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Leisure’s meanings through …..: 

Leisure’s meanings through ….. The humanities Ancient history Contemporary connotations

Chapter demonstrates ….: 

Chapter demonstrates …. … that leisure is contextual to place, era, and people.

For example, what meanings of leisure might be portrayed here?: 

For example, what meanings of leisure might be portrayed here? What is the time period? Who are the people? What is the place?


Humanities: Areas of creation whose subject is human experience.


Humanities: Literature, art, and music offer glimpses of leisure’s meaning. As interpersonal unifying force? As emotional outlet? As peace and quiet? As contact with nature? As idleness? As excitement? As sociability? As …..?

Leisure legacies from ancient cultures: 

Leisure legacies from ancient cultures The arts Contemplation Learning Mass spectacle Life balance Festivals and holidays Relaxation Sports

Contemporary Meanings: 

Contemporary Meanings FREE TIME – “leisure is the weekend” RECREATION ACTIVITY – “leisure is watching TV ATTITUDE – “leisure is making the most out of my life”

Common Leisure Qualities:: 

Common Leisure Qualities: Happiness Relaxation Pleasure Ritual Freedom Solitude Intrinsic reward Commitment Play Spirituality Game Risk Humor

Leisure as freedom ….: 

Leisure as freedom …. “from” – escape from the necessities of life “to” – making the most of possibilities

Leisure as intrinsic reward ….: 

Leisure as intrinsic reward …. = comes from doing something for its own reasons (extrinsic reward = comes as a payoff)

Aristotle’s philosophy of eudaimonia: 

Aristotle’s philosophy of eudaimonia … happiness is engaging in worthwhile pursuits

The “roots” of pleasure:: 

The “roots” of pleasure: Cynicism – virtue is goal of life Skepticism – accept what is conventional Stocism – follow reason Epicureanism – pleasure in moderation Hedonism – pleasure is goal of life

Play Theories (Table 2.2): 

Play Theories (Table 2.2) Older: Surplus Energy Preparation Relaxation More Recent: Catharsis Behavioristic Psychoanalytic Contemporary: Arousal Seeking Competence-Effectance

Types of play in games:: 

Types of play in games: Agon – competitive & skilled Alea – fate Mimicry – role-playing Illinx – sensory

Sources of leisure ritual:: 

Sources of leisure ritual: Holidays Site sacralization Decorum

Types of Intelligence: 

Types of Intelligence IQ – intellectual and rational intelligences EQ – emotional intelligence SoQ – social intelligence SQ – spiritual intelligence (finding life meaning)

Indications of a Highly Developed SQ: 

Indications of a Highly Developed SQ The capacity to be flexible (actively and spontaneously adaptive) A high degree of self-awareness The quality of being inspired by vision and values A tendency to see the connections between diverse things (being “holistic”) Being “field-independent” (possessing a facility for working against convention) A tendency to ask “Why?” or “What if?” questions

Cultural Capital: 

Cultural Capital = an individual’s store of behaviors and knowledge that pays off for succeeding in a culture Leisure is a main contributor to cultural capital.

Situation Factors Affect Leisure Behavior: 

Situation Factors Affect Leisure Behavior Age Gender Ethnicity Race Income Educational level Occupation Residence


Lifestyle The “stew pot” of all demographic factors - a pattern for living - leisure is an important dimension - lifestyle types (such as the VALS)

Theoretical Explanations for Leisure Behavior: 

Theoretical Explanations for Leisure Behavior Compensation and spillover Kelly’s Types Neulinger’s Paradigm Flow Adventure Experience Paradigm Self-as-Entertainment Theory of Anti-Structure

The Role of Intrinsic Determination: 

The Role of Intrinsic Determination Kelly’s Theory of Leisure Types – intrinsic meaning Neulinger’s Paradigm – intrinsic motivation Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow – autotelic Mannell’s Self-As-Entertainment – use of self as means of filling time

And, so, the story is:: 

And, so, the story is: Leisure behaviors are difficult to explain. Yet, formal theories from the basic disciplines do explain aspects of leisure behavior. While there is some research support, leisure theories are still at the conceptual level.

Leisure and Our Development: 

Leisure and Our Development Leisure stimulates and eases the transitions of change yet remains constant throughout life.

Leisure Contributes to Physical Development By:: 

Leisure Contributes to Physical Development By: Developing motor control when young And, as an aid to staying physically vital when old

Leisure Contributes to Emotional Development By:: 

Leisure Contributes to Emotional Development By: Teaching joy, affection, and other positive feelings Helping us cope with anger, fear, anxiety, and other negative feelings

Leisure Contributes to Intellectual Development By:: 

Leisure Contributes to Intellectual Development By: Helping the learning process Sharpening such skills as language, intelligence, and creativity

Leisure Contributes to Social Development By:: 

Leisure Contributes to Social Development By: Helping us achieve and remain vibrant within a social network

Social Interaction in Play (Table 4.1): 

Social Interaction in Play (Table 4.1) Non-social play – unfocused Solitary play – playing alone Onlooker play – observing others Parallel play – playing alongside each other but not interacting Associative play – some interaction Cooperative play – fully interactive

When Social Learning Harms Leisure: 

When Social Learning Harms Leisure Guilt and Worry: “I shouldn’t spend so much time pursuing my leisure interests.” Over-choice: “I must keep busy.” Lessened Enjoyment: “I’m only doing this activity because my friends are.”

Leisure’s Anthropology: 

Leisure’s Anthropology Leisure is powerful in how cultures are: * characterized * changed

Characteristics of Culture: 

Characteristics of Culture Shared Learned Symbols Integrated

Mechanisms of cultural change:: 

Mechanisms of cultural change: Innovation Diffusion Loss Acculturation

Sahlins’ Hunches about Paleolithic People: 

Sahlins’ Hunches about Paleolithic People The original leisure society? * worked less than today’s standard * had fewer material possessions to care for

Modernization and Leisure: 

Modernization and Leisure Ethnocentricity Postmodernism Well-being Is leisure better or worse off as a result of modernization?

Sources of a Culture’s Well-Being: 

Sources of a Culture’s Well-Being Understanding your environment and how to control it. Social support from family and friends. Species drive satisfaction. Satisfaction of physical well-being drives. Satisfaction of aesthetica nd sensory drives. Satisfaction of exploratory drive.

Leisure’s Geographic Significance: 

Leisure’s Geographic Significance As Space: leisure’s pattern, density, and concentration As Place: people’s strong attachment to specific leisure places

Crowding in Leisure: 

Crowding in Leisure

Perceptions of crowding result from:: 

Perceptions of crowding result from: Personal characteristics of visitors Characteristics of other visitors encountered Nature of the outdoor setting

Leisure and Distance: 

Leisure and Distance Distance decay Space-time compression

Place Attachment: 

Place Attachment … an emotional bond for particular places

Place Identity: 

Place Identity … places reflect individual meanings

Examples of management implications of leisure and geography:: 

Examples of management implications of leisure and geography: Conservation Preservation Wilderness Sustainable tourism

Characteristics of Common Culture: 

Characteristics of Common Culture Engaged in most often Commercial Trendy Specific to age groups

Television Research: 

Television Research From Kubey and Csikszentmihalyi (1990) - television viewing is a passive, relaxing, low-concentration activity - motivation to watch is often driven by a wish to escape - watching TV becomes less rewarding the longer it is viewed

Our biological orienting response …: 

Our biological orienting response …

Corner’s (1999) Pleasures of TV Watching: 

Corner’s (1999) Pleasures of TV Watching Scopophilia …. Pleasures of knowledge Pleasures of comedy Pleasures of fantasy Pleasures of distraction, diversion, and routine

Criticisms of Disney Theme Parks : 

Criticisms of Disney Theme Parks From Rojek (1993) – - go beyond entertainment - present moralistic and idealized version of “American way” From Bryman (1995) – - too much control of the experience

Is mediated and commercialized common culture a good thing?: 

Is mediated and commercialized common culture a good thing? Amusing Ourselves to Death (1986) by Neil Postman

Technology is Important to Leisure: 

Technology is Important to Leisure Enhanced traditional pastimes Invented new pastimes


cyberculture Electronic mail Word processing Games Chat rooms Hypertext Digital multimedia On and on


Computer based leisure is perhaps the second most popular pastime (just behind television watching)

Computer Assisted Leisure: 

Computer Assisted Leisure Games (positive values?) Simulated leisure (fidelity?)

Technology as Leisure: 

Technology as Leisure The Internet (the cyberhood?)

Social Capital : 

Social Capital = the interpersonal networks that make a community cohesive


Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (1995) Robert Putnam

Taboo Recreation: 

Taboo Recreation = forbidden by custom, belief, law

Why Taboo Recreation?: 

Why Taboo Recreation? Anomie = lack of purpose and identity resulting in the demise of social norms Differential association = learned through contact with others Retreatist lifestyle = a matter of personal expression

Leisure Boredom: 

Leisure Boredom = when you feel you cannot escape a meaningless leisure routine

Taboo Recreation That Injures Self: 

Taboo Recreation That Injures Self A matter of ideational mentality For example, - substance abuse - compulsive participation - gambling

Taboo Recreation That Injures Others: 

Taboo Recreation That Injures Others A matter of sensate mentality For example, - vandalism - taboo sex

The “Dilemma of Goodness”: 

The “Dilemma of Goodness” If leisure is a matter of personal attitudes and preferences, distinctions of worth and goodness for specific pastimes are useless. or If Aristotle is correct, and leisure is making moral free-time choices, certain pursuits are unworthy and bad.

Using Leisure for Social Good: 

Using Leisure for Social Good As nations become more industrialized, they become more reliant on leisure as a tool for solving problems. This can be demonstrated through the history of organized leisure services in the United States.

The Story: 

The Story Began as a play movement Became a wide sweeping social movement Leisure became a means to create better lives Involved cities, states, and the federal government As well as private organizations

The Industrial Revolution: 

The Industrial Revolution

The Pioneers : 

The Pioneers

Using Leisure as Social Reform: 

Using Leisure as Social Reform City parks National parks The Lyceum movement Voluntary agencies The Settlement House Movement The Playground Movement

Transitions in Leisure’s Use as a Social Tool: 

Transitions in Leisure’s Use as a Social Tool Kids  all ages Summer  year-long Outdoor  indoor Urban  rural Voluntary  government Freely expressed  organized Simple  complex Facilities  programs Individual  group

The Tragedy of the Commons: 

The Tragedy of the Commons The problem of unlimited access to commonly held resources that inevitably leads to an erosion of the quality of the leisure environment itself. (based on the ideas of Hardin)

Recreation Needs & Government Involvement: 

Recreation Needs & Government Involvement Expressed = a neutral provider Comparative = fills gaps only for people in need Created = actively promotes leisure because people don’t know what they want Normative = provides only certain well- established kinds of recreation Felt = lets the people choose what they want

The Web of Leisure and Economics: 

The Web of Leisure and Economics Economic development Capitalism Consumerism

A new ethic?: 

A new ethic? “ … our ethic of open-ended consumption of goods has simply carried over to the consumption of experiences, making time – not money the ultimate scarce commodity.” Academy of Leisure Sciences, White Paper #8)

Gen Y – The First Wave: 

Gen Y – The First Wave Adults aged 18-24 Optimistic about earning power Expect to have money because they want it Say the one thing that would improve their lives is having more money 37% currently own 3+ credit cards Average monthly discretionary spending of full-time undergraduate college students is $179

Gen Y – The Second Wave: 

Gen Y – The Second Wave Teens aged 12-17 Spent $155 billion in 2000 Average weekly spending = $85 Mostly spending this money on clothing 18% own stocks or bonds 30% are interested in getting their own credit card

Gen Y – The Third Wave: 

Gen Y – The Third Wave Kids aged 7-11 Spend an average of $4.72 a week of their own money Impact of this spending = $10 billion a year Plus there’s the spending they influence ($260 billion annually)

What would you do?: 

What would you do? For $1 million would you be willing to never again see or talk to your best friend? Would you be willing to give up all television for the rest of your life if it would provide for 1,000 starving children? If you had $1,000 to either spend on a nice vacation or relatives, which would you choose?

The character of leisure and consumption today: 

The character of leisure and consumption today The activities of the rich now the expectations of the masses Leisure expressions are diverse – a consequence of increased discretionary income Leisure experiences have increased in quality In leisure we continually compare our lifestyle and possessions to others Spending money for leisure goods and experiences is the standard of belonging

Juliette Schor’s The Overspent American: 

Juliette Schor’s The Overspent American

How Leisure Benefits an Economy: 

How Leisure Benefits an Economy Expenditures and investments Employment Property values

How Leisure Harms an Economy: 

How Leisure Harms an Economy Accidents Negative balance of payments

Of Time and Work: 

Of Time and Work While leisure is typically prescribed as the cure for the problems of time and work … It has also adopted many of the characteristics that make them problematic in the first place.

Types of Time: 

Types of Time Cyclical time – time is constant and returning Mechanical time – time is linear, never returning Biological time – time is the rhythm of the living organism Social and cultural time – time is set by social and cultural conditions

Time Tyrannies Against Leisure: 

Time Tyrannies Against Leisure Time urgency Time deepening

Leisure Takes Place in Time as:: 

Leisure Takes Place in Time as: Personal perceptions of free time Adherence to clock time The time needs of leisure activities A culture’s time sufficiency

The ancient Greek idea:: 

The ancient Greek idea: Homo faber – work is part of being human Homo ludens – play is part of being human

The Rewards of Work: 

The Rewards of Work Money Central identity Human interaction Sense of contributing Its relation to leisure?

Leisure’s Relation to Work: 

Leisure’s Relation to Work Pessimistic view: workaholism, play-aversion Optimistic view: alternatives to work; work becomes more like leisure Neutral view: central life interest

Leisure and Equity: 

Leisure and Equity There is not yet equity in leisure. Leisure has the potential of being a great equity maker.

Types of Leisure Constraints: 

Types of Leisure Constraints Structural – architectural barriers Intrapersonal – individual psychological states that intervene Interpersonal – barriers from social interactions with friends, family

Women’s Inequity in Leisure: 

Women’s Inequity in Leisure Less time and priority Combining role obligations At home and unstructured Fragmented Do not feel entitled

Explanations for Differences in Leisure Participation among Ethnic Groups: 

Explanations for Differences in Leisure Participation among Ethnic Groups Marginality thesis – a function of lack of opportunity Ethnicity thesis – culturally based value systems, norms, and socialization patterns

Immigrant Typology: 

Immigrant Typology Autonomous (Amish, Jews, & Mormons) Voluntary immigrant (Cubans, Haitians, & Mexicans) Involuntary non-immigrant (African-Americans, Native Americans, Native Alaskans, and Native Hawaiians)

Leisure Issues for Persons with Disabilities: 

Leisure Issues for Persons with Disabilities Self-determination Self-advocacy Normalization Integration

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