waterproperties

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

The Extraordinary Properties of Water :

The Extraordinary Properties of Water

Water:

Water A water molecule (H 2 O), is made up of three atoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen . H H O

Water is Polar:

Water is Polar In each water molecule, the oxygen atom attracts more than its "fair share" of electrons The oxygen end “acts” negative The hydrogen end “acts” positive Causes the water to be POLAR However, Water is neutral (equal number of e- and p+) --- Zero Net Charge

Hydrogen Bonds Exist Between Water Molecules:

Hydrogen Bonds Exist Between Water Molecules Formed between a highly Electronegative atom of a polar molecule and a Hydrogen One hydrogen bond is weak , but many hydrogen bonds are strong

Interaction Between Water Molecules:

Interaction Between Water Molecules Negative Oxygen end of one water molecule is attracted to the Positive Hydrogen end of another water molecule to form a HYDROGEN BOND

Slide6:

What are the Properties of Water?

Properties of Water:

Properties of Water At sea level, pure water boils at 100 °C and freezes at 0 °C . The boiling temperature of water decreases at higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressure). For this reason, an egg will take longer to boil at higher altitudes

Properties of Water:

Properties of Water Cohesion

Properties of Water:

Properties of Water Cohesion Adhesion

Properties of Water:

Properties of Water Cohesion Adhesion High Specific Heat

Properties of Water:

Properties of Water Cohesion Adhesion High Specific Heat High Heat of Vaporization

Properties of Water:

Properties of Water Cohesion Adhesion High Specific Heat High Heat of Vaporization Less Dense as a Solid

Cohesion :

Cohesion Attraction between particles of the same substance ( why water is attracted to itself) Results in Surface tension (a measure of the strength of water’s surface) Produces a surface film on water that allows insects to walk on the surface of water

Cohesion …:

Cohesion … Helps insects walk across water

Adhesion:

Adhesion Attraction between two different substances . Water will make hydrogen bonds with other surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton. Capillary action -water molecules will “tow” each other along when in a thin glass tube. Example: transpiration process which plants and trees remove water from the soil, and paper towels soak up water.

Adhesion Causes Capillary Action:

Adhesion Causes Capillary Action Which gives water the ability to “climb” structures

Adhesion Also Causes Water to …:

Adhesion Also Causes Water to … Form spheres & hold onto plant leaves Attach to a silken spider web

High Specific Heat:

High Specific Heat Amount of heat needed to raise or lower 1g of a substance 1° C . Water resists temperature change , both for heating and cooling. Water can absorb or release large amounts of heat energy with little change in actual temperature.

High Heat of Vaporization:

High Heat of Vaporization Amount of energy to convert 1g or a substance from a liquid to a gas In order for water to evaporate, hydrogen bonds must be broken . As water evaporates , it removes a lot of heat with it.

High Heat of Vaporization:

High Heat of Vaporization Water's heat of vaporization is 540 cal/g. In order for water to evaporate , each gram must GAIN 540 calories (temperature doesn’t change --- 100 o C). As water evaporates , it removes a lot of heat with it (cooling effect) .

Slide21:

Water vapor forms a kind of global ‘‘blanket” which helps to keep the Earth warm . Heat radiated from the sun warmed surface of the earth is absorbed and held by the vapor .

Water is Less Dense as a Solid:

Water is Less Dense as a Solid Ice is less dense as a solid than as a liquid (ice floats) Liquid water has hydrogen bonds that are constantly being broken and reformed. Frozen water forms a crystal-like lattice whereby molecules are set at fixed distances.

Slide23:

Water is Less Dense as a Solid Which is ice and which is water?

Slide24:

Water is Less Dense as a Solid Water Ice

Homeostasis:

Homeostasis Ability to maintain a steady state despite changing conditions Water is important to this process because: a. Makes a good insulator b. Resists temperature change c. Universal solvent d. Coolant e. Ice protects against temperature extremes ( insulates frozen lakes)

Solutions & Suspensions:

Solutions & Suspensions Water is usually part of a mixture . There are two types of mixtures: Solutions Suspensions

Solution:

Solution Ionic compounds disperse as ions in water Evenly distributed SOLUTE Substance that is being dissolved SOLVENT Substance into which the solute dissolves

Solution:

Solution

Suspensions:

Suspensions Substances that don’t dissolve but separate into tiny pieces. Water keeps the pieces suspended so they don’t settle out.

Acids, Bases and pH:

Acids, Bases and pH One water molecule in 550 million naturally dissociates into a Hydrogen Ion (H+) and a Hydroxide Ion (OH-) Hydrogen Ion Hydroxide Ion Acid Base H 2 O  H + + OH -

The pH Scale:

The pH Scale Indicates the concentration of H + ions Ranges from 0 – 14 pH of 7 is neutral pH 0 up to 7 is acid … H + pH above 7 – 14 is b asic… OH - Each pH unit represents a factor of 10X change in concentration pH 3 is 10 x 10 x 10 (1000) stronger than a pH of 6

Acids:

Acids Strong Acids have a pH of 1-3 Produce lots of H + ions

Bases:

Bases Strong Bases have a pH of 11 to 14 Contain lots of OH - ions and fewer H+ ions

Buffers:

Buffers Weak acids or bases that react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH (neutralization). Produced naturally by the body to maintain homeostasis Weak Acid Weak Base

authorStream Live Help