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A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. What is a time zone? Each color is a different Time Zone

Time Zones run in the same direction as longitude lines. The times zones are generally divided by 15⁰ longitude. There are total 24 time zones. :

Time Zones run in the same direction as longitude lines. The times zones are generally divided by 15⁰ longitude. There are total 24 time zones.

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LOCAL TIME Local time   is a form of  solar time  that corrects the variations of  local apparent time , forming a uniform time scale at a specific longitude.

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Longitudes & Meridians Longitudes are the imaginary lines that run east and west from the prime meridian and each longitude is called a meridian and there are 360 longitudes .

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In 1° longitudinal difference, time difference is 4’ So, if a place has 30°E longitude then, In 30° longitudinal difference, time difference is 30 x 4= 120’ i.e 2 hours. And since it’s 30°E so its 2hours ahead of greenwich. Time difference

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The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of navigation on the surface of the Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups.

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The IDL is roughly based on the meridian of 180° longitude, roughly down the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and halfway around the world from the Greenwich meridian. In many places, the IDL follows the 180° meridian exactly. However, in other places, the IDL deviates east or west away from that meridian. These various deviations generally accommodate the political and/or economic affiliations of the affected areas.

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Greenwich mean time:

Greenwich mean time Greenwich Mean Time  ( GMT ) is the mean solar time at th e Royal observatory in Greenwich London . GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by coordinated universal time ( UTC ) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes.

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Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal time  was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.

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Losing a Day And Gaining a Day:

Losing a Day And Gaining a Day While travelling, if we move towards east of prime meridian, we lose time or lose a day, but on the other hand if we move towards west of prime meridian, we gain time or gain a day. Let’s understand better with the help of an example….

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Suppose you are a citizen of New Zealand, a country in southwestern Pacific Ocean. It’s your birthday today, you are travelling from New Zealand to Hawaii which is situated in eastern Pacific Ocean. Then in this case you will gain 23 hours i.e. approximately a whole day and you could now relive your birthday. EXAMPLE

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Just as sunflowers turn their heads to catch every sunbeam, so too have we discovered a simple way to get more from our sun. We've learned to save energy and enjoy sunny summer evenings by switching our clocks an hour forward in the summer.

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WHY DST ? Daylight Saving Time (DST) is used to save energy and make better use of daylight. It was first used in 1908 in Thunder Bay, Canada. The main purpose of Daylight Saving Time (called "Summer Time" many places in the world) is to make better use of daylight. We change our clocks during the summer months to move an hour of daylight from the morning to the evening. Countries have different change dates. DST normally adds 1 hour to standard time with the purpose of making better use of daylight and conserving energy. This means that the sunrise and sunset are one hour later, on the clock, than the day before.

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The idea of daylight saving was first conceived by Benjamin Franklin during his sojourn as an American delegate in Paris in 1784, in an essay, "An Economical Project”. In the essay, he suggested, although jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

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In 1895, New Zealand scientist George Vernon Hudson presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society, proposing a two-hour shift forward in October and a two-hour shift back in March. There was interest in the idea, but it was never followed through. GEORGE HUDSON

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Germany became the first country to introduce DST when clocks were turned ahead 1 hour on  April 30, 1916 . The rationale was to minimize the use of artificial lighting in order to save fuel for the war effort during World War I. The idea was quickly followed by the  UK and many other countries, including  France. Many countries reverted back to standard time after World War I, and it wasn’t until the next World War that DST made its return in most of Europe. GERMANY: THE FIRST COUNTRY TO USE DST

DST Worldwide:

DST Worldwide Today approximately 70 countries utilize Daylight Saving Time in at least a portion of the country. The only major industrialized country not to have introduced daylight saving is Japan .

Not in the Tropics:

Not in the Tropics Equatorial and tropical countries (lower latitudes) do not observe Daylight Saving Time since the daylight hours are similar during every season, so there is no advantage to moving clocks forward during the summer .

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In the European Union, Summer Time begins and ends at 1 am Universal Time (Greenwich Mean Time). It starts the last Sunday in March, and ends the last Sunday in October. In the EU, all time zones change at the same moment . DST IN EUROPE

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21/1/2017 26 TIMEWHEEL


TIMEWHEEl. What THIS MEAN? 27 The Timewheel is one of the world’s largest hourglasses , situated in Budapest next to City Park right of Heroes’ Square and behind the Palace of Art on the site of a former statue of Lenin that now stands in Memento Park . It is made of granite , steel and glass and weighs 60 tons. The sand flows from the upper to the lower glass chamber for one year. The sand runs out on New Year’s Eve and the Timewheel is then turned 180 degrees so the flow of the sand can resume for the next year.

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28 The turning is done by manual power using steel cables and it takes roughly 45 minutes for 4 people to complete the half turn . The Timewheel was unveiled on 1 may 2004 to commemorate the historic enlargement of the European Union that admitted Hungary to the EU. The idea and the building of the Timewheel is marked by Janos Herner the architectural design of the statue was done by Istvan Janaky. The Nima Sand Museum which opened in 1991 also has a 1 year hourglass in Nima Shimane Prefecture Japan…

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I INDIA! The great INDIA or what we call HINDUSTAN, the land of love, the land of peace, the land of harmony, the land of god is an amazing place. Present in south Asia this country is really huge. Going on the topic, India’s IST is chosen 82.5 east And it is also well known that time difference between each longitude is 4 minutes so multiplying this difference by IST we get- 82.5*4=330 minutes = 5 hours 30 minutes


the So, we can conclude from this calculation that India’s UTC (universal time coordinated) is +5:30. So the first question that arises is that why positive i.e. why +5:30, this is because of the simple reason that India lies on the East of Prime meridian so that is why positive. So what can we calculate using this UTC? Well it has a great relevance in comparing time of different countries. Let understand this by an example- Imagine time in Greenwich is 12a.m. so how can we calculate time in India? Simple. Add the UTC. So time in India at that moment would be 5:30a.m.

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Now lets compare it with Serbia. Now we wont add directly 5:30 in the given time, we now need to calculate how much is the time difference between India and Serbia and as we know that it is 3:30 so if there's 12a.m. in Serbia it would be 3:30a.m. How simple!

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DST or Daylight saving time is thing we have read about and now we need to see this topic in relevance of nation. So its also a simple fact that in India we don’t use DST, we don’t adjust our clocks in summers or winters ; mostly American and European courtiers do all this. The last time we Indians used this DST was during the world war-ll mainly 1942-45. DST IN INDIA

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Serbia is a country on southeast Europe's Balkan peninsula with northern plateaus and mountains with ski resorts to the south . Capital city Belgrade is home to Communist-era architecture and Kalemegdan Park, site of Belgrade Fortress, held successively by the Roman , Byzantine and Ottoman empires

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Serbia / Time zone Serbia follows the Central European Time Zone (UTC +1hr) along with the other countries shaded in yellow

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Daylight Saving time In Serbia

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Daylight Saving Time is adjusted as time as adjusted to achieve longer evening daylight in summer by setting the clocks an hour ahead of the standard time.

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The graph above illustrates clock changes in Belgrade during 2016 . Serbia follows Daylight Saving Time during the months of April , May , June , July , August , September and October .

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JST is the standard time zone in Japan and is 9 ahead of UTC i.e. UTC+09:00. There is no daylight saving time, through it’s introduction has been debated several year times. During World War II it was often called Tokyo standard meridian

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Time Comparison of JAPAN with other regions of globe

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Tokyo, Japan is 9 hours ahead of Greenwich, London, UK 7:55 PM  Tuesday, in Tokyo, Japan is 10:55 AM  Tuesday, in Greenwich, London, UK Tokyo, Japan is 8 hours ahead of Serbia 7:59 PM  Tuesday, in Tokyo, Japan is 11:59 AM  Tuesday, in Serbia Tokyo, Japan is 3 hours and 30 minutes ahead of India 7:59 PM  Tuesday, in Tokyo, Japan is 4:29 PM  Tuesday, in India

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Macedonia Macedonia is a landlocked Balkan nation of mountains, lakes and ancient towns with Ottoman and European architecture. The capital, Skopje, is known for its sprawling Old Bazaar quarter and historic buildings turned museums, including the National Gallery of Macedonia, housed in a 15th-century Turkish bath complex. The southern city Ohrid, on a lake of the same name, has a medieval townscape and hilltop castle . It’s currency is Macedonian Dinar.

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It’s latitude/longitude is 4200’N/21.26’E. There are two time zones followed in Macedonia - Central European Time(CET) and Central European Summer Time (CEST). Current offset- CET/UTC +1 hour. time difference b/w India and Macedonia is four and a half hours. 27 Mar 2016 - Daylight Saving Time Started When local standard time was about to reach Sunday, 27 March 2016,  02:00:00  clocks were turned  forward  1 hour to  Sunday, 27 March 2016,  03:00:00  local daylight time instead Sunrise and sunset was about 1 hour later on 27 Mar 2016 than the day before. There was more light in the evening . Also called Spring Forward , Summer Time , and Daylight Savings Time. Day Light Saving Time

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30 Oct 2016 - Daylight Saving Time Ended When local daylight time was about to reach Sunday, 30 October 2016,  03:00:00  clocks were turned  backward  1 hour to  Sunday, 30 October 2016,  02:00:00  local standard time instead Sunrise and sunset was about 1 hour earlier on 30 Oct 2016 than the day before. There was more light in the morning. Also called Fall Back and Winter Time.

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GERMANY Germany is a Western European country with a landscape of forests, rivers, mountain ranges and North Sea beaches. It has over 2 millennia of history. Berlin, its capital, is home to art and nightlife scenes, the Brandenburg Gate and many sites relating to WWII. Munich is known for its Oktoberfest and beer halls, including the 16th-century Hofbräuhaus. Frankfurt, with its skyscrapers, houses the European Central Bank

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It’s latitude/longitude is 51.16.N/10.45.E . there are two time zones followed in Germany – Central European Time(CET) and Central European Summer time(CEST) It’s current offset is – CET/UTC +1 Hour Time difference b/w India and Germany is four and a half hours. Day Light Saving Time 27 Mar 2016 - Daylight Saving Time Started When local standard time was about to reach Sunday, 27 March 2016,  02:00:00  clocks were turned  forward  1 hour to  Sunday, 27 March 2016,  03:00:00  local daylight time instead Sunrise and sunset was about 1 hour later on 27 Mar 2016 than the day before. There was more light in the evening. Also called Spring Forward, Summer Time, and Daylight Savings Time.

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30 Oct 2016 - Daylight Saving Time Ended When local daylight time was about to reach Sunday, 30 October 2016,  03:00:00  clocks were turned  backward  1 hour to  Sunday, 30 October 2016,  02:00:00  local standard time instead Sunrise and sunset was about 1 hour earlier on 30 Oct 2016 than the day before. There was more light in the morning.

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The time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00, which is eight hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, despite China is spanning five geographical time zones. The Time Zones Of China


THE FIVE TIME ZONES OF CHINA. The official national standard time is called  Beijing Time  domestically and  China Standard Time  (CST) internationally. The special administrative regions (SARs) maintain their own time authorities, with standards called  Hong Kong Time and  Macau Standard Time respectively. There is no difference between Beijing time and the times in the SARs. In addition, double time standard is used in Xinjiang, with the alternative time standard being two hours slower than the Beijing Time (UTC+06:00), which is called  Ürümqi Time  or "Xinjiang Time“


TIME COMPARISSION 12:00 P.M in India is 2:30 PM in China 12:00 P.M in Greenwich is 8 :00 P.M in China 12:00 P.M in Serbia is 7:00 P.M in China

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ABOUT THE COUNTRY Many sources state that that Great Britain was the first country to use standard time (uniform time for places in roughly the same longitude). It was the railways, and not the post office, that enforced clocks’ uniformity throughout Great Britain.  There was a demand to use “British Time” throughout the country. Dr William Hyde Wollaston (1766–1828) was credited with the original idea, which was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808–1903). Railroad companies drew up their timetables and set their station clocks in accordance with  Greenwich Mean Time  (GMT).


TIME ZONES The UK's time zone during daylight saving time (DST) is British Summer Time (BST). GMT has no offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The UK switches from GMT to British Summer Time(BST), which is UTC+1.


DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME The UK observes daylight saving time (DST) as part of the European Union’s (EU) daylight saving schedule, which starts on the last Sunday of March each year when the clocks move one hour ahead from 1am (or 01:00) to 2am (02:00) local time. The clocks then move one hour back from 2am (02:00) to 1am (01:00) local time when DST ends on the last Sunday of October each year. Daylight saving time is commonly known as “summer time” or “British Summer Time” in the UK.


TIME DIFFERENCE GREENWICH - There is no time difference between United Kingdom and Royal Borough of Greenwich, UK. For Example:- 1:41 PM  Tuesday, in United Kingdom is 1:41 PM  Tuesday, in Royal Borough of Greenwich, UK

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SERBIA - Serbia is 1 hour ahead of United Kingdom. For Example:- 2:04 PM  Tuesday, in United Kingdom is 3:04 PM  Tuesday, in Serbia

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INDIA- India is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of United Kingdom For Example:- 2:09 PM  Tuesday, in United Kingdom is 7:39 PM  Tuesday, in India

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U S A A United States America The Of

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The United States of America is the world's third largest country in size and nearly the third largest in terms of population . Located in North America , the country is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean . Along the northern border is Canada and the southern border is Mexico. There are 50 states and the District of Columbia.

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Time Zones In USA The United States uses nine standard time zones. They are: 1.The Atlantic standard time zone 2.The eastern standard time zone 3.The central standard time zone 4.The mountain standard time zone 5.The Pacific standard time zone 6.The Alaska standard time zone 7.The Hawaii–Aleutian standard time zone 8.The Samoa standard time zone 9.The Chamorro standard time zone

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Daylight Saving Time (DST) in USA In the United States Daylight Saving Time begins at 2:00 a.m. local time on the second Sunday in March. On the first Sunday in November areas on Daylight Saving Time return to Standard Time at 2:00 a.m. Arizona, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, U.S. Virgin Islands and American Samoa do not observe Daylight Saving Time. Fun Fact!

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A comparison between USA’s* and some other countries’ Time Zone Serbia is 6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, USA United Kingdom is 5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, USA India is 10 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Washington, DC, USA *note: USA’s time is taken to be -5 GMT

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INTRODUCTION… Brazil, a vast South American country, stretches from the Amazon Basin in the north to vineyards and massive Iguaçu Falls in the south. Rio de Janeiro, symbolized by its 38m Christ the Redeemer statue atop Mount Corcovado, is famed for its busy Copacabana and Panama beaches as well as its enormous, raucous Carnival festival, featuring parade floats, flamboyant costumes and samba music and dance. Capital: Brasília Dialing code: +55 Currency: Brazilian real President: Michel Temer Population: 200.4 million (2013) World Bank Official language: Portuguese

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Brazil uses four standard time zones. From east to west UTC/GMT-5 is observed in Acre and thirteen municipalities in western Amazons. UTC/GMT-4 is observed in five western states. UTC/GMT-3 is used in twenty one central and eastern states, including the capital of Brazil .So, the main time zone of Brazil corresponds to the time at the national capital city , Brasilia .UTC/GMT-2 is observed in several islands off the east coast of Brazil, including the twenty one islands in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. TIME ZONES



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DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME Daylight Saving Time in Brazil is observed by most of the southern, south-eastern and central-western states which includes, Espirito santo, the Federal District, Goias, part of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande de Sul, Santa Catarina, and Sao Paulo. Daylight saving time is not observed in the north and north-eastern states .


SOME EXAMPLES… Feb 21, 2016 - Daylight Saving Time  When local daylight time was about to reach Sunday, February 21, 2016,  12:00:00 midnight  clocks were turned  backward  1 hour to Saturday, February 20, 2016,  11:00:00 pm  local standard time instead Sunrise and sunset was about 1 hour earlier on Feb 21, 2016 than the day before. There was more light in the morning. Also called Fall Back and Winter Time Oct 16, 2016 - Daylight Saving Time  When local standard time was about to reach Sunday, October 16, 2016,  12:00:00 midnight  clocks were turned  forward  1 hour to Sunday, October 16, 2016,  1:00:00 am  local daylight time instead Sunrise and sunset was about 1 hour later on Oct 16, 2016 than the day before. There was more light in the evening. Also called Spring Forward, Summer Time, and Daylight Savings Time.


CHANGES TOOK PLACE REGARDING TIME Effective oct.16,2011 the state of Mato Grosso announced that 32 municipalities within the state will not observe daylight saving time, and will stay on standard time UTC/GMT-4 year round. The remainder of the state, including the capital cuiaba and 106 other cities will observe daylight saving time. Effective oct.21,2012 the Governor of Bahia, Jaques Wagner, announced that Bahia would not observe daylight saving time as originally planned. Effective nov.10,2013 the state of Acre and thirteen municipalities in western Amazons changed time zones.These location which previously observed UTC/GMT-4 will now observe UTC/GMT-5.


BRAZIL VS SERBIA Serbia is 3 hours ahead of Brazil. This means that if it is 4:47am Wednesday in Brazil then it will be 7:47am Wednesday in Serbia. This shows that when children are sleeping in Brazil then children in Serbia are going to school. Brazil Serbia


BRAZIL VS India India is 7 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Brazil. This means that if it is 7:00am Wednesday in Brazil then it is 2:30pm Wednesday in India. This shows when children are going to school in Brazil then children in India are leaving the school. Brazil India


BRAZIL VS GREENWICH Greenwich is 2 hours ahead of Brazil. This means that if it is 7:30am Wednesday in Brazil then it is 9:30am Wednesday in Greenwich. This shows when children are going to school in Brazil then children in Greenwich are studying. Brazil Greenwich

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South Africa:

South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is a country on the southernmost tip of the African continent, Capitals : Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein Population : 52.98 million ( 2013) World bank Currency : South African rand President : Jacob Zuma Official languages : English, Afrikaans, Xhosa, Zulu, Southern Sotho

Time Zones in South Africa:

Time Zones in South Africa South African Standard Time ( SAST ) is the name of the time zone used by all of South Africa, as well as Swaziland and Lesotho. The zone is two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+2) and is the same as Central Africa Time. Offset Time Zone Abbreviation & Name Example City UTC +2 SAST South Africa Standard Time Johannesburg UTC +3 EAT Eastern Africa Time Marion Island (Prince Edward Islands) Time Zones Currently Being Used in South Africa- ------------------

Daylight Saving Time:

Daylight Saving Time South Africa observed a daylight saving time of GMT+3:00 between 20 September 1942 until 21 March 1943 and 19 September 1943 until 21 March 1944. Daylight saving time is not observed in either time zone of South Africa now.

Time Difference:

Time Difference South Africa: GMT + 2h Serbia: GMT + 1h India: GMT + 5:30h South Africa is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich, London, UK. South Africa is 1 hour ahead of Serbia. India is 3 hours and 30 minutes ahead of South Africa.




A BRIEF OVERVIEW ! There are eleven  time zones in Russia , which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00.  Day light saving time is not used in Russia (since March 2011).


TIME ZONES OF RUSSIA Offset Time Zone Abbreviation & Name Example City UTC +2 EET Eastern European Time Kaliningrad UTC +3 MSK Moscow Standard Time Moscow UTC +4 SAMT Samara Time Samara UTC +5 YEKT Yekaterinburg Time Yekaterinburg UTC +6 OMST Omsk Standard Time Omsk UTC +7 KRAT Krasnoyarsk Time Krasnoyarsk NOVT Novosibirsk Time Novosibirsk UTC +8 IRKT Irkutsk Time Irkutsk UTC +9 YAKT Yakutsk Time Chita UTC +10 VLAT Vladivostok Time Vladivostok UTC +11 MAGT Macadam Time Macadam SAKT Sakhalin Time Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk SRET Srednekolymsk Time Srednekolymsk UTC +12 ANAT Anadyr Time Anadyr PETT Kamchatka Time Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Daylight Saving Time:

Daylight Saving Time Daylight Saving Time (DST) Not Observed in Year 2016 Russia currently observes Moscow Standard Time (MSK) all year. DST is no longer in use. Clocks do not change in Russia. The previous DST change in Russia was on 31 October 2010.


COMPARISON OF TIME India is 2:30 hours ahead of Russia  That means when it is 9:00 am in Moscow Russia, it is 11:30 am in New Delhi India Russia is 6:00 hours ahead of GMT. Moscow, Russia is 2 hours ahead of Serbia 

Hong Kong:

Hong Kong

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Hong Kong is located in Hong Kong country, in Asia continent . DMS latitude longitude coordinates for Hong Kong are: 22°17'7.87"N, 114°9'27.68"E.  • Latitude position: Equator ⇐ 2478km (1540mi) ⇐ Hong Kong ⇒ 7529km (4678mi) ⇒ North pole.  • Longitude position: Prime meridian ⇒ 11333km (7042mi) ⇒ Hong Kong. GMT: +8h.  • Local time in Hong Kong: Wednesday 1:42 am, December 14, 2016


TIME ZONES… Hong Kong Time  (abbreviation:  HKT  )is the time in Hong Kong, observed at UTC+08:00 all year round. The  Hong Kong Observatory  is the official timekeeper of the Hong Kong TIME. . The Hong Kong Time was first set to Local Mean Time on 1 January 1885 at 13:00 by the then Royal Observatory Hong Kong. In 1904, the Greenwich Mean Time was adopted as the basis for Hong Kong Time, the time was set at 8 hours in advance of Greenwich Mean Time. The current Coordinated Universal Time system was adopted as an official time standard on 1 January 1972. However, the legal Hong Kong Time still remained under Greenwich Mean Time until it was changed to Universal Standard Time after the Hong Kong handover in 1998 .


COMPARISION….. Hong Kong is in Asia; Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997;  Standard Time is 8 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+8). INDIA Hong Kong is 2 hours and 30 minutes ahead of India . 2:00 AM  Wednesday, in Hong Kong is 11:30 PM  Tuesday, in India. SERBIA.. Hong Kong is 7 hours ahead of Serbia 2:06 AM  Wednesday, in Hong Kong is 7:06 PM  Tuesday, in Serbia


DAY LIGHT SAVING TIME .. Hong Kong adopted daylight saving measures in 1941. However, in the 1970s, the government found these measures unnecessary as Hong Kong is at a relatively low latitude. The practice was eliminated in 1979. Daylight Saving Time (DST) Not Observed in Year 2016. Hong Kong currently observes Hong Kong Time (HKT) all year. Clocks do not change in Hong Kong, Hong Kong. The previous DST change in Hong Kong was on 21 October 1979 .

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Poland is a country in  Central Europe  situated between the  Baltic Sea  in the north and two  mountain ranges  (the  Sudetes  and  Carpathian Mountains ) in the south.  Bordered  by  Germany  to the west; the  Czech Republic  and  Slovakia  to the south;  Ukraine  and  Belarus  to the east; and the  Baltic Sea ,  Kaliningrad Oblast  (a  Russian   exclave ) and  Lithuania  to the north. The total  area of Poland  is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), []  making it the  69th largest country  in the world and the 9th largest in Europe.

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With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the  34th most populous country  in the world, [11]  the 8th most populous country in Europe and the sixth most populous  member of the European Union , as well as the most populous  post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a  unitary state  divided into 16  administrative subdivisions , and its capital and largest  city  is  Warsaw . Other metropolises include  Kraków ,  Wrocław ,  Poznań ,  Gdańsk  and  Szczecin —the country's largest urban agglomeration is the  Silesian Metropolis .


TIME ZONES 1.Central European Time  ( CET ), used in most parts of the  European Union  and a few  North African  countries, is a  standard time  which is 1 hour ahead of  Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The  time offset  from  UTC can be written as  +01:00 . The same standard time,  UTC+01:00 , is also known as  Middle European Time  (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like  Berlin Time ,  Romance Standard Time ,  Paris Time  or  Rome Time.

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2.Central European Summer Time  ( CEST ) is the standard clock time observed during the period of  summer daylight-saving  in those European countries which observe  Central European Time  ( UTC + one hour ) during the rest of the year. It corresponds to  UTC + two hours .

Daylight Saving Time :

Daylight Saving Time P oland does utilize Daylight Saving Time. In Europe daylight saving time is often referred to as "Summer Time. Poland started Daylight Saving Time on Sunday March 27, 2016 at 2:00 AM local time. Poland ended Daylight Saving Time on Sunday October 30, 2016 at 3:00 AM local time.


TIME DIFFERENCE INDIA : India is 4 hours and 30 minutes ahead of POLAND. SERBIA : There is no time difference between Serbia and Poland. GREENWICH : Poland is 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.

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Introduction Australia is a country in the continent of Oceania. Situated on three oceans namely Indian Ocean, Antarctic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, Australia is bounded by water in all the directions. The country’s capital is Canberra since 1927. Earlier, the capital was Melbourne. The country is now one of the developed countries of the world with the Australian Dollar as its currency. Australians play cricket as their national game. The natural beauty of the Country is increased by the presence of the national animal, i.e. Kangaroo.

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AUSTRALIAN STANDARD TIME AND ITS RELATION The Australian Standard Time(AST) is the time followed uniformly across the country but there are 5 time zones and Australian Central Time Zone  passes almost through the centre of country that is GMT +9:30. This Meridian forms the Time Zone for Australia which is 9 hrs 30 min ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Other Time Zones include Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, Australian Central Eastern Standard Time and Australian Eastern Standard Time.

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AUSTRALIAN CENTRAL STANDARD TIME vs. SOME OTHER COUNTRIES Vs. Brazil Vs. Serbia -12:30 -8:30 Vs. Beijing Vs. India -1:30 -4:00 Vs. Hong Kong Vs. Cape Town -1:30 -7:30 Vs. Japan -0:30

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LOOSING A DAY, GAINING A DAY Loosing a day and gaining a day while travelling to Australia totally depends upon from where one starts his/her journey. It is universally stated that if one travels towards the west, he/she gains time; and while travelling towards the east, the opposite happens.

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Daylight Saving Time Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not. Queensland abandoned daylight saving time in 1972. New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia observe DST every year. This has resulted in three time zones becoming five during the daylight-saving period.

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#A _GOOD _BYE So when all is said and done, the main motive of this presentation was to make you more aware on the topic of time which couldn’t have be ignored by us! Hope we’ll discuss more about it in future! THANK YOU.

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