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Deliberation is the soul of Direct Democracy (DD) The design of the Referendum process determines the quality of DD - well designed it helps to contribute to the creation for the EU, what the EU needs most : 

Deliberation is the soul of Direct Democracy (DD) The design of the Referendum process determines the quality of DD - well designed it helps to contribute to the creation for the EU, what the EU needs most Introduction for EU-Democracy Experts in Bern , 21st of September 2006 by Andreas Gross (Switzerland) Director of the Scientific Institute for Direct Democracy in St. Ursanne (JU/CH) and Swiss MP/PACE www.andigross.ch info@andigross.ch

We should overcome the banalisation of the term “Democracy”: 

We should overcome the banalisation of the term “Democracy” Democracy enables us to be free. Freedom enables us to act together on our common life (« Life is not a destiny ») Democracy constitutes the rules, rights and procedures to prevent conflicts to be solved violently Democracy is the only source for legitimate power

We should overcome the banalisation of the term “Constitution”: 

We should overcome the banalisation of the term “Constitution” Treaties and Constitutions have different potentials A constitution is an agreement between citizens how the political system is organised and the political power constituted and shared An agreement has to be made by the people themselves Freedom means to follow only those rules in which’s making processes you participated

Representative democracy is an essential part of Democracy. But it should not have the monopole of D. : 

Representative democracy is an essential part of Democracy. But it should not have the monopole of D. Indirect Democracy enables you to vote your representatives; Direct Democracy enables you to vote on important issues you don’t want to leave to your Representatives

Direct Democracy is about people voting on issues : 

Direct Democracy is about people voting on issues The Right to Vote on important issues contributes to the democratization of democracy and improves the political culture of a country More substance, more alternatives, more differentiation, more deepness, more individual knowledge and more social learning The Referendum (Peoples vote) is just the last stadium of a long process: Decisive is the question: Who may start the process, where,how?

The 3 cornerstones of modern Direct Democracy: 

The 3 cornerstones of modern Direct Democracy Secret vote by ballot-box, mail or internet : No assemblies Some citizens decide when all citizens may decide: No plesbiscites Issues (const./legisl. Reforms): No personal decisions

DD is a set of participatorial citizens rights - much more than just a “referendum”: 

DD is a set of participatorial citizens rights - much more than just a “referendum” Const.Referendum Optional legislat. Referendum Const.pop.Initiative Threaty Referendum General/legislat. Initiative Konstruct.Referendum Financial Referendum Citizen Motion (To the Parliament)

Which are the basic (“principal”)products of Direct Democracy’s best practices? : 

Which are the basic (“principal”)products of Direct Democracy’s best practices? Individual / collective communication&deliberations Power has to be shared Collective learning potentials political openness et legitimate polity Identification with the DD process (« Democratic patriotism »)

Implication of this intended DD-products for the DD-Design: 

Implication of this intended DD-products for the DD-Design Shared power - low sign’requirement activating citiz - low sign’requirement Communication - free sign gathering Deliberation - no antidelib.quorums Cooperation and interaction, no antagonism - you need time / no bypassing of the parliament

Each level requires a specific DD-Design: 

Each level requires a specific DD-Design Communal and regional: Most complete DD-Design National level: General Initiative /Interface ID-DD/Fairness requirem. European level: Qualification/ Agenda / Europ.Vote imposing

The EU-CT-Process 2002/5 suffered from design-deficits: 

The EU-CT-Process 2002/5 suffered from design-deficits It was not a Constitution-Making-Process The Convention was handpicked, govern-mental orientated and authotarianly ruled It lacked time, transparency, public deliberation and participation It was a national reproduction instead of a transnational polity creating effort

Well designed a transnational European DD contributes to create what the EU needs most: 

Well designed a transnational European DD contributes to create what the EU needs most European public spheres Deliberation and collective learning processes Transnational citizen / societal integrations Legitimacy and identification

The EU is more than a big nation’s state: Specific problems for transnational, paneuropean DD building: 

The EU is more than a big nation’s state: Specific problems for transnational, paneuropean DD building many people have a size problem in EUD many are already nat and reg frustrated: They cant imagine a transnational DD Polity We face a structural transformation challenge and a historical innovation The EU is not yet a real federation with clear power sharing procedures The EU is not yet even a parliamentary D Not everybody is a GCC (globally communicate citizen)

Concrete examples for EU-DD-Rights-Design: The Legislative Initiative: 

Concrete examples for EU-DD-Rights-Design: The Legislative Initiative 1 Million of of minimally sign.out 5 nations with at least 10 % each (Passport/ID-Number for Identification) If 5 nations more (minim.10%), 100’000 sign. Less Qualification with 50‘000 sign. Out of at least 5 states with minim.10%

The rights you get from the EU-Com after submission of a Qualification Initiative (QI) : 

The rights you get from the EU-Com after submission of a Qualification Initiative (QI) Translation Voucher (20 lang./ max signs) Website-Building-Support Train&Flight vouchers for public meetings A Howtodo-Handbook with clear Guidelines Commissions offices in the capitals are supposed to support you National papers advertisement voucher

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