Authorities 1

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Basic Authorities Workshop: 

Basic Authorities Workshop Martha Hanscom University of Wyoming Nancy Kall Douglas County Libraries

Personal Names : 

Personal Names

Contents: 

Contents Introduction NACO Authority records Cataloging rules Searching Examples Submitting names Practice

Why do Authority Contol?: 

Why do Authority Contol? All works by or about a person should be found together under a standardized name Unique heading as an access point for a bibliographic record References allow searching by variant form

NARs and the NAF: 

NARs and the NAF Name authority record (NAR) shows authorized form and variants LC/NACO Authority File (NAF) includes all NARs

What is NACO?: 

What is NACO? Name Authority Cooperative program A component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) Library of Congress is a member of the PCC NACO partners contribute name authority records to LC database via utilities Records are re-distributed via utilities, etc.

Who is NACO?: 

Who is NACO? Libraries from around the world All different types and sizes of libraries Must apply and be accepted into the program Agree to follow standards Intensive training

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PCC Program Overview

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Authority Record Contribution and Distribution OCLC British Library RLG LC/NACO AUTHORITY FILE (NAF)

Documentation: 

Documentation Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed, revised (AACR2R) Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRI) MARC 21 Authority Format NACO web page

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Authority Records: 

Authority Records

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Variable fields : 

Variable fields 100 Personal name heading 400 See from heading 500 See also from heading 670 Source data found 675 Source data not found

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See reference in card format : 

See reference in card format Di, Lady, 1961-1997 see Diana, Princess of Wales, 1961-1997

See reference (400) in online catalog: 

See reference (400) in online catalog

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Fixed field: 

Fixed field

Fixed field: 

Fixed field

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Differences NARs vs. bibliographic records: 

Differences NARs vs. bibliographic records Some variable fields are used differently use 4XX for variants, NOT series fields use 5XX for linking NARs, NOT as note fields use 6XX as notes and source data, NOT subject fields

Differences NARs vs. bibliographic records: 

Differences NARs vs. bibliographic records Fixed field (008) values are different Subfield $w in authority records is used to denote 'special relationships' in the 4XX or 5XX fields: 4XX $w nne = previous AACR2 heading

Creating Personal Name Authority Records: 

Creating Personal Name Authority Records Choice of name

AACR2 22.1 : 

AACR2 22.1 In general, choose, as the basis of the heading for a person, the name by which he or she is commonly known. This may be the person’s real name, pseudonym, nickname, initials …

Authors: 

Authors Creators of text Artists Music composers Use name found in chief sources of information of works by the author (AACR2 22.1B)

Non-Authors : 

Non-Authors Subjects of biographies Some performers Use reference sources to determine name May use item being cataloged as reference source Generally use fullest form of name found

Which name? : 

Which name? Usually one authority record per person (22.2A) Choose one name for 100 All others in 400s Special rules for pseudonyms (22.2B)

AACR2 22.2 A1: 

AACR2 22.2 A1 If a person is known by more than one name, choose the name by which the person is clearly most commonly known, if there is one. Otherwise, choose one name or form of name based on the following order of preference: the name that appears most frequently in the person’s works the name that appears most frequently in reference sources the latest name

Different Forms of the Same NameAACR2 22.3: 

Different Forms of the Same Name AACR2 22.3 Choose the form found in 80% of the author’s works as the most commonly found form -- LCRI If no commonly found form, choose the fullest form

Which form?: 

Which form?

AACR2 22.4-22.5: 

AACR2 22.4-22.5 Most names: Surname, First Middle See rules for Given name only Surname only Compound surnames Surnames with prefixes Follow person’s preference when known

Additions to names (AACR2 22.17-18): 

Additions to names (AACR2 22.17-18) Add birth and death dates whenever they are known (LCRI 22.17) Add fuller form (in parenthesis) to names that contain initials or abbreviations when the full form is known with certainty (LCRI 22.18A)

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Adding qualifiers: 

Adding qualifiers Base name: Love, J. D. Initials stand for: John David Birth and death dates: 1913-2002 Love, J. D. $q (John David), $d 1913-2002

Adding qualifiers: 

Adding qualifiers Base name: Love, J. Full name: John David Love Dates: 1913-2002 Love, J. $q (John), $d 1913-2002

Conflicts: 

Conflicts Names in the authority file must be unique Add dates and qualifiers to resolve conflicts (AACR2 22.17-22.20)

What is a conflict?: 

What is a conflict? 100s can’t match other 100s 100s can’t match 400s 400s can’t match 400s in the same record But 400s can match 400s in different records 500s must match a 100 in another record

Normalization: 

Normalization These look the same to the computer: 100 1 Smith-Jones, Barb 100 1 Smith Jones, Barb

100s can’t match 400s: 

100s can’t match 400s 100 O’Brien, John 400 O’Brien, Jack 100 O’Brien, Jack 400 O’Brien, J. (Jack) (This is a conflict)

400s may match 400s: 

400s may match 400s 100 Potter, Harold 400 Potter, Harry 100 Potter, Henry 400 Potter, Harry (No conflicts here!)

A 500 MUST match a 100 on another authority record : 

A 500 MUST match a 100 on another authority record

Resolving conflicts: 

Resolving conflicts Do research to find additional information Contact the person Add qualifiers to the name that’s already established to make that one different References (400s) may also need qualifiers Undifferentiated name authority record as last resort

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Resolve conflicts by adding, in order of preference: Full form of initial or abbreviation when known Dates add both a) and b) if known Distinguishing terms: Mrs. Dr. Prof. Ph. D. Rev. Captain Resolving Conflicts (LCRI 22.17-22.20)

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Full forename when forename chosen for the heading is a nickname A 'flourished' date – pre-20th century A century date – pre-20th century Resolving Conflicts (LCRI 22.17-22.20)

Adding qualifiers to break a conflict: 

Adding qualifiers to break a conflict Base name: Love, J. Full name: John David Love 100 1 Love, J. $q (John David)

References: 

References AACR2 Chapter 26

AACR2 Chapter 26: 

AACR2 Chapter 26 Make a see reference from a form of the name of a person … that might reasonably be sought to the form that has been chosen as a name (AACR2 26.1B1) (400s) If the works of one person are entered under two different headings, make a see also reference from each heading to the other (AACR2 26.2C1) (500s) Construct references in the same way that you would construct headings (AACR2 26.1F1)

LCRIs: 

LCRIs Trace a reference from each variant that affects the primary elements of the name. (RI 26.2) Variations in all elements to the left of the comma Compound surnames Prefixes in surnames Variations in the first element to the right of the comma Not middle names

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Notes: 

Notes

670 Source data found: 

670 Source data found Record information found Justify headings and references At least one per record

670 Required Elements(subfield $a): 

670 Required Elements (subfield $a) Title proper of item being cataloged or reference source Date of publication or viewing

670 Required Elements (Subfield $b): 

670 Required Elements (Subfield $b) Location Usage of name being established as found on chief source or in a reference source Other locations and data found

Examples: 

Examples 670 $a Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 2002: $b title screen (Chris Columbus) credits (Christopher Columbus) $a Personal communication from author, Apr. 28, 2006 $b (full name is Harriet Jean Meyer; prefers form H.J. Meyer) 670 $a CoF files, Jan. 21, 2000 $b (Arnold Pettigrew, b. 1867, d. 1945)

OCLC headings and usage: 

OCLC headings and usage 670 $a OCLC, [date of search] $b (hdgs.: [data]; usage: [data]) OCLC database, Apr. 15, 2006 $b (hdgs.: Love, J. D. (John David), 1913- ; Love, J. D., 1913- ; Love, J. David; Love, John David, 1913- ; Love, John David; Love, David; usage: J.D. Love, J. David Love, John David Love, David Love)

Headings: 

Headings 100 1 Love, J. D. $q (John David), $d 1913- 2002 100 1 Love, John David, $d 1913- 100 1 Love, J. David , $d 1913- 700 1 Love, David 600 10 Love, J. D. $q (John David), $d 1913-

Headings: 

Headings

Usage: 

Usage

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675 Source Data Not Found: 

675 Source Data Not Found Field is not repeatable – only one per NAR Subfield $a is repeatable and is the only subfield allowed (never a $b) Example: 675 $a Enc. Brit., 15th ed.; $a WWWest, 1969; $a Dict. Am. Biog., 1957

Functions of the 675 Field: 

Functions of the 675 Field To record bibliographic, and at times non-bibliographic sources (e.g., phone calls, letters) To save other catalogers the time of checking the same source

Changes to records: 

Changes to records

Changing 100s: 

Changing 100s Only for good reasons Name change Author’s personal preference Add death date to name with open birth date Errors

Other changes: 

Other changes Make these changes whenever needed Add references Add new information in notes

Name changes: 

Name changes If a person changes his or her name, the authority record for the person is changed to reflect the new name or latest name (22.2C1) Marriage or divorce Religious or professional reasons Unless person is better known by old name

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Duplicate: When 2 or more NARs exist for for the same person Merge info onto one NAR LC deletes the duplicate NARs Duplicates

Searching: 

Searching

Searching: 

Searching Search NAF, OCLC, other catalogs Search to find: All names the person has used Additional information (dates, full names, etc.) Conflicts – other people with the same name

Searching: 

Searching Search reference sources to find: Additional information about non-authors Additional information to break conflicts

Reference sources: 

Reference sources The item you’re cataloging Biographies, histories, local files Newspapers Websites People The person you’re establishing Library staff, local historians

Record what you find: 

Record what you find The information you use in the authority record must be recorded in a note (670) to justify the heading and references

Basic Authorities Workshop: 

Basic Authorities Workshop Nancy Kall Catalog Librarian Douglas County History Research Center, Douglas County Libraries

Douglas County History Research Center(The Center): 

Douglas County History Research Center (The Center) Collection began in 1992 with the donation of all archival materials of the Douglas County Historical Society Custodian of materials documenting ☺ history of Douglas County ☺ people responsible for its development includes print materials, manuscript collections, photographs, oral histories, maps, aerial photographs, video materials, and more

Topics: 

Topics The importance of authorities to Douglas County Libraries Some examples of creating Colorado personal name authorities Sources of information for historical Colorado personal names Process for submitting Colorado personal names as LC authority candidates

Douglas County LibrariesWhy authorities?: 

Douglas County Libraries Why authorities? Key part of the cataloging of materials for the Douglas County History Research Center Authors Non-authors (i.e. subjects) Involvement with CDP played a role Colorado authors andamp; artists within the library’s collection

Creating Colorado authorities…resolving conflicts: 

Creating Colorado authorities …resolving conflicts

Creating Colorado authorities…resolving conflicts: 

Creating Colorado authorities …resolving conflicts Personal name

Creating Colorado authorities…resolving conflicts: 

Creating Colorado authorities …resolving conflicts

Creating Colorado authorities…resolving conflicts: 

Creating Colorado authorities …resolving conflicts LCRI 22.17-22.20 (Additions to distinguish identical names)

Creating Colorado authorities…existing OCLC headings: 

Creating Colorado authorities …existing OCLC headings Carl W. McWilliams

Creating Colorado authorities…existing OCLC headings: 

Creating Colorado authorities …existing OCLC headings

Creating Colorado authorities…existing OCLC headings: 

Creating Colorado authorities …existing OCLC headings LCRI 22.3A (Existing works/Fullness of name) 80% rule (predominant or most commonly found form) applies here

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person?: 

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person? Robert J. Mutaw

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person?: 

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person? Human auditory ossicle variation and function / ǂc by Robert John Mutaw. Mutaw, Robert John. Mutaw, Robert J. Horsetooth Reservoir north shoreline, cultural resources inventory, Larimer County, Colorado / ǂc written by Robert J. Mutaw … Horsetooth Reservoir pool area, final cultural resources inventory, Larimer County, Colorado / ǂc written by Robert J. Mutaw … Horsetooth Reservoir south shoreline, cultural resources inventory, Larimer County, Colorado / ǂc written by Robert J. Mutaw Human auditory ossicle variation and function [microfilm] / ǂc by Robert John Mutaw.

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person?: 

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person? Question? Is someone who does their Ph.D. thesis on small bones in the human ear cavity the same as a contributing author of works on archaeological surveying? Answer Yes! Confirmed by phone call with author’s wife

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person?: 

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person? LCRI 22.3A (Existing works/Fullness of name) 80% rule doesn’t apply unless you eliminate the microfilm record in the analysis 'Cataloger’s judgment' applied here LCRI 22.4A (Author’s name preference) All published works beyond thesis used form of Robert J. Mutaw

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person?: 

Creating Colorado authorities …the same person? LCRI 22.18A (Fuller forms of name)

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author: 

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author Would-be developer of Roxborough Park. Formed Roxborough Land Company to develop the property into a premier tourist destination. Never materialized. Historic Persse Place in today’s Roxborough State Park

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author: 

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author Grandfather of our subject Existing, related authority record in LC

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author: 

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author Excerpt from Historical interpretation program of the Persse Place of Roxborough State Park (Mitchell)

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author: 

Creating Colorado authorities …non-author LCRI 22.1B 2) (Non-authors)

Sources of information for historical Colorado names(beyond the chief one): 

Sources of information for historical Colorado names (beyond the chief one) History of Colorado, 1918 (Wilbur Fiske Stone, editor) Portrait and biographical record of Denver and vicinity, Colorado, 1898 Available online at http://www.memoriallibrary.com/CO/1898DenverPB Women of consequence : the Colorado women’s hall of fame, 1999 (Varnell)

Sources of information (contd.): 

Sources of information (contd.) Other resources Genealogy databases (ex. Ancestry.com) Cemetery records andamp; other information Colorado USGenWeb Project Archives: available at http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/co/cofiles.htm#cntyindex Find a Grave, available at http://findagrave.org/ ☺And of course, for both current and non-current persons

Sources of information (contd.): 

Sources of information (contd.) Colorado’s Historic Newspaper Collection, available at http://www.cdpheritage.org/collection/chnc.cfm

Sources of information (contd.): 

Sources of information (contd.) Resources for local area (Douglas County) history Fading past : the story of Douglas County, 2001 (Susan Consola Appleby) Douglas County: a historical journey, 1983 (Josephine Lowell Marr) Our heritage: people of Douglas County,1984 (Douglas County Historical Society) Locally compiled lists, etc. (e.g. County marriage licenses) Biography files of Douglas County people Look for sources in your collection that include the history of your area

Verifying information : 

Verifying information …sometimes an art

Confirming information for non-current authors & non-authors:Bailey, Bully, or ???: 

Confirming information for non-current authors andamp; non-authors: Bailey, Bully, or ???

Bailey, Bully, or ???: 

Bailey, Bully, or ??? Bailey (v. 4, p. 381)

Bailey, Bully, or ???: 

Bailey, Bully, or ??? DOUGLAS COUNTY COLORADO MARRIAGE RECORDS BOOK 2 (Copied by Mrs. Donald K. Andersen, 1987) Bully

Bailey, Bully, or Bally?: 

Bailey, Bully, or Bally? Colorado's Historic Newspaper Collection Bally

So Bally it is…: 

So Bally it is… LCRI 26.1-26.2 Constructing references and recording variant forms of names

Lesson: 

Lesson Just because it’s in print (or even online), doesn’t mean it’s always right For non-current non-authors (especially), need to double-check information

NEXT: 

NEXT Exercises How to submit your personal name candidates to include in the LC Authority file Discussion on examples you have brought with you

EXERCISES: 

EXERCISES

Procedure forsubmitting personal name authority candidates: 

Procedure for submitting personal name authority candidates

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McWilliams example… Different headings andamp; usages in OCLC

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Jensen example… Info found andamp; source of info

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Submitting the form Your info

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