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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Fuel Cell Electric Aircraft Energy ChallengeNew Era of Aviation: Fuel Cell Electric Aircraft Energy Challenge New Era of Aviation James Dunn Advanced Technology Products Worcester, MA Electric Aircraft Symposium San Fran – May 2007Fuel cells in Aviation : Fuel cells in Aviation Electric UAV’s – Helios-NASA- Aerovironment Auxiliary Power – Boeing APU – Madrid + Electric Airships – HAA – Lockheed Martin Electric Propulsion - Manned aircraft - E-Plane Aerovironment “HELIOS” UAVRegenerative fuel cell system: Aerovironment “HELIOS” UAV Regenerative fuel cell systemHigh Altitude AirshipSolar PV and Fuel Cells: High Altitude Airship Solar PV and Fuel CellsElectric Glider: Electric Glider Fuel Cell Powered GliderPiloted Fuel Cell Aircraft2-place Electric DynAero : Piloted Fuel Cell Aircraft 2-place Electric DynAero Benefits of Electric Aircraft: Benefits of Electric Aircraft Increased Reliability – 1 moving part! Improved Safety QUIET - only propeller noise Improved Comfort and Easy Maintenance No Vibration Reduced life-cycle costs NO EMISSIONS !Why Fuel Cells: Why Fuel Cells High Efficiency – 2.5 X Gasoline Engines (60% vs. 23%) Zero Emissions – Only Water Vapor No odors or fumes Hydrogen Fuel – Sustainable and Renewable High Energy Density – 300 - 600 WH/kg 2-3 X battery density The Energy Challenge !: The Energy Challenge ! Airplane needs 25kW Power @ 100 mph 300 Mi. flight requires 75 kWh of Energy Energy system Weight for 75kWh: - Lead Acid Batteries = 3000 kg - NiMH Batteries = 1500 kg - LiIon Batteries = 600 kg Fuel Cell system (+ 3 kg H2) = 165 kg (Gasoline Equivalent = 100 kg !) Slide10: The Challenge – Matching the energy density of Gasoline and IC Engines? Gasoline =13,200 WH/kg @ 20% effic. Net = 2600 WH/kg Best LiIon Batts = 200 WH/kg Still a 13:1 advantage for Gas!! (H2 = 30,000 WH/kg) Issues – Weight, Volume, HEAT, (+$$)Hurdles & Issues: Hurdles & Issues System Weight – Power Density/Effic. Support Components – Power & Weight Hydrogen Storage/Generation System Heat Transfer methods & HEX System Safety Issues – FAA + Ongoing Customer Acceptance Costly TechnologyHydrogen Sources: Hydrogen Sources H2 Gas - High Pressure Tank – 5000 psi Liquid Hydrogen – Cryo issues Reformed Gasoline – CO, CO2 Methanol/Ethanol – Direct or reformate Ammonia (dissociated) – high yield Sodium borohydride – safe, costly Magnesium Hydride Other ?? Slide13: NASA Fuel Cell Study Elements:Slide14: Selected Aircraft for Conversion AGA Lafayette III All Carbon Kit - 28’ Wing We/Wo = .31 80 hp. Rotax 912 < 12 kW to Cruise Vne of 180+ ktsSlide15: Aircraft Modeling for Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Motor Conversion NASA GRC MCR01 ULM Kit Plane Airbreathing Systems Analysis Office (NASA GRC) Systems Analysis Branch (NASA LaRC)Slide16: MCR01 ULM Fuel Cell Conversion Power Density Technology Sensitivity: PDPMAD = 1.06 kW/kg 800 Further performance gains possible only if PMAD weight is reduced! Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Stack Power Density: 2.50 kW/kg Electric Motor Power Density: 2.30 kW/kg PMAD Power Density: 1.06 kW/kg Range = 336 nm Applied State-of-the-Art Technology Fuel Cell Stack Power Density: 1.57 kW/kg Electric Motor Power Density: 1.35 kW/kg PMAD Power Density: 1.06 kW/kg Range = 58 nm MCR01/Rotax 912 > 800 nm Range 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 PDMotor (kW/kg) PDStack (kW/kg) Gross weight constant at 992 lb limitSlide17: MCR01 ULM Fuel Cell Conversion Power Density Technology Sensitivity: PDPMAD = 2.60 kW/kg 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.3 PDMotor (kW/kg) PDStack (kW/kg) Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Stack Power Density: 2.50 kW/kg Electric Motor Power Density: 2.30 kW/kg PMAD Power Density: 2.60 kW/kg Range = 644 nm Diminishing returns on range – The heavy compressed hydrogen tank limits further gains. Gross weight constant at 992 lb limitProgram Objectives: Program Objectives Demonstrate viability of Fuel Cell powered electric propelled aircraft Determine the optimum energy source Analyze performance parameters & range Design/develop High efficiency H2 PEM fuel cell Integrate all components into Airframe and Test Provide educational vehicle for studentsSlide19: Basic Schematic of Components Students at Oshkosh : Students at Oshkosh Energy Distribution: Energy DistributionBattery + Fuel Cell System Rqmts.: Battery + Fuel Cell System Rqmts. Max Power - Batteries + Fuel Cell 75 kw Bus voltage 270 DC Net Stack power - cont. 17 kw No. of Cells 180 Efficiency 60 % Fuel Cell sys. Wt. (w/sgl.H2 tank) 80 kg Battery + Master Power Xtrol Wt. 50 kg Total Energy System Weight 130 kg Fuel Cell System target weight: Fuel Cell System target weight Stack (10-18kW) 25 kg Blower (Compressor)+ duct 5 kg Misc. BOP, plumbing, sensors 4 kg HEX System w/Radiators 9 kg DC-DC Up-convertor 7 kg Fuel Cell Controller/mon. 5 kg Dynatech Tank/Reg. 18 kg Mounting + Misc. 5 kg TOTAL fuel Cell System Weight 78 kgSlide24: New Lynntech Stack Design Ultrahigh Efficiency (60%) LightWeight – Metal (No Graphite) Bipolar Plates Ambient Air Ops No Compressor No Hydrators Slide25: 10 kW Fuel Cell Stack DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS 180 cells 300 cm2 active area Generation 3 endplates 10.25 kW @ 16 psia 137 V 75 A 50 ˚C 25 kg (hydrated) 400 W/kg (@ 250 mA/cm2) 720 W/kg (@500 mA/cm2) 18KWSpecific Energy Equivalent Total Fuel Cell System: Specific Energy Equivalent Total Fuel Cell System Sgl. Tank - 78 kg System - 1 kg H2 = 24 kWH Net Energy Density = 24/78 = 307 WH/kg Dbl. Tank – 96 kg system – 2 kg H2 = 48 kWH Net Energy Density = 48/96 = 500 WH/kg Slide27: Boeing Fuel Cell Glider Activities System Integration System Lay – out Design Motor and Drive Fuel Cell Systems Compressor Heat exchanger Pumps Controller Battery Controllers and Converters H2 SystemSlide28: Boeing Activities Electrical Subsystem Electrical Subsystem Configuration Power Balance Power Demand Motor & Drive Controllers Converters Power Generation Fuel Cells Battery Ground Auxiliary Power Safety and Flight Testing: Safety and Flight Testing Major concern on all new Aircraft Pilot and Airframe issuesSafety and Flight Testing(Whoops – wrong button !): Safety and Flight Testing (Whoops – wrong button !) Energy System Challenges: Energy System Challenges Energy Density Thermal Management Recharge or Refuel Integration of Solar PV Cost Life ReliabilityTechnology Evolution: Technology Evolution Area Today Future (2020) Motor/Xtrol 2kw/kg 8-10 kw/kg Fuel Cell Sys. 2kw/kg 5-6 kw/kg Fuel/H2 Storage 7% H2 – Wt. 12-15 % Energy Storage 200 WH/kg 5-800 WH/kg Energy Produced 150 kWH 1000 kWH Range 100 Mi 1000 mi.Emerging Energy Solutions: Emerging Energy Solutions Advanced Batteries – Lithium Ion + High Density UltraCaps – EEStor – Other NanoStructured Electrodes – 500-2000 WH/kg High Temp Fuel Cells – Higher power density Advanced H2 Storage – New mat’ls + tanks New Energy Gen. Sources - Many Future Technology Options: Future Technology Options Airframe Weight reduction Improved Airframe/Propulsion Efficiency Energy/Fuel Storage options Higher Energy Density Storage Techs New Designs with integrated storage Improved Solar PV Design - IntegrationFuture Electric PAV ?: Future Electric PAV ?Slide36: CarterCopter Hi-Speed Electric GyroCopter You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.