thinking wertheim 14jan05

Category: Education

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Thinking About…: 

Thinking About… Learning in DOD Changing the Culture EBR


Warfare is Becoming Culture Centric Transformation has been interpreted as exclusively technological, but against an enemy who fights unconventionally – as this civil military operations team faced in Afghanistan - it is more important to understand motivation, intent, method and culture than to have a few more meters of precision, knots of speed, or bits of bandwith. MG Robert Scales Jr, US Army (Ret) US Naval Institute Proceedings 10/2004


The Art of War Sun Tzu “Knowing others and knowing oneself, in one hundred battles no danger. Not knowing the other and knowing oneself, one victory for one loss. Not knowing the other and not knowing oneself, in every battle certain defeat.” Social Intelligence Culture-Centric Warfare

Culture-Centric Warfare : 

Culture-Centric Warfare “… the lesson learned [in Somalia] that kept coming out was that we lacked cultural awareness. We needed cultural intelligence going in.” Gen Anthony Zinni (USMC Ret.) National Defense University August 8, 1996

Operational Requirements: 

Operational Requirements ''We need to treat learning knowledge of culture and developing language skills as seriously as we treat learning combat skills: both are needed for success in achieving US political and military objectives." DSB Summer Study 2004


The Challenge for Americans “Americans also need to hear the stories of the people of the Muslim world. We need to understand their challenges and their cultures and their hopes; to speak their languages and read their literature; to know their cultures in the deepest sense. Our interaction must be a conversation, not a monologue. We must reach out and explain, but we must also listen.” Dr. Condoleezza Rice National Security Advisor US Institute of Peace August 8, 2004

U.S. Negotiators Global Report Card: 

U.S. Negotiators Global Report Card Competency Grade Linguistic abilities F Listening D Building solid relationships D Synergistic approach (win-win) D Cultural I.Q. D Adapting the negotiating process to the host country environment D Patience D Using language that is simplistic and accessible C Preparation B- High aspirations B+ Personal integrity A- Adapted from Acuff, F.L., How to Negotiate with Anyone, Anywhere Around the World, New York: AMACOM, 1993.


Context Containment to connectedness Global environment with increasing complexity Higher-stakes uncertainties Changing nature and scope of war - New threats (as we see them) “Primitivism?” - Expanding pre-and-post combat duties Key elements are relevance and competence for the AGE Adjust to scope, pace, intensity, and rate of change Need Continuous Learning Organization Need a new way of thinking about conflict in the 21st century


Think about this… The Game Cold War GWOT Next War Football Soccer Tiddle winks? Poker? Basketball? Force on Force Interwoven They will go for our Defined plays vulnerability Requirements Capabilities Insurance Policy Ed and Train Learn & Think Learning Organization


Need to Redefine Success as Both Winning the War and the Peace War is more than combat and combat is more than shooting Strategic Corporals now need to understand culture and country where they’re operating Successful pre and post conflict activities reduce time frame for winning the peace

What Matters…: 

What Matters… 20th century Industrial Age model Mass production of things and workers Standardization of parts and workers Specialized work force Things matter 21st century Information Age model Customized products and customized work force Adaptive, agile work force People matter


Technology “Smart Weapons” are accurate - NOT smart People Smart weapons can learn and adapt – Suicide bombers are SMART WEAPONS


Important! Our minds are our most important weapons Knowledge is a force multiplier But we still view fighting from the neck down, not from the neck up Grant Hammond


Problem Statement DOD too focused on: Cold War processes & habits Near term Kinetic war Technology Still too: Service-oriented But not yet: Knowing the enemies and their cultures Understanding and speaking foreign languages Building skills, knowledge and abilities needed to win the peace Working well enough cross-service, cross-agency, etc…


Premise: Learning is key to SURVIVAL a STRATEGIC choice a Social Activity If you will learn together, you can work together


Big Questions for the National Security Team What is the work? Who should do the work? What do they need to know to be successful? When and how should they learn it? Whom do we have to be able to work with? What can we shed?


A Way to think about the WORK…. Conflict Pre & Post Conflict Enterprise Operations What are the KSATs needed for each? What is the right balance in terms of time & $$$?


Workforce Players and Stakeholders Military - Active Duty - Reserve - Guard Civil Servants Contractors Political Leadership Other Government Agencies NGOs International Partners


% of DOD Manpower $$$ Spent on E&T National Security Team


Note: You can’t look at Learning Separate from HR Investment in Human Capital.


Challenge for DoD: Education & Training Career Paths Assignments, Promotions Rewards & Incentives To address LEARNING means… …Must be intertwined to form single SYSTEM

What Appear to be Starting Assumptions…: 

What Appear to be Starting Assumptions…


Starting assumptions… Military Personnel System Based on WWII conscription model The task is to put bodies into slots A check-the-box or flow through career path. Short term assignments Emphasis on youth Does this still make sense?


Starting assumptions… Civil Service System Based on a fantasy of fairness, not on performance People hired for a “job,” not a career “Most”-qualified for “job” hired, so training NOT needed Work is rule-based -- just have to follow the rules Civil Servants now appraised on management skills, but not trained, coached or mentored to be good managers. What is wrong with this picture? NSPS…???


Starting assumptions… Contractors Presumed they come with ALL needed skills and knowledge However… They are seen as representing the US May not understand the culture or language they work in Military needs to protect them as if direct employees What are the learning and knowledge requirements we must demand of the contractors?

Human Capital Development and Management : 

Human Capital Development and Management What’s Needed Knowledge Skills Abilities Tools Experience Satisfaction Accountability Good data base Challenges What’s the Right Mix? Learning Content Assignments Incentives and Rewards Processes Structures Resistance to Change


So, How Do We… Develop the skill sets needed to win the Peace? Put the right talent in the right jobs at the right time? Leverage critical learning resources through joint and interagency collaboration? Integrate our learning resources and not sub- optimize?


How Do We… Expand our learning environment? Connect with and learn how to work effectively with the other national security players? Develop leaders with skills relevant to changing needs? Develop leaders and managers who are mentors and coaches?


How Do We… Develop agile educators who will adapt curricula to match evolving needs? Get the DOD schools to collaborate in the development of the necessary new curriculum? Get Lessons Learned rapidly into all schoolhouses?


Industrial Age Information Age Globalization III HOW WILL WE KNOW WHEN LEADERS HAVE SKILLS FOR SUCCESS IN THE UPPER-RIGHT HAND QUADRANT? When their BEHAVIOR demonstrates: Ability to LISTEN Collaboration across organizations Mutual understanding & respect with partners Culture of innovation Understanding of the context Continuous learning Enterprise skills Developing “learning organizations” Understanding the culture they operate in Use of effective metrics for success Leaders developing leaders Globalization II

Things to Consider…: 

Things to Consider…


But First – Things to Remember… Leadership is key Relevance and Competence Implementation - is the really hard part - determines whether public policy is successful - the Devil is in the Detail


Remember… Learning is a Strategic choice Front office function Leadership issue


Andy Marshall Summer Study 2003 Core Habits of Mind for Principled Leadership (as modified) Appreciate variation Be balanced Be well educated in the art of war and peace Be socially / politically / culturally literate Think from multiple perspectives Posses facility for coordinating and integrating and collaborating Be well-schooled in humility Inspire and build trust


Consider… Rethinking how we structure Manpower, Human Capital, HR, Personnel (whatever we call it) TOTAL WORKFORCE as an integrated and interdependent SYSTEM. Realign system components Career Paths Rewards and Incentives Education and Training Assignment, promotion and learning must be joined at the hip to make a difference


Consider… Splitting Strategic Human Capital Learning and Development Assignments – Placement Incentives and rewards Manpower planning Sits at the head table From Administrative Transactions (“out sourced” in much of corporate world ) Pay Health care Retirement Etc…


Consider… Valuing Continuous Learning Investment in time and $$$ Civil Servants trained and appraised to be Leaders / Managers /Mentors / Coaches Focus on working in teams


Consider… A Chief Learning Officer for DOD Acts on behalf of the SecDef Is part of the Senior Strategic Team Develops learning strategy for DOD to support a National Language Strategy. Context – area studies Inter Agency learning Management skills for all – Civil Servants and Military Database of DOD Wide Learning Opportunities


Consider… Establishing Databases across DoD a Learning Database where ALL courses listed and searchable – E-learning and classroom DOD schools Other government agencies Private sector options a People KSAT Database to identify people who have acquired particular skills or mastered a body of knowledge a Jobs Database that links the job to required KSATs

Consider… A Cultural Shift: 

Consider… A Cultural Shift “In order to fight this long war, GEN Abizaid feels that we ought to become as ‘expert’ in the Middle East as we were ‘expert’ in Central Europe for the past 50 years.…we have to educate, train and develop the next generation of leadership to be as familiar and comfortable with this culture, it's threats and opportunities.”

Cultural Shift (cont): 

Cultural Shift (cont) “The near term battle is for linguists, intelligence experts and FAOs. The long term battle is to develop an Officer Corps (and Senior NCO Corps) that is as comfortable and acculturated operating in this region tomorrow, as we were operating in Central Europe yesterday.”


Consider… Strengthening Content Language Training Cultural Intelligence, Social Intelligence, Area Studies Communication Skills – Listening for deep understanding Communicating so the receiver “gets it” Conflict Prevention Stability and Reconstruction Building on the Exec Dev being done by the Services


Consider… National Defense Education Language and Culture Act Use the National Defense Education Act model Fund colleges and universities (in each Congressional district), to develop programs, research and teach … - Languages - Security - Area studies - Stability and Reconstruction - Conflict prevention Create a National Language Reserve Corps Like an insurance policy – there if we need it. Serve all of government Proficiency pay maintained - Spend reserve time in host country WWII Model - Hire linguists (lots) to read papers, internet, watch TV etc…


Consider… Requiring Language Training ROTC (and area studies) The Academies Expand language training for enlisted Incentivize language acquisition and maintenance Increase financial incentives More for the difficult languages Double promotion credits for enlisted to learn foreign languages


Consider… Cultural Awareness for ALL Get us curious about the places we are going and or working on, who are the people, their values and beliefs, their politics etc… What should be offered? History Ethnic structure and identity Religion Values and beliefs Politics & Government Who are the players and how do they interrelate? What are the issues as they see them? Economic structure Infrastructure Popular culture, music, food, sports ?????


Consider… More FAO’s Extend their time of service so we don’t lose all that talent Greatly expand number of career FAO / Civil Affairs specialists


Consider… Annual Course on LISTENING For EVERYONE Listening for DEEP UNDERSTANDING You can’t learn while you are talking Should be a part of a course on communication, listening being the most important part of communications Listening skills rated as a part of appraisal A two-week CCL course for O3 / GS-13 and up


Consider… National Security Inter-Agency Collaborative Learning System Align DOD graduate schools into consortium like California University System Along with State, Treasury, Justice, FBI, DOC, DHS, Intel, etc… National Security University System? where it makes sense. Faculty and students from consortium where it makes sense. Integrate core curriculum. Joint core curriculum, service specific electives.


Consider… Agile Curriculum Design thru Collaboration Design for learning outcomes, not delivery. Capabilities driven Having a reach-back capability to area specialists. Just–In-Time training. Just-in-Time content development. Just-in-Time delivery How to effectively use distance learning. Using Rosetta CDs for language learning.


Consider… Management and Leadership Training for Civil Servants What Do You Want Them to Know? Managing Self Managing Projects Managing People Managing Programs Leading Organizations Look at what the Air Force is doing


Integrity /Honesty Resilience Flexibility Core Leadership Interpersonal Skills Oral Communication Problem Solving Competencies Continual Learning Written Communication Listening Team Building Customer Service Technical Credibility Accountability Decisiveness Influencing / Negotiating Human Resource Management Leveraging Diversity Conflict Management Service Motivation Technology Management Financial Management Creativity & Innovation Partnering Political Savvy External Awareness Vision Strategic Thinking Entrepreneurship Team Leader Project Manager Supervisor Manager Executive Leading Organizations Managing Programs Managing People Managing Projects Managing Self Learning for Results Leadership Journey OPM Chart - modified

Change Analysis: 

Change Analysis Legislation? Rules / regulations? Leadership commitment? Champions? Allies? Opposition?


Factors for Success -- Infrastructure Strategic workforce planning as foundation Competencies as integrating mechanism in all human resource functions Performance systems as reinforcement Incentives Rewards Accountability Horizontal and vertical integration across programs, systems and functions


Common Problems Not involving all the key players Inefficient systems to support process Moving too quickly or without commitment of executive leadership Role transfer of best practices


Common Problems Vague or non-existent organizational strategy Competing priorities Lack of resources and / or expertise Lack of planning and tendency towards reacting Ineffective implementation strategies

Understanding Cultural Elements of Security: Nuance & Complexity: 

Understanding Cultural Elements of Security: Nuance & Complexity Thinking man’s game. Focus is on intellect versus technology. Success lies in: Creating alliances Leveraging non-military advantages Reading intentions Building trust Converting opinions Managing perceptions These tasks demand an exceptional ability to understand ourselves and others’ cultures and motivations. Learning Challenge…Leadership Challenge


Remember… Leadership is key Implementation - is the really hard part - determines whether public policy is successful - the Devil is in the Detail


Language Matters


Culture Matters

We Need MAGIC Support : 

We Need MAGIC Support M - Military A - Academic G - Governmental I - Industry C - Congress Who are these key players?


Consider this… Uncle Sam wants YOU to learn about the WORLD


Join the Posse




It is imperative to change our learning culture to enable us to adapt to the challenges and new tasks we face in the fast changing world.

Leadership Top Five Areas*: 

Leadership Top Five Areas* Success Integrity / Honesty Financial Management Interpersonal Skills Leveraging Diversity Written Communication Needs Improvement Vision Conflict Management Strategic Thinking Team Building Influencing / Negotiating * Data from OPM’s Leadership 360 Assessment OPM Chart


Chart from Ken Kreig

How About …: 

How About … A Performance Learning Model Strategy


How about … Performance Learning Model Strategy Continuous Learning - Valued and Supported by time and $$$ - Leaders / Managers are Mentors & Coaches - Part of Leader/Manager appraisal - Focus on working in teams Skills, Knowledge Development and Delivery - Reach - Capacity - Speed - Learner Centric Network Learning Assets - Resident - edelivery - Local - Reach back - Continuous learning – self paced Participant Providers - DOD schools - Treasury - CIA / Intel - Other universities - State and colleges - Justice


Performance Learning Model Strategy Pillars Training and Education Courses Knowledge Sharing - Between the schools - Lessons Learned from the Field Performance Support - Reach back - Consulting - Rapid Deployment Teams Continuous Learning - Continuous Learning Modules - Conferences and Symposiums


Things to Consider… Learning Credits for Civil Servants Allocate X number of “Learning Credits” per employee. Employee and manager get to choose what courses make sense from DOD Learning Opportunity Database. To provide necessary learning opportunities put BOTH time and dollars into the budget, or it’s just another unfunded mandate.


Things to Consider… Continuing Education Units (CEUs) Professional CEUs Tied into performance appraisals Continuous skill refresh


Things to Consider… Language Learning in DOD Schools Pilot program in the DOD school to teach hard to learn languages ( and cultures) starting in the first grade. DOD controls the DOD schools


So…* There are many challenges on all levels to leading a Revolutions in Military Education The priorities are People first – brilliant teachers, brilliant warriors Ideas second – the software Things third - the hardware Difficult as it may be, the technology is the easy part - the people and the thinking are key * Grant Hammond

Things to Consider…: 

Things to Consider… Trust IT now makes it possible to design systems that can be based on TRUST. Trust now, audit afterwards like the credit card system. Have understood penalties if people lie. This could eliminate many unnecessary steps and speed up the processes.


Things to Consider… New Metrics If learning is the objective, what are possible metrics other than: Time $$$ Degrees… Certificates… What metrics would give insight into actual learning?


Random thoughts Interpersonal Intelligence Learning implies pulling, connecting concepts. Teaching implies pushing. Learning how to work with other people. Blinders. Building bridges

Consider… Nature of War: 

Consider… Nature of War


We Need: A new way of thinking about conflict in the 21st century Warrior Diplomats to transition to win the peace All elements of national power without exporting our peacetime bureaucracy. ???


911 Testimony before the House Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations “Because listening is the most important part of any communication process, the brief we gave to ourselves was a line from the Scottish poet: ‘O would that God the gift might give us, to see ourselves as other see us.” Robert Burns Keith Reinhard President, Business for Diplomatic Action, Inc Chairman, DDB Worldwide August 23, 2004


Consider… The Learning Collaborative In forming a National Security Inter Agency Learning System - Implementation strategy and process will be key to success. This needs to be a collaborative partnership with the other departments and agencies. They must not be made to feel like second class citizens. Style and relationships matter.

What Is Needed to Bring About the Change?: 

What Is Needed to Bring About the Change? Who Needs to Play?


Challenge for DOD: To address LEARNING means that Career Paths - Assignments, Promotions Rewards and Incentives Education and Training MUST be an intertwined single system

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