the triangular trade

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Presentation Description

Highlights the trade in slaves during period of slavery in the West Indies. The Middle Passage is the focus.

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The Triangular Trade : 

The Triangular Trade Presenter: M.E. Smith

List of Topics : 

List of Topics Ships Leave Europe for West Africa Manufactures taken as Cargo Arrival on the Coast Negotiations Journey across the Atlantic Arrival in West Indies Journey to Europe

Content : 

Content European participants in the trade sent manufactures: Metal-e.g. firearms, bracelets, pots Textiles-e.g. brightly coloured cotton Miscellaneous-trinkets such as glass beads, bottles of whiskey, books Gifts for the African ruler Ships and cargo in jeopardy from pirates

Content : 

Content Ships arrive on Coast. Captain met by emissary of local Chief Cargo off-loaded Captain taken inland to meet Chief/King Negotiations take place Captain returns to ship to await arrival of desired cargo Chief knows scheduled departure time of ship. Three honks of the horn indicates imminent departure

Content : 

Content Ship travels slowly along Coast, taking on additional cargo Slaves taken on are locked away below deck Very cramped accommodations for human cargo Ships usually overcrowded- usually a fifth more to offset projected loss to death by disease or suicide Slaves forced to lie down Roughly six rows on floor Each slave occupies 6’ by 4” of space on floor Two rows of slaves occupy shelves built off walls above the floor

CONTENT : 

CONTENT Women kept separate from men All males are kept in chains, women are not Space occupied is sanitary convenience as well as sleeping-living quarters Conditions in the Hold/belly of the ship are horrendous The stench from human waste, the heat from human bodies crowded in confined space, the injuries from the iron bracelets and neck-clasps cause some to become ill If weather is good slaves allowed on deck twice daily on some ships. Washed off, fed, allowed to entertain selves and crew Inclement weather, rough seas, pirate attacks mean slaves remain below deck in the abominable conditions Sometimes trap door opens and cold water is dashed down on to the bodies smeared in their own emissions Women in jeopardy of being raped by crew On deck, some slaves throw selves overboard to escape the nightmarish existence Some slaves try to hang selves with chain keeping them bound All the while crew stands guard with firearms Fear of mutiny Slaves sometimes treated as ballast, so thrown overboard to lighten ship e.g. during storm, or during chase by pirate ship Some slaves go on hunger-strike, but metal chisel used to knock front teeth out to facilitate forced-feeding Journey could take six to eight weeks This was the dreaded Middle Passage

Content : 

Content A day or two away from the West Indian port, slaves are washed-males are shaved of all body hair and are oiled to create illusion of robustness, women also oiled to create impression In the port, sale might be conducted as follows: Auction Scramble-dreaded by slaves Standing in their nakedness slaves are examined-poked, fondled, generally treated like farm animals Sale over, the raw materials are loaded on to the ship Casks of rum, hogsheads of raw sugar, casks of molasses Citrus, and other tropical produce included in cargo Ship might stop at North American ports-the thirteen colonies- to take on other raw materials Journey to Europe is completed. Raw sugar is processed to give refined sugar which is exported to the colonies Investors, insurance companies-e.g. Lloyd’s of London- are generally satisfied.

Content : 

Content Wealthy merchants in Europe grow increasingly wealthier Investors in the triangular trade become important men in politics, or important lobby group-the West India Interest a.k.a. West India Lobby Industrial Revolution is being driven in part by raw materials as well as profits from the colonies In the West Indies, slaves continue to experience sub-human standards of existence In some colonies, formal laws govern their day to day existence. In others, viz British, ad hoc laws subject slaves to barbaric forms of punishment The Trade and much of Europe’s vast wealth are grounded in the sweat and blood of the West African men and women

Big Ship Sailing on the Ocean : 

Big Ship Sailing on the Ocean

THE END : 

THE END Thank you for sharing in this exercise. I truly hope the experience was rewarding, even if somewhat distressing.

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