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Premium member Presentation Transcript Form and Function of Vertebrates: Form and Function of Vertebrates Section 20-3 Rm 111 @ THS To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize the logo Click anywhere inside the logo. The boxes that appear outside the logo are known as “resize handles.” Use these to resize the object. If you hold down the shift key before using the resize handles, you will maintain the proportions of the object you wish to resize.Diagrams needed in this presentation: Diagrams needed in this presentation Fish circulatory system Frog system Mammalian system Alligator moving vs. mammal moving Video of herbivore chewing, carnivore eating Frog gulping air Bird’s air sacs: diagram in motion People standing in line at Disney world (Pre show issue) Diagram of alveoli Reptile sunning itself on a rock Fish in water under ice: 4 degrees Celsius Etc. Slide3: Alveoli Objectives: Objectives Describe a single-loop circulatory system Describe a Double-loop circulatory system Compare two techniques of body temperature control in vertebratesSupport and Movement: Support and Movement Reptiles: horizontal limbs Mammals: vertical limbsFeeding and Digestion: Feeding and Digestion Carnivores: shorter digestive tract Herbivores: longer digestive tract Why? Plant material takes longer to digest!Respiration: Respiration Gills: fish, larval amphibian Lungs: adult amphibian Air sacs: birds Lung: mammals Bronchi Alveoli What are some structures used for respiration in vertebrates?Most efficient in Birds: Most efficient in BirdsSlide9: People at DisneylandSlide10: birds - air sacsAir Sac: Air SacSlide12: frog gulping air? Internal Transport: Single-loop: Internal Transport: Single-loop Fish two sets of capillaries pressure loss after gills two-chambered heart atrium ventricle less efficientInternal Transport: Double-loop: Internal Transport: Double-loop amphibians: three-chambered heart mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mammals: four-chambered heart two atria, two ventricles no mixing blood to lungs: pulmonary circulation blood to body: systemic circulation Temperature Control: Temperature Control Fishes, amphibians, reptiles Environment used to control temperature Ectotherms Water: a constant temperature environmentSlide17: fish in water Slide18: reptile sunning Temperature Control: Temperature Control Mammals Generate body heat through chemical reactions in body tissues EndothermsExcretion: Excretion Diffusion of ammonia Through gills: fish Through skin: amphibians Kidney Urea: mammals less toxic Uric Acid: birds, reptiles less solubleResponse: Response Cephalization Brain Spinal cord protected: vertebrae Cerebrum an increased size from fish to amphibians to mammalsReproduction: Reproduction Almost always sexual External fertilization in some, e.g Codfish,frogs Internal fertilization in Mammals, birds, reptiles, certain amphibians Trend toward internal fertilizationReproductionThree Strategies : Reproduction Three Strategies Oviparous: (Fish) Eggs laid outside and fertilized – lots of eggs/offspring needed Viviparous: (Mammal) – Few eggs Internal fertilization in Ovoviviparous: (Shark) Trend toward internal fertilizationXerox 20-3: Xerox 20-3 1 D 2 H 3 F 4 E 5 B 6 C 7 I 8 C 9 D 10 E 11 G 12 A 13 F 14 REPTILE 15 VERTICAL 16 SHORTER, LONGERSlide25: 17 ventricle 18 atria ventricals 19 endothremic 20 b e f 21 urea 22 mammals, birds 23 sexually 24 4,1,2,3 mamal, fish, reptile, bird 25 Water does not vary greatly in its temperature. Slide26: frog gulping air? http://www.folkways.si.edu/images/frog-18.jpg birds air sacs motion http://www.csuchico.edu/~pmaslin/fbiol/pics/BrdBrth.GIF People at disney land http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=students.washington.edu/pphan001/travel/disney/waiting.jpg&imgrefurl=http://students.washington.edu/pphan001/travel/disney/&h=373&w=546&prev=/images%3Fq%3Ddisney%2Bland%2Blines%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 Alveoli http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/anatomy/bronchioles/graphics/bronchiole_diagram.gif&imgrefurl=http://info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardAlveoli http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/anatomy/bronchioles/graphics/bronchiole_diagram.gif&imgrefurl=http://info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/anatomy/bronchioles/&h=400&w=760&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dalveoli%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 reptile sunning http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.artofwildlife.com/nilesunsoaker.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.artofwildlife.com/reptiles.html&h=141&w=200&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dreptiles%2Bin%2Bthe%2Bsun%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 io/imaging/anatomy/bronchioles/&h=400&w=760&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dalveoli%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 reptile sunning http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.artofwildlife.com/nilesunsoaker.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.artofwildlife.com/reptiles.html&h=141&w=200&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dreptiles%2Bin%2Bthe%2Bsun%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 fish in water http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.solcomhouse.com/Antarc8.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.solcomhouse.com/Antarctica.htm&h=150&w=226&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dfish%2Bin%2Bice%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8 References - Credits You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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