flora and fauna of UK

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To study flora and fauna of UK

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Slide 1:

UNITED KINGDOM

Slide 2:

Map of united kingdom

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Introduction The  United Kingdom (UK) , is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. It unites  England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland  as one Kingdom. Around 65 million people live in the UK . Most people in the UK speak English. There are five native languages other than English. They are  Welsh  in Wales,  Gaelic and  Scots  in Scotland and Northern Ireland,  Irish  in Northern Ireland, and  Cornish  in Cornwall. Some cities in the UK are : London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Belfast, Manchester Bristol Liverpool, Birmingham York and Glasgow. Important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Thames, Humber, Tees, and Tyne. 

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FLORA in UK The United Kingdom has a diverse pattern of natural vegetation. Originally, oak forests probably covered the lowland pine forests and patches of moorland covered the higher or sandy ground. Over the centuries, much of the forest area, was cleared for cultivation.

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Fairly extensive forests remain in east and north Scotland and in southeast England. Oak, elm, ash, and beech are the most common trees in England. Pine and birch are most common in Scotland. Wild vegetation consists of the natural flora of woods, fens and marshes, cliffs, chalk downs, and mountain slopes, the most widespread being the heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken of the moorlands.

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Almost all the lowland outside the industrial centers is farmland, with a varied semi natural vegetation of grasses and flowering plants. Wild vegetation consists of the natural flora of woods, fens and marshes, cliffs, chalk downs, and mountain slopes, the most widespread being the heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken of the moorlands. Lowland Vegetation

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FAUNA OF UK

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The fauna is similar to that of northwestern continental Europe, although there are fewer species. Some of the larger mammals—wolf, bear, boar, and reindeer—are extinct, but red and roe deer are protected for sport.

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Common smaller mammals are foxes, hares, hedgehogs, rabbits, weasels, stoats, shrews, rats, and mice; otters are found in many rivers, and seals frequently appear along the coast. There are few reptiles and amphibians. Roughly 230 species of birds reside in the United Kingdom, and another 200 are migratory Most numerous are the chaffinch, blackbird, sparrow, and starling.

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Molluscs There are 220 species of non-marine molluscs that have been recorded as living in the wild in Britain. Two of them Fruticicola fruticum  and  Cernuella neglecta , are locally extinct. In addition there are 14 gastropod species that live only in greenhouses. Fruticicola fruticum Cernuella neglecta

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Selenochlamys ysbryda (Ghost slug) The Blue Dragon ( Glaucus atlanticus ): one of the rarest and most beautiful molluscs Rare Arachnids and Molluscs   Eresus cinnaberinus Dorset : Ladybird spider 

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Rare birds,Reptiles And Amphibians Long Eared owl Philippine's eagle: Alain Pascua Red-eyed tree frog Ugandan chameleon

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Lynx An animal which has n ot been seen from a century w as seen recently The echidna is the one of only two species of mammal to lay eggs. Incredibly rare, its main threat is being hunted for human consumption Turquoise Dwarf Gecko ( Lygodactylus williamsi )

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Reptiles There are five native reptiles in Wales. These include grass snakes, sand lizards, common lizards and slow worms.

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Amphibians There are six native amphibians in Wales. They are the common toad, great crested newt,  natterjack toad, palmate newt, smooth newt and common frog.

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Invertebrates An estimated 25,000 invertebrate species live in land and freshwater habitats in Wales.

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Endemic species Endemic  species  are plants and animals that exist only in one geographic region. Species can be endemic to large or small areas of the earth: some are endemic to a particular continent, some to part of a continent, and others to a single island. Usually an area that contains endemic species is isolated in some way, so that species have difficulty spreading to other areas, or it has unusual environmental characteristics to which endemic species are uniquely adapted. 

Slide 20:

E NDEMIC SPECIES OF FLORA

Primula Scotia:

Primula Scotia ~ Endemic to the northern part of Scotland. ~ Height: approx 4cm. Flowers: 8mm in diameter with five heart shaped petals. ~ It's flowers are seen from May to July. ~ Found in Caithness , Sutherland and Orkney.

Bristol White Beam :

Bristol White Beam This tree can grow upto a height of 20 feet. They are endemic to England and are threatened too. It is found in wild only in the Avon Gorge and in the Leigh Woods area of Bristol.

Herbridean Marsh Orchid:

Herbridean Marsh Orchid Endemic to Scotland , occurs only in the Outer Hebrides on the northern coast of North Uist . Short plant , growing to a maximum of 18cm in height. Leaves sharply pointed and with dark purple markings separated at the base.

Welsh Rogwort :

Welsh Rogwort Endemic flowering plant to North Wales. It is a recently evolved plant as a result of hybridization between two related species. It goes to a height of 30 centimetres .

Cornish Path Moss:

Cornish Path Moss Endemic to Cornwall, Britain Grows on compacted, sparsely vegetated ground. It is also Considered to be endangered. It was first discovered in 1963.

Greater Copperwort :

Greater Copperwort Endemic to three sites in Devon, and one recently discovered in Cheshire, Britain. Found in copper-enriched soil, rocks, walls and spoil from old copper mines. Also entered to vulnerable plant list in the U.K.

White Script Lichen:

White Script Lichen Endemic to Scotland. Nationally rare, its distribution is confined to hazel woodlands. Since it's a lichen, it can grow upto 5cm. It is also prudent in different colors like pink, yellow, white, etc.

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ENDEMIC SPECIES OF FAUNA

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UK have few endemic species due to past frequent glaciations and because of the proximity to continental Europe and former land bridges which enabled species to re- colonise from the continent.

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The Scottish crossbill is the only vertebrata species endemic to these islands, where it is confined to scots pine woodland .However, there is also a handful of endemic subspecies, including the skomer vole, St Kilda wren and red grouse .

Slide 32:

Orkney vole and st . kilda field mouse are endemic mammal species Endemic white fish include the vandesius the clupeoides and pennantii Endemic moths sometimes considered full species include the northern foot man eilema sericea and the slender scotch burnet zygaena loti

LAWS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY AND OTHER MEASURES ADOPTED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM:

LAWS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY AND OTHER MEASURES ADOPTED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM

LEGAL MEASURES:

LEGAL MEASURES The Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 is the primary mechanism for wildlife protection in Britain. This legislation covers four areas: 1. Wildlife protection, including protection for wild birds, their eggs and nests, protection of other animal and protection of plants. 2. Public Rights of Way. 3. Nature Conservation, countryside and National Parks. 4. Remaining Miscellaneous Areas of Concern. National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act of 1949 allowed the creation of National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in England and Wales. Wild Mammals (Protection) Act 1996 offers protection to all wild species of mammals but is more of an animal welfare Act than a conservation Act.

LEGAL MEASURES:

LEGAL MEASURES The Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006 requires all public bodies to consider biodiversity conservation when carrying out their functions. Hedgerows Regulations of 1997 fall under the local authority and are intended to protect important hedgerows from removal. Owners and managers cannot remove a hedgerow without permission from their local authority; and permission may not be granted if it supports a diverse range or protected species. Countryside and Rights of Way Act of 2000 strengthens the protection of SSSI’s (Sites of Special Scientific Interest) ; already established in the Wildlife and Countryside Act. The Act also allows for prosecution of third parties that damage or destroy a SSSI. Protection of Badgers Act of 1992 protects badgers and their setts . This makes it illegal to willfully capture, injure or kill a wild badger; Be in possession of a live or dead badger and to destroy or obstruct access to an active Badger sett.

OTHER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES:

OTHER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES Apart from all laws mentioned in previous slides; the govt. and some NGO’s are promoting other ways in which commoners can contribute to these efforts: Reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pestiscides . Reduce, Reuse and Recycle with stress on Reduce i.e. buying less of non-essential products. Using Environment friendly personal and household cleaning products like distilled vinegar. Opting for organic food. Reducing Single Person Car use. Conserving Energy. Reducing use of Plastic. Suggest the government about other new ideas!!

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Opting for organic food Reducing the use of chemical fertilisers ad pesticides Reducing the use of plastic Using eco- friendly products like distilled vinegar

Slide 38:

Hands involved… 1. Charchit khurana 2. Yatin khanna 3. Prakhar Garg 4.Mohika 5. Urvashi

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THANK YOU

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