance with ISPS for managing the traffic broadcast all safety and other related messages DGLL: for establishment and maintenance of the network provide DGNSS corrections DG SHIPPING: National Competent Authority COAST GUARD: for search & rescue INDIAN NAVY: external hostilities & contingencies IPA & MARITIME BOARDS: coordination between various ports NATIONAL AIS NETWORK

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AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA NATIONAL AIS NETWORK A national AIS network will also be helpful in standardizing the equipment, as ISPS code is descriptive and not equipment specific. Where should AIS shore station be installed ? The AIS shore station shall be installed at: All major & minor ports for compliance towards ISPS; All lighthouses where DGPS broadcast stations have been installed; All intermediate spaces to provide a nationwide seamless coverage;

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The system is built into various layers; Each layer passes on the information to upper layer and delivers commands to lower layers; Sensor Layer Communicates with the vessel; Passes ship information up; Passes broadcast information to ships; Connectivity Layer Connects the various sensors to control centre; Services Layer Runs various control & monitoring utilities; Application Layer Provide man machine interface (MMI) to the user; Provides user with vessel & equipment status information; AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA NATIONAL AIS NETWORK SYSTEM LAYERS

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Regional HQ 1 AIS Base Station 1 AIS Base Station 2 AIS Base Station 3 AIS Base Station 85 Regional HQ 2 Regional HQ 3 Regional HQ 7 Control Centre (East) Control Centre (West) Ports Coast Guard Navy Other authorised users AIS base stations are setup around the coast with connectivity to regional headquarters through VSAT link Regional headquarters manage their set of base stations. Two Control Centres are proposed. The western at Mumbai, while eastern at Vishakhapatham. Each Control Centre manages a set of regional headquarters. Linking at National level is also considered. The users connect to these headquarters to get data through VSAT Link and Landline as convenient S S S S DG Shipping AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA SYSTEM HIERARCHY

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TYPICAL SYSTEM OVERVIEW

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Based on preliminary data, an estimated 85 base stations are required to provide the coverage shown below; The link between each base station and regional headquarters has to be a VSAT link, since most of the sites do not have land line connectivity; Each regional headquarter would be connected to either eastern or western headquarter; PROPOSED SYSTEM

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NATIONAL AIS NETWORK OBJECTIVES TO BE ACHIEVED Seamless AIS Coverage in the territorial waters Enhance safety within the Service Area Health monitoring capabilities for the AIS network Assist in ensuring the highest possible level of security and efficiency for the vessel traffic in the territorial waters Improve Safety and communications at sea on Aids to Navigation Contribute to the improvement of port infrastructure and future viability by offering Port Authorities the opportunity to assess the potential of AIS as a Vessel Traffic Management Aid AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) IN INDIA

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