inca rise and fall

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The Inca Empire : 

The Inca Empire

Background : 

Background Empire extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern border of modern Ecuador to Maule River in central Chile Inca originated in village of Paqari-tampu, about 15mi south of Cuzco Official language: Quecha

Slide 3: 

Polytheistic religion pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god combined features of animism & worship of nature gods offered food, clothing, and drink rituals included forms of divination, sacrifice of humans and animals

Important Positions : 

Important Positions Local governors responsible for exacting labor tax which could be paid by service in army, on public works, or in agricultural work Coya carried out important religious duties and governed when Sapa Inca absent Nobles ruled provinces w/ chieftains Inca conquered

Politics and Society : 

Politics and Society forced resettlement ensured political stability officials collected taxes, enforced laws, kept records on a quipu (collection of knotted colored strings) which noted dates, events, population, crops use of road system strictly limited to government, military business all land belonged to Inca, crops allotted to specific groups, government took possession of each harvest private property forbidden, crime nonexistent, citizens never starved no written records; oral tradition preserved through generations

Quipu Knots : 

Quipu Knots

Technological Developments : 

Technological Developments constructed aqueducts, cities, temples, fortresses, rock tunnels, suspension bridges, 2250mi road system metal works of alloy, copper, tin, bronze, silver gold developed important medical practices- surgery on human skull, anesthesia resources-corn, potatoes, coffee, grain created woven baskets, woodwinds

Road Systems of the Incas : 

Road Systems of the Incas Built an all-weather highway system of > 16K miles Ran “through deep valleys and over mountains, through piles of snow, quagmires, living rock, along turbulent rivers; in some places it ran smooth and paved, carefully laid out; in others over sierras, cut through the rock, with walls skirting the rivers, and steps and rests through the snow; everywhere it was clean swept and kept free of rubbish, with lodgings, storehouses, temples to the sun, and posts along the way.” (Ciezo de Leon) Allowed the Inca government to maintain centralized control

Military Expansion : 

Military Expansion attacked, looted villages of neighboring peoples, assessing tribute program of permanent conquest, establishing garrisons among settlements of peoples whom they conquered conquered and assimilated people of Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru

Machu Picchu : 

Machu Picchu The site of Machu Picchu was not discovered by the Spanish during the Conquest. In fact, it wasn't known to the outside world until 1911 when an American Archeologist, Hiram Bingham, made the steep climb to a lofty saddle high above the Urubamba river. The city is clearly laid out in sections. There is a "royal" section where the stone work is the finest, the rooms are largest and running baths are nearby. The bulk of the food for the inhabitants was grown on the agricultural terraces of the city.

Sacred Section : 

Sacred Section There is a sacred section that occupies the highest point within the city proper. In this section are finely constructed buildings, altars, sculptures and the Intiwatana--the sun stone. This was the center of the priestly activities and involved rituals at the winter solstice that "brought back" the sun.

Events leading to Rise and Fall : 

Events leading to Rise and Fall 1438: Manco Capac established capital at Cuzco (Peru) 1400-1500: Pachacuti gained control of Andean population about 12 million people 1525: Emperor Capac died of plague; civil war broke out because no successor named 1532: Spanish arrived - Peru 1535: Empire lost

Francisco Pizarro : 

Francisco Pizarro 1527: Pizarro wanted to discover wealth; embarked on his third voyage to the New World Sept. to Nov. 1532: The Cajamarca massacre- Pizarro led 160 Spaniards to Cuzco, slaughtering over 2,000 Inca and injuring 5,000

Slide 18: 

November 16, 1532: Atahualpa captured by Spaniards, offered gold for his freedom. Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold ($6 million+) baubles, dishes, icons, ornaments, jewelry, & vases, but never released Atahualpa. July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was killed

Inca Traditions Today : 

Inca Traditions Today descendants of Inca are present day Quechua-speaking peasants of Andes, constitute about 45% population of Peru combine farming, herding w/ simple traditional technology rural settlements three kinds: families living in midst of fields, true village communities w/ fields outside of inhabited centers, combination of two towns centers of mestizo (mixed-blood) population Indian community close-knit, families usually intermarrying; much of agricultural work done cooperatively religion is Roman Catholicism infused w/ pagan hierarchy of spirits and deities

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