The Transport System (Circulatory, Immune, Lymphatic Systems)

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This is my Lecture on the Transport System for my Natural Science Class on Human Biology


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The Transport System:

The Transport System A. The Human Circulatory System

Circulatory System:

Circulatory System The circulatory system is an organ system that moves nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from cells, helps fight diseases and helps stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis.


This transport system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network.


The heart , blood , and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system . “Cardio” means heart, while “vascular” means vessels

Human Circulatory System :

Human Circulatory System The three main structures of the circulatory system: The pump (Heart) The fluid (Blood, and Lymph) The vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries)

The circulatory system includes: :

The circulatory system includes: the pulmonary circulation, a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood .

Types of Circulation:

Types of Circulation Systemic Circulation Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart , to the body , and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygena-depleted blood away from the heart , to the lungs , and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart

Systemic Circulation :

Systemic Circulation Arteries always take blood away from the heart , regardless of their oxygenation, and Veins always bring blood back . In general, arteries bring oxygenated blood to the tissues; veins bring deoxygenated blood back to the heart. In the case of the pulmonary vessels , however, the oxygenation is reversed: the pulmonary artery takes deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and oxygenated blood is pumped back through the pulmonary vein to the heart.

Systemic Circulation :

As blood circulates through the body, oxygen and nutrients diffuse from the blood into cells surrounding the capillaries , and carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood from the capillary cells . The release of oxygen from red blood cells or erythrocytes is regulated. Systemic Circulation

Pulmonary Circulation :

Pulmonary Circulation De-oxygenated blood enters the right atrium of the heart and flows into the right ventricle where it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. Pulmonary veins return the now oxygen-rich blood to the heart, where it enters the left atrium before flowing into the left ventricle . From the left ventricle the oxygen-rich blood is pumped out via the aorta, and on to the rest of the arteries

The Components of the Circulatory System:

The Components of the Circulatory System 1.) The Heart (the body’s pump) Location = thoracic cavity Weight: (male) 280-340 grams (female) 230-280 grams Size: about the size of your fist Beats 60-80/minute 100,000 times/day 35 million times/year Pumps 5 quarts of blood/min Layers of the Heart Pericardium = loose fitting sac Epicardium = outer layer Myocardium = middle layer Endocardium = inner layer Chambers of the Heart Atrium (Left & Right) Ventricle (Left & Right) Cardiac Activities: Systole = contraction Each time the ventricles contract , blood surges through the arteries with such a force that the walls of the arteries bulge. When arterial pressure is greatest, it is called Systolic Pressure. Diastole = relaxation As the ventricles relax to refill with blood, arterial pressure is at its lowest , it is called Diastolic Pressure.

The Components of the Circulatory System:

2.) The Blood Vessels Capillaries = for diffusion The smallest blood vessels. Some are 50times thinner than a single strand of our hair. The passage of food and oxy - gen from the blood to the body cells. Also pick up the cell’s waste’s products. Veins = transport blood volume reservoirs Vena Cava = major vein The system of capillaries leads into tiny branches of veins called venules. The venules = carry the deoxy- genated blood back to the hear. = Overlap of capillary function The Components of the Circulatory System Blood vessels distribute blood throughout the body. There are over 100,000 miles of blood vessels in our body, divided into arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries = transport and pressure reservoirs Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart Aorta = major artery Pulse rate is calculated by applying pressure on arteries in the body (@ the wrist) Arterioles = smaller arteries that regulate the flow of blood into the capillaries.


Pulse Pulse is one of the vital signs of life. It is a "breath" that is caused by the arteries as they push the blood. The artery expands and contracts in a rhythmic fashion to pump blood through out the body. The pulse rate is an indication that the heart is working and the organism has life. This is the reason pulse rate is also called as heart rate.

The Components of the Circulatory System:

The Components of the Circulatory System 3.) The Blood An average adult contains five to six quarts (roughly 4.7 to 5.7 liters) of blood, which consists of plasma that contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Plasma 55% of the total volume of our blood, (92% water & 8% protein) Carries dissolved nutrients, waste products, & mineral salts, also contains hormones, enzymes & vitamins. The level of salt in plasma is about equal to that of sea water. The Red Blood Cells Also known as the Red Corpuscles or Erythrocytes which consist mainly of hemoglobin, (red oxygen-carrying pigment in RBC) Have a life span of 120 days only About 20-30 trillion of RBC in our body 8 million RBC die every second & are replaced by new ones Red bone marrow manufactures red corpuscles The White Blood Cells Also called Leukocytes , destroy invading disease bacteria They are produced in the Lymph nodes & red bone marrow The ratio of WBC to RBC is 1 to 600 The Platelets 15 trillion in the blood Initiates a chain of reaction that result in the clotting of blood

Blood Typing:

Blood Typing Your body protect itself in another way, with “self markers” at the surface of its cells. These protein markers identify the cells as belonging to you. Your body also produces antibodies, a class of protein molecules that bind to a specific foreign marker and so target its bearer for destruction by the immune system. Bacteria, viruses, anything else that isn’t one of your own normal cells carry foreign markers.

Blood Types:

Blood Types People with one form of marker are said to have type A blood . People with another form have type B blood . People with both forms have type AB blood . People with neither form have type O blood .


If you are Type A , your antibodies ignore A markers but will act against B markers. If you are type B , your antibodies ignore B markers but will act against A markers. If you are type AB , your antibodies ignore both forms of the marker, so you can tolerate donations of type A, type B or AB blood If you are type O , you have antibodies against both forms of the marker, so your options are limited to type O donations.

How you get your Blood Type?:

How you get your Blood Type? Blood Type of Mother Blood Type of Father Genes of Child Blood Type of Child A A AA A A o Ao A A B AB AB B A AB AB B B BB B o A Ao A o B Bo B o o oo O


Individuals with type A blood can receive blood from donors of type A and type O blood. Individuals with type B blood can receive blood from donors of type B and type O blood. Individuals with type AB blood can receive blood from donors of type A, type B, type AB, or type O blood. Type AB blood is referred to as the universal recipient . Individuals with of O blood can receive blood from donors of only type O. Individuals of type A, B, AB and O blood can receive blood from donors of type O blood. Type O blood is called the universal donor . Blood Donation

Healthy Foods for Different Blood Types:

Healthy Foods for Different Blood Types


What happens when blood from incompatible donors and recipients intermingles? In a defensive response called agglutination , antibodies act against the foreign cells and cause them to clump. Unfortunately, these clumps can clog small blood vessels and may lead to tissue damage and death.

The ABO System:

The ABO System The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion. The ABO blood group system is widely credited to have been discovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner , who found three different blood types (A, B, O) in 1900; Decastrello and Sturli discovered the fourth type, AB, in 1902.


Blood types characterize your personality In Japan, Korea and Taiwan, people believe that blood type is predictive of their personality, temperament, and compatibility with others. Blood type is established before you are born, by specific genes inherited from your parents. You receive one gene from your mother and one from your father; these two combine to establish your blood type.

Rh Blood Typing:

Rh incompatibility results when a pregnant mother with a negative blood type is carrying a child with a positive blood type. This can be a serious risk of health to the unborn child, since the mother’s body may react to the child’s blood type by producing antibodies against it. A woman with a positive blood type who has a baby with a negative blood type is not at risk for this condition. Rh Blood Typing Rh blood typing is based on the presence or absence of an Rh marker (so named because it was first identified in blood samples of Rhesus monkeys).

RH Incompatibility:

RH Incompatibility


A woman does not need to carry a baby to term in order to develop incompatibility in future pregnan- cies. If a woman is pregnant and miscarries, she is usually given the same “vaccine” in order not to risk the health of future children. Sometimes, a woman may not know the history of previous children and whether she might have carried a baby that produced Rh incompatibility.


If she has a negative blood type and has had a previous pregnancy with a father whose blood type is not known, the best method of determining the potential presence of the condition is testing the child’s blood type. If the first child has a positive blood type, it can be assumed the woman will develop Rh incompatibility with the next children, if her partner has a positive blood type.


When incompatibility is not addressed, which may be a problem for women who don’t receive prenatal care , the effects on the newborn can be very grave. A child with incompatible blood can be born with brain damage, jaundice, and in more severe cases, born in heart failure. Further, some children die at birth or shortly thereafter when Rh incompatibility is not detected. And yet few people knew it.


When women receive prenatal care, they are almost always blood type tested in order to determine if there is a risk of Rh incompatibility. It used to be standard practice in the US to require a blood test prior to marriage in order to be prepared for babies that might be at risk for this condition.


Few states still make this requirement, but if you are planning on getting pregnant, married or not, you should definitely be sure to have both your and your partner’s blood tested. Again, if the mother has positive blood, there is NO need to test the father.

Human Blood Type Percentage:

Human Blood Type Percentage


The greatest problem with the Rh group is not so much incompatibilities following transfusions (though they can occur) as those between a mother and her developing fetus .  Mother- fetus incompatibility occurs when the mother is Rh- ( dd ) and the father is Rh+ (DD or Dd ).  Maternal antibodies can cross the placenta and destroy fetal red blood cells.  Remember:

History of discovery :

The 2nd century AD, Greek physician, Galen , knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous (dark red) and arterial blood (brighter and thinner), each with distinct and separate functions. In 1242, the Arabian physician, Ibn Al-Nafis , became the first person to accurately describe the process of blood circulation in the human body, particularly pulmonary circulation , for which he is considered the father of circulatory physiology . Contemporary drawings of this process have survived. In 1552, Michael Servetus described the same, and Realdo Colombo proved the concept. History of discovery


Finally William Harvey , a pupil of Hieronymus Fabricius (who had earlier described the valves of the veins without recognizing their function), performed a sequence of experiments and announced in 1628 the discovery of the human circulatory system as his own and published an influential book about it. This work with its essentially correct exposition slowly convinced the medical world. Harvey was not able to identify the capillary system connecting arteries and veins; these were later described by Marcello Malpighi .


The valves of the heart were discovered by a physician of the Hippocratean school around the 4th century BC. However their function was not properly understood then. Because blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look empty. Ancient anatomists assumed they were filled with air and that they were for transport of air. Herophilus distinguished veins from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries themselves. Erasistratus observed that arteries that were cut during life bleed . He ascribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping from an artery is replaced with blood that entered by very small vessels between veins and arteries. Thus he apparently postulated capillaries but with reversed flow of blood.

Discovery of Blood Types:

Discovery of Blood Types In 1901 Karl Landsteiner discovered that when the Blood of one human being was transfused with that of another human being, differences in their Blood might well be the cause of shock, jaundice, and the blood disorder hemoglobinuria that had resulted through earlier Blood transfusions. Landsteiner also classified human Blood into A, B, and O groups and demonstrated that the catastrophe of blood transfusion occur only when a person was transfused with the Blood of a person belonging to a different group. A fourth main Blood type, AB was found in 1902 by A. Decastrello and A. Sturli .

Coronary Artery Surgery:

Coronary Artery Surgery

The Transport System:

The Transport System B. The Immune System

B. Immunology:

B. Immunology Immunology is the study of the strategies and mechanisms that the body uses to rid itself of foreign substances. The immune system is the body’s defence against externally generated diseases, such as bacterial and viral infections, as well as internally generated diseases, like cancer. Immune System Video


Cytokines Binding to specific receptors on target cells, cytokines recruit many other cells and substances to the site of action to help eliminate the unwanted infection. Cytokines also direct cellular traffic and destroy targeted cells.

Organs of the Immune System:

Organs of the Immune System organs of the immune system are stationed throughout the body They are generally referred to as lymphoid organs because they are concerned with the growth, development, and deployment of lymphocytes, (the white cells) that are the key operatives of the immune system.

Organs of the Immune System:

Organs of the Immune System Lymphoid organs include: The bone marrow , The thymus, The spleen, The lymph nodes, The tonsils and adenoids, The appendix, Peyer's patches, The blood and lymphatic vessels

The Bone Marrow:

It is the soft tissue in the hollow center of bones, is the ultimate source of all blood cells, including the immune cells. The Bone Marrow

The Thymus:

It is an organ that lies behind the breastbone; lymphocytes known as T-lymphocytes, or just T-cells, mature there. The Thymus

The Spleen:

The spleen is a flattened organ at the upper left of the abdomen. Like the lymph nodes, the spleen contains specialized compartments where immune cells gather and confront antigens. The Spleen

The Lymph Nodes:

The lymph node is a tinny bean-shaped gland, located in many different areas of the body. The main locations are the neck, under the arm, and in the groin. The body has over 300 filtering selected white blood cells and foreign elements. The lymph node is a component of the lymphatic system. The Lymph Nodes

The Tonsils & Adenoids:

The Tonsils and adenoids are on the body’s first line of defence . They “sample” bacteria and viruses that enter the body through the mouth or nose at the risk of their own infection. The Tonsils & Adenoids

The Appendix:

. The Appendix acts as a safe house for good bacteria, which can be used to effectively reboot the gut following a bout of dysentery or cholera. The inside of the appendix is called the appendiceal lumen . Mucus created by the appendix travels through the appendiceal lumen and empties into the large intestine. The Appendix

The Peyer’s Patches:

They establish their importance in the immune surveillance of the Peyer's patches intestinal lumen and in facilitating the generation of the immune response within the mucosa. They are part of the collection of lymphoid tissues called MALT(mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue). The Peyer’s Patches

The Blood & The Lymphatic Vessels:

The blood and lymphatic vessels that carry lympho- cytes to and from the other structures can also be consi-dered lymphoid organs The Blood & The Lymphatic Vessels

Being Immune:

Being Immune


Comparison Internal Threat: Autoimmune Problem arise from an overactive immune response of the body against its own cells. The immune system mistakes some part of the body as a pathogen and attacks it. External Threat: Allergic Reaction Its overreaction to a harmless substance (an allergen) is called a hypersensitivity reaction, or an allergic reaction. Immune System Underreaction Internal Threat: Cancer Causes mutation of cells as in cancer External Threat: Infection Invasion by and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in a bodily part or tissue, which may produce subsequent tissue injury and progress to overt disease through a variety of cellular or toxic mechanisms. Immune System Overreaction

Immune System Overreaction:

Autoimmune Problem Allergic Reaction Immune System Overreaction

The Acquisition of Immunity:

The Acquisition of Immunity Active Immunity Immunization involves the use of vaccine, substances containing an antigen to which the immune system responds

The Acquisition of Immunity:

The Acquisition of Immunity Passive Immunity Ready antibodies can be taken from a person who recovered from an illness, or passed from mother to baby through placenta (before birth), or in the milk during breast feeding

Types of immunity:

Types of immunity A. Innate Immunity (Non-specific) Barriers non-specifically prevent microbes from entering the body. That is they block all microbes, without distinguishing whether they are harmful or not. It is maintained by interferon, phagocytosis , skin, tears, and sweat, gastric juices, hair, and mucus in the respiratory tract

Types of immunity:

Types of immunity A. Innate Immunity (Non-specific) B. Adaptive or Acquired Immunity (Specific) It is based on production of a different type of antibody against each different type of micro- organism antigen.

Specific Immunity:

Specific Immunity The first cell type that responds to infection is the macrophage , which then activates lymphocytes . It is maintained by two pathways: Humoral immunity Cell mediated immunity Phagocytes & Macrophages


Allergy All allergies can be described as a type of response by the immune system to infection from disease. The symptom of an allergy originate from the activity of antigens and antibodies in the lymphatic system. Allergy


Allergy Antigens react with these antibodies and trigger a sequence of events that produces allergy symptoms.


Allergy Histamine and histamine-like substances are produced, causing the enlargement of capillaries and the contraction of smooth muscle. The enlargement of the capillaries results in a flow of plasma from the blood to the intercellular fluid.


Allergy An allergy is an exaggerated immune response or reaction to substances that are generally not harmful. As a result, allergic symptoms, such as: edema and high fever appear Breathing problems (coughing, shortness of breath) Burning, tearing, and itchy eyes Conjunctivitis Coughing Diarrhea Headache Hives Itchiness (nose, mouth, throat, skin, or any other area) Runny nose Skin rashes Stomach cramps Vomiting Wheezing

Immunologic Tolerance:

Immunologic Tolerance An organism must be able to recognize its own proteins as non–threatening and be able to show immunological tolerance to them. The limits of immunological tolerance are determined towards the end of embryonic development, and stabilize after birth.

Immunologic Tolerance:

Immunologic Tolerance During organ transplantation, tissue compatibility should be determined otherwise the organism will recognize the organ as hostile, and produce antibodies to destroy it, rejecting the transplanted organ.


Vaccines Vaccines sustain active immunity, and their effect is long-term. The age of an individual is important for the success of vaccination, since certain vaccines are more effective and have the least side effects at certain ages. (Example: when a measles vaccine is administered to an infant less than a year old, eclampsia may result; frequent side effects from typhoid vaccine are observed after the age of forty) Schedule of Vaccination


Vaccines Any vaccination should not be given during illness or after surgery. Vaccination have allergic reactions.


Serum The clear yellowish fluid obtained upon separating whole blood into its solid & liquid components after it has been allowed to clot. Blood serum from the tissues of immunized animals, containing proteins, antibodies, water & minerals are used to transfer immunity to another individual.


Serum Immune serum is obtained from an animal that has been infected by a pathogen, when injected into the patient’s body, it confers temporary immunity against antigens. The following are examples of serums currently available: Diphtheria antitoxic serum Scorpion serum Tetanus antitoxic serum Snake serum

The Transport System:

The Transport System C. The Lymphatic System


The lymphatic system consists of: organs, ducts, and nodes. It transports a watery clear fluid called lymph.  This fluid distributes immune cells and other factors throughout the body. It also interacts with the blood circulatory system to drain fluid from cells and tissues.


The Lymphatic System contains immune cells called lymphocytes, which protect the body against antigens (viruses, bacteria, etc.) that invade the body. 

The Functions of the Lymphatic System:

"to collect and return interstitial fluid, including plasma protein to the blood,  and thus help maintain fluid balance ,  to defend the body against disease by producing lymphocytes,  to absorb lipids from the intestine and transport them to the blood ."  The Functions of the Lymphatic System

Lymph organs include::

Lymph organs include: the bone marrow , the lymph nodes , the spleen , and the thymus . Precursor cells in the bone marrow produce lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes (B-cells) mature in the bone marrow. T-lymphocytes (T-cells) mature in the thymus gland.

Lymph nodes::

Lymph nodes :  The lymph node is a tinny bean-shaped gland range in size from a few mm to about 1-2 cm in their normal state, located in many different areas of the body. The main locations are: the neck, the under arms, and in the groin.


The body has over 300 filtering selected white blood cells and foreign elements. Lymph nodes are filters of lymph. Lymph nodes are enlarged when the body is infected due to enhanced production of some cells and division of activated T and B cells.


The spleen contains specialized compartments where immune cells gather and confront antigens. Spleen is a filter of blood. The thymus is an organ where T-lymphocytes mature.


Scripture Read Matthew 9: 18-26


Matthew 9:18-26 Jesus Raises a Dead Girl and Heals a Sick Woman 18 While he was saying this, a synagogue leader came and knelt before him and said, “My daughter has just died. But come and put your hand on her, and she will live.” 19 Jesus got up and went with him, and so did his disciples. 20 Just then a woman who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years came up behind him and touched the edge of his cloak. 21 She said to herself, “If I only touch his cloak, I will be healed.”


22 Jesus turned and saw her. “Take heart, daughter,” he said, “your faith has healed you.” And the woman was healed at that moment. 23 When Jesus entered the synagogue leader’s house and saw the noisy crowd and people playing pipes, 24 he said, “Go away. The girl is not dead but asleep.” But they laughed at him. 25 After the crowd had been put outside, he went in and took the girl by the hand, and she got up. 26 News of this spread through all that region.

Transport System Quiz:

Transport System Quiz Key Test

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