Home Hort Presentation Seebold Hartman

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Home Fruit & Vegetable Disease Management: 

Home Fruit & Vegetable Disease Management Kenny Seebold and John Hartman, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky presentation also includes information provided by John Strang, Department of Horticulture

Fruit Crops with Reduced Spray Requirements: 

Fruit Crops with Reduced Spray Requirements Fall Bearing Raspberries Blueberries Blackberries Gooseberries Strawberries Some Currants Pawpaws Persimmons Tart Cherries Fruit Crops with High Spray Requirements Apples Grapes Stone Fruits Pears

Blueberry Disease Management: 

Blueberry Disease Management Grow blueberries in acid soil with high organic matter Prune out diseased or dead twigs and branches during dormant season Control weeds to promote rapid drying for less disease Apply wood chip mulch to reduce plant stress Remove overripe and diseased fruit Water as needed to reduce plant stress

Strawberry Disease Management: 

Strawberry Disease Management Crop rotation reduces diseases & insects Use disease resistant varieties Control weeds to promote rapid drying for less disease and to reduce insects & mites Apply straw mulch to reduce fruit decay diseases Remove overripe and diseased fruit Renovate beds after harvest

Disease Management for Brambles: 

Disease Management for Brambles Rotation reduces disease and insect problems Cut and remove old fruiting canes after harvest Control weeds to promote rapid drying and reduce disease problems Keep rows narrow Inspect black raspberries and blackberries when plants are 12-14” tall for orange rust and viruses. Dig out plants if detected. Remove overripe fruit to reduce sap beetles, wasps, fruit flies and fruit rots.

Grape Disease Management: 

Grape Disease Management Use disease tolerant varieties such as Concord Prune to remove diseased vines and to thin out the foliage to promote rapid drying for less disease Pick off from the vines and pick up from the ground fruit mummies left from the previous season Control weeds to promote rapid drying for less disease Remove overripe and diseased fruit Spray grapes with fungicides beginning early in the season

Stone Fruit Disease Management: 

Stone Fruit Disease Management Use disease tolerant varieties Prune out diseased twigs and branches during the dormant season Remove and destroy all plum black knots Prune to thin out foliage to promote rapid drying to reduce disease Remove fruit mummies from the trees Control insects which provide entry for fruit decay diseases Remove overripe and diseased fruit Apply fungicides beginning early in the growing season

Apple Disease Management: 

Apple Disease Management Use disease resistant varieties Prune out diseased twigs and branches during the dormant season Prune to thin out foliage to promote rapid drying to reduce disease Remove fruit mummies from the trees Control insects which provide entry for fruit decay diseases Use fruit bags to protect fruit Remove overripe and diseased fruit Apply fungicides beginning early in the growing season

Disease & Insect Resistance: 

Disease & Insect Resistance Select varieties with disease and insect resistance to reduce spray requirements Apple scab

Scab Resistant Varieties: 

Scab Resistant Varieties AS= apple scab, CR= cedar apple rust, FB =fire blight, PM= powdery mildew

Scab Immune (Insecticide Sprays Only): 

Scab Immune (Insecticide Sprays Only)

Scab Immune (No Sprays): 

Scab Immune (No Sprays) Total yield 6 year-old ‘Liberty’

Bagging Apples, Pears & Grapes: 

Bagging Apples, Pears & Grapes Bags are applied when fruits are less than 1 inch in diameter and removed 2-3 weeks before harvest. An early spray schedule is necessary prior to bagging.

Spraying Home Fruit: 

Spraying Home Fruit Early sprays are the most important Safety & protective clothing Re-Entry Interval after spraying Home orchards exempt from worker protection standards All pesticides have a 12-96 hour REI for commercial growers Suggest that you stay out of sprayed areas for at least 12 hours and until pesticides are dry

Maintain Excellent Early Disease Control Program: 

Maintain Excellent Early Disease Control Program Apple Scab, cedar apple rust, fire blight Stone fruit Peach leaf curl, brown rot, powdery mildew, black knot Grape Anthracnose, black rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew, phomopsis cane and leaf spot Strawberry botrytis

Maintain Excellent Early Insect Control Program: 

Maintain Excellent Early Insect Control Program Dormant oil spray Scale, aphids, mites Apple Rosy apple aphid, tarnished plant bug, plum curculio, codling moth (1st generation) Peach Catfacing bugs, plum curculio, oriental fruit moth Plum Plum curculio

Home Fruit Insecticides: 

Home Fruit Insecticides Conventional Carbaryl (Sevin) Endosulfan (Thiodan) Malathion Organic Azadirachtin (Neem) Bacillius thuringiensis (Bt) Insecticidal soap Pyrethrum Sabadilla Spray oil Surround

Home Fruit Fungicides: 

Home Fruit Fungicides Conventional Captan Chlorothalonil (Daconil 2787) Ferbam (Carbamate) Mancozeb (Dithane) Myclobutanil (Immunox) Thiophanate-Methyl (Topsin M) Organic Bordeaux Mixture Fixed copper (fungicide/bactericide) Liquid Lime Sulfur Wettable Sulfur Streptomycin (bactericide)

Slide19: 

* * * * * (Immunox) (Thiophanate-methyl) * From Commercial Spray Guide = available for home garden use. *

Slide20: 

* * * * * * * * = available for home garden use. From Commercial Spray Guide

Pesticide Formulations: 

Pesticide Formulations Liquid Wettable Powder Dust

Slide22: 

From ID-21

Slide23: 

Sample page from UK ID-21, Home Fruit Spray Guide describing spray timing for selected pests and diseases.

Slide26: 

PHI From ID-21

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Hose end sprayer: 

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Hose end sprayer Inexpensive Easy to operate Not much range

Home Fruit Spray Equipment: 

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Improves spray distance Often runs spray on the operator

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Hand pump sprayers: 

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Hand pump sprayers Relatively inexpensive Reduces spray drift on operator Short range spraying

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Backpack sprayer: 

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Backpack sprayer $100 range Reduces spray drift on operator Improved spray height with spray wand extension

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Battery powered: 

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Battery powered #####

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Backpack mistblower: 

Home Fruit Spray Equipment Backpack mistblower Expensive Heavy Will concentrate spray Difficult to calibrate

Commercial Fruit Air blast sprayer: 

Commercial Fruit Air blast sprayer Don’t plant too many trees! It is difficult to justify this type of sprayer for a home planting.

Home Fruit Spray Pesticide Calculations: 

Home Fruit Spray Pesticide Calculations

UK Home Fruit Resources: 

UK Home Fruit Resources County Extension Offices ANR and Hort. Agents Short Courses, demonstrations, Master Gardener programs Publications Fruit Facts newsletter Video Tapes & DVDs Soil Tests Plant Disease Diagnostic Labs (Lex. & Princeton) Disease, Insect, Weed ID and control Web Resources Hort. Dept. http://www.ukyu.edu/Ag/Horticulture Publications, Power Point presentations, New Crop Opportunities site Garden Data http://www.gardendata.org Apple Alert & Grape Alert Listserves

Managing Disease in Home Vegetable Gardens: 

Managing Disease in Home Vegetable Gardens Causal agent – the pathogen Favorable environment Susceptible host Use an integrated approach that affects one or more of these elements…

Cultural Practices: 

Cultural Practices Sound cultural practices can reduce the occurrence of many diseases in the home garden Site selection Pick a location with good soil and air drainage Avoid shady areas Avoid areas near commercial fields (vegetables AND tobacco) Crop rotation Continuous planting of related crops can lead to the buildup of certain plant pathogens in that area Maintain a 2+ year rotation away from related crops in the same area for best effect Rotation with a non-host crop Deprives pathogen of preferred host(s) Most effective against pathogens with small host range or those that don’t persist for long times in the environment Not as effective against pathogens with multiple hosts Not as effective against pathogens that don’t overwinter Not as effective against pathogens that persist for a long time

Groups of Related Crops: 

Groups of Related Crops Group A watermelon cucumber squash cantaloupe pumpkins gourds Group B cabbage cauliflower broccoli Brussels sprouts mustard turnips collards kale Group C pepper (all) tomato eggplant Irish potato Group D beans (snap, lima, pole) English peas snow peas southern peas Group E beets Swiss chard spinach Group F onions shallots garlic leeks Group G sweet corn

Cultural Practices: 

Cultural Practices Sanitation & Exclusion Pathogen-free seed & transplants Quarantine Chemical treatments Fungicides & bactericides (choices limited) Bleach Hot water treatment

Cultural Practices: 

Cultural Practices Sanitation & Exclusion Wash hands thoroughly before and after working in the garden Sanitize tools & equipment Don’t work plants when foliage is wet Don’t use tobacco products while working in the garden Destroy crop debris Don’t grow vegetable & ornamentals together in greenhouses Staking and trellising Mulches, and physical barriers Use trap crops

Physical barriers: 

Physical barriers Southern blight of tomato

Cultural Practices: 

Cultural Practices Resistant varieties Effective and relatively cheap Can reduce fungicide use as well Information listed in most seed catalogs or on seed packets Resistance doesn’t mean “immunity” Resistance ‘package’ will vary by crop RESISTANCE CODES FOR TOMATOES A=Alternaria (ASC) F=Fusarium wilt L=Septoria leaf spot N=nematode S=Stemphylium (St) TMV=tobacco mosaic virus TSW=tomato spotted wilt V=Verticillium wilt

Cultural Practices: 

Cultural Practices Planting date Follow recommended dates for the vegetables being grown Try to avoid planting when soils are cool (< 60 °F) Plant populations (spacing) Avoid dense plantings to permit air movement within the crop Avoid overlap that can allow disease to ‘jump’ from plant to plant Fertility Adequate fertilizer levels are critical to management of disease Test soils several months before planting to ascertain pH and nutrient levels

Cultural Practices: 

Cultural Practices Control weeds Can harbor a number of insects and pathogens Control insects Transmit several viral and bacterial diseases Irrigation management Don’t over-water Use soaker hoses, trickle irrigation, etc. where possible – this avoids wetting foliage If watering overhead, irrigate early in the day to allow foliage to dry quickly

Spraying Home Vegetables: 

Spraying Home Vegetables As with other practices, don’t rely solely on chemicals to manage disease! Timely applications are critical Apply before symptoms appear OR at first signs Maintain a regular schedule Safety & protective clothing Re-Entry Interval after spraying Home gardens exempt from worker protection standards Suggest that you stay out of sprayed areas for at least 12 hours and until pesticides are dry Choices of active ingredient are limited…

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens Conventional Products: 

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens Conventional Products Captan: broad-spectrum seed treatment (protectant Hi-Yield Captan 50%WP Chlorothalonil: broad-spectrum fungicide (protectant) Bonide Fung-onil Dragon Daconil 2787 Hi-Yield Home and Garden Fungicide Ortho Daconil 2787 Ortho Garden Disease Control Copper compounds*: bactericide / broad-spectrum fungicide (protectant) Acme Bordeaux Mixture Hi-Yield Bordeaux Mixture Bonide Dragoon Dust Dragon Copper Fungicide Hi-Yield Copper Fungicide

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens Conventional Products: 

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens Conventional Products Mancozeb / maneb: broad-spectrum fungicide (protectant) Bonide Mancozeb Flowable Dithane Hi-Yield Maneb Garden Fungicide Sulfur*: powdery mildew / miticide (protectant) Dusting sulfur (various brands) Wettable sulfur (various brands)

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens ‘Soft’ Chemistries / Organic: 

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens ‘Soft’ Chemistries / Organic Bacillus subtilis: broad-spectrum fungicide Serenade Garden Disease Control Bordeaux mixture Botanicals Fungastop: broad spectrum citrus/mint oil Garlic GP Vegetable and Garden spray Neem oil: broad spectrum fungicide / insecticide Garden Defense Multi-Purpose spray Garden Safe Fungicide3 Ferti-lome Rose, Flower, & Vegetable Spray Safer 3-in-1 Garden Spray

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens ‘Soft’ Chemistries / Organic: 

Fungicides for Home Vegetable Gardens ‘Soft’ Chemistries / Organic Copper compounds Potassium bicarbonate: powdery mildew Bi-Carb Old Fashioned Fungicide EcoMate Armicarb “O” GreenCure Organic Fungicide Kaligreen Sulfur*: powdery mildew / miticide (protectant)

Mixing Small Quantities of Pesticides (from ID-128): 

Mixing Small Quantities of Pesticides (from ID-128)

Building an Integrated Disease Management Plan: 

Building an Integrated Disease Management Plan Disease identification – be aware of the signs and symptoms of diseases that affect your crops. Understand how the environment affects disease development in the garden. Be familiar with all the tools at your disposal for disease management. Use a combination of practices that best fit your operation. Be aware that some diseases may be difficult to control despite your best efforts

Home Vegetable Garden Resources: 

Home Vegetable Garden Resources County Extension Offices ANR and Hort. Agents Short Courses, demonstrations, Master Gardener programs Publications Video Tapes & DVDs Soil Tests Plant Disease Diagnostic Labs (Lex. & Princeton) Disease, Insect, Weed ID and control Web Resources KY Pest News http://www.uky.edu/Ag/kpn/kpnhome.htm ID-128 (Home Vegetable Gardening in KY) http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id128/id128.htm Plant Pathology Dept. http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/index.html Hort. Dept. http://www.ukyu.edu/Ag/Horticulture Garden Data http://www.gardendata.org

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