Sources How is Commercial Electric Power Generated? : How is Commercial Electric Power Generated? Electricity is Generated by Rotating a Wire Coil or Loop within a Magnetic Field.
Ions are Excited by the Magnetic Field and move from the Field along a Conductor Wire.
This Electron Flow is Called Electricity. Electricity Generation : Electricity Generation Flow of a Fluid (Steam, Water, Air or Other) is used to Rotate a Turbine Shaft.
The Shaft Rotates a Wire Coil located in a Magnetic Field.
Electricity is Generated by the Rotation.
Electricity Moves Out of the Generator along Distribution Wires to the Points of Use. Energy Use Through Time : Energy Use Through Time Earliest Energy Source is Wood. Overuse Led to Extensive Global Deforestation
Second Major Source is Coal, Developed After Industrial Age Began.
Oil and Gas were Developed in the 20th Century as Primary Energy Sources.
Nuclear Power was Developed in the 1960s. Modern Electrical Energy Sources : Modern Electrical Energy Sources Commercial Electric Power is Generated by Many Different Energy Sources.
Primary Sources of Energy are Fossil Hydrocarbons.
Secondary Source is Nuclear Power.
Others Sources are Relatively Minor at present and Available only in Localized Areas. Oil Supply & Demand : Oil Supply & Demand Liquid Petroleum Reserves Oil Shale/Tar Sands Reserves : Oil Shale/Tar Sands Reserves Geologic Sources of Energy : Geologic Sources of Energy *Uranium is Widely Distributed in Low Concentrations with only a few Sources over 1% in Canada and Australia. Nuclear Energy : Nuclear Energy Fuel: Enriched uranium
Fission= Atom splitting that yields energy
Fusion= Energy from fusion of lighter Radioactive Elements (Presently, existing technology does not exist.)
Existing reserves 3.3-5.5 Million tons
Present Use ~ 65,000 tons/year Nuclear Energy : Nuclear Energy Advantages:
No air pollution or greenhouse gases are produced;
Fuel is relatively abundant.
Thorium Alternative to Uranium is available.
Perceived safety problems –
Nuclear accidents like Chernobyl. Uranium mining.
Long-term disposal of radioactive wastes Uranium resources: Energy Technology:Hyperion Nuclear Battery : Energy Technology:Hyperion Nuclear Battery Buried, Replaceable Self-contained Nuclear Power Cell
Provides Power for 20,000 Homes for 25 Years How long will Traditional Fossil fuels last? : How long will Traditional Fossil fuels last? Time = total reserves ÷ consumption rate
Coal: 1,000 billion tons ÷ 5 billion tons/year ………….…………………………...~ 200 years
Oil: (Excludes Shale Oil and Tar Sands)……………………………………………………….…. ~60 years
Natural Gas:………………………………………………………………... ~50+ years
Uranium:…………………………………………………………………… ~ 70+ years Sources: World Energy Review, 2008 BP Statistical Review of Energy
Reserves, see Holland & Petersen, 1995. Non-Traditional Fuel Alternatives : Non-Traditional Fuel Alternatives Algae production research of bio fuels. Microscopic algae produces large amounts of energy. : Algae production research of bio fuels. Microscopic algae produces large amounts of energy. U.S. Biomass Energy Potential : U.S. Biomass Energy Potential THOUSANDS OF TONS PER YEAR High Temperature Geothermal Energy : High Temperature Geothermal Energy Water heated by underground magmatic activity is pumped to surface and used for heating or electricity generation
Steam produced by mixing water and heat runs dynamos Slide 19: Used in Iceland, Italy, California
No greenhouse gases, or air pollution.
Groundwater pollution. Geographically restricted,
High maintenance costs Currently, the United States holds the blue ribbon in the global geothermal race. No other country in the world harnesses as much energy in this method--though some carry a higher percentage of usage. Most of the geothermal energy in the U.S. comes from projects in California. Solar Power : Solar Power Solar = Direct heating or conversion of solar energy to electricity
Expensive (4-5 x cost of Fossil Fuels)
Cloudy days require electrical storage capacity and backup power facilities
Requires large areas for significant power output Solar Power : Solar Power Wind Power : Wind Power Wind = turbines used to generate electricity
Can be decentralized,
Requires extensive storage capacity
Hazard to birds U.S. Wind Power Energy Potential : U.S. Wind Power Energy Potential Hydroelectric Power : Hydroelectric Power Water (Hydro) power
Water power harnesses water currents to drive turbines to generate electrical energy. gets about 4 % of U.S. total energy from this source.
No greenhouse gases, air or water pollution;
Dams have multiple uses
Sediment/Fish Migration/Beach Replenishment Interruption,
Dredging Ocean Energy Sources -I : Ocean Energy Sources -I Tidal/Current Energy Off-shore Tidal Generator Underwater Turbines Ocean Energy Sources - II : Ocean Energy Sources - II Wave Energy Uses Oscillation of water level to move compressed air through turbine to generate electricity
Electricity is then transferred to shore distribution system These pictures are great, mate!
Look at how the motion of the ocean creates energy! Ocean Energy Sources - III : Ocean Energy Sources - III Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) - Applicable w/200 C temperature differential in 1000 meters of water Emission-free Electricity Alternative Use : Emission-free Electricity Alternative Use Emission-free Energy Alternatives are Available for Use.
Localized Use is Common but not Widespread.
Environmental and Aesthetic Concerns are Used to Limit Expansion of Alternatives. Hydrogen Fuel Cells : Hydrogen Fuel Cells Hydrogen gas flows through membrane generating electricity.
Hydrogen then combines with Oxygen to form water as a waste product . Hydrogen gas must be generated from water, natural gas or biomass by use of other power sources.
Power cost to produce hydrogen commercial quantities is higher than value of the gas at present (2009) prices
highly volatile Hydrogen presents explosion hazard.
Hydrogen storage requires strong, heavy, high pressure cryogenic vessels Conclusions : Conclusions 1. World and U.S. economies are heavily dependent on non-renewable, fossil fuel energy
2. Assuming current estimated reserves and consumption rates, there will be significant shortages of some fossil fuels by 2100. Fossil fuels will eventually be used up
3. Fossil fuel consumption is a contributor to rising CO2 and particulate concentrations in the atmosphere
4. Rising CO2 allegedly linked to global warming is produced by present primary energy sources
5. Alternative energy sources are presently not cost-competitive with fossil fuels except in special areas
6. Developing cost-effective alternative energy sources will be necessary to maintain our civilization