Haven Briefing

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

VOICE OF THE MIND The Amazing Power of Story (And What It Means to You) A Summary of Recent Research by Kendall Haven Author/Master Storyteller 1155 Hart Lane Fulton, CA 95439 www.KendallHaven.com KendallHaven@sbcglobal.net: 

VOICE OF THE MIND The Amazing Power of Story (And What It Means to You) A Summary of Recent Research by Kendall Haven Author/Master Storyteller 1155 Hart Lane Fulton, CA 95439 www.KendallHaven.com KendallHaven@sbcglobal.net

Person #1: “Where’s John?” Person #2: “Well….I didn’t want to say anything. But I saw a green VW parked in front of Carol’s.” : 

Person #1: “Where’s John?” Person #2: “Well….I didn’t want to say anything. But I saw a green VW parked in front of Carol’s.”

• Did anyone say that there is no connection? • Did anyone say that it makes no sense? NO! Human minds automatically assume a connection and assume it makes sense and use NEURAL STORY MAPS to fill in missing information.: 

• Did anyone say that there is no connection? • Did anyone say that it makes no sense? NO! Human minds automatically assume a connection and assume it makes sense and use NEURAL STORY MAPS to fill in missing information.

Question: Does the form and structure of narrative presentation affect reader/viewer: • Understanding (comprehension), • Ability to create meaning, • Retention (memory & recall) From the scientific information, concepts, and research you describe?: 

Question: Does the form and structure of narrative presentation affect reader/viewer: • Understanding (comprehension), • Ability to create meaning, • Retention (memory & recall) From the scientific information, concepts, and research you describe?

Slide5: 

Not only YES…… But HELL, YES!!!

The Central Thesis: Research clearly shows that STORY architecture: • Provides superior retention (memory and recall) • Provides Improved understanding • Makes readers pay attention more • Enhances the creation of meaning: 

The Central Thesis: Research clearly shows that STORY architecture: • Provides superior retention (memory and recall) • Provides Improved understanding • Makes readers pay attention more • Enhances the creation of meaning

DO STORIES “WORK”? 1. Anecdotal Evidence from 100 storytellers and 1,800 practitioners 2. 300 Qualitative Studies 3. 100 Quantitative Studies All—ALL— come to the same conclusion.: 

DO STORIES “WORK”? 1. Anecdotal Evidence from 100 storytellers and 1,800 practitioners 2. 300 Qualitative Studies 3. 100 Quantitative Studies All—ALL— come to the same conclusion.

The Problems with “STORY” 1. Story misconceptions and myths 2. No one has thought to define “story” from any viewpoint more rational than personal preference.: 

The Problems with “STORY” 1. Story misconceptions and myths 2. No one has thought to define “story” from any viewpoint more rational than personal preference.

Story Myths & Misconceptions Humans create understanding through binary opposites Story versus non-story Became linked with other binary systems: Fiction versus nonfiction Truth versus Lies Real versus Unreal : 

Story Myths & Misconceptions Humans create understanding through binary opposites Story versus non-story Became linked with other binary systems: Fiction versus nonfiction Truth versus Lies Real versus Unreal

Slide10: 

Story Myths & Misconceptions Story = Fiction Story = Lies Story = Untruth The predominate use of stories added more myth. Stories are for children. All stories look like children’s stories.

Story Myths & Misconceptions • Stories are inappropriate for factual & scientific information, for nonfiction reporting. • People won’t believe you if you have to resort to telling stories. • Stories waste time by requiring needless details. • Your arguments must be weak if you have to resort to stories.: 

Story Myths & Misconceptions • Stories are inappropriate for factual & scientific information, for nonfiction reporting. • People won’t believe you if you have to resort to telling stories. • Stories waste time by requiring needless details. • Your arguments must be weak if you have to resort to stories.

These myths and misconceptions persist because we do not insist on a concise and precise definition for STORY: 

These myths and misconceptions persist because we do not insist on a concise and precise definition for STORY

The Goal of Defining STORY: Articulate a specific, concrete story architecture that will improve Reader/Viewer : • Attention to, • Development of meaning and understanding from, • Retention of, • Memory and recall of : 

The Goal of Defining STORY: Articulate a specific, concrete story architecture that will improve Reader/Viewer : • Attention to, • Development of meaning and understanding from, • Retention of, • Memory and recall of Presented concepts, data, arguments and conclusions.

How would you define “story?” What language uniquely identifies story and separates story from other narratives (article, essay, encyclopedia entry, report, memo, directive, recipe, statement of fact, data set, etc.)?: 

How would you define “story?” What language uniquely identifies story and separates story from other narratives (article, essay, encyclopedia entry, report, memo, directive, recipe, statement of fact, data set, etc.)?

What the Dictionary says: Story: A narrative account of a real or imagined event or events.: 

What the Dictionary says: Story: A narrative account of a real or imagined event or events.

HE WENT TO THE STORE.: 

HE WENT TO THE STORE.

The dictionary is wrong! And we are left without an understanding of what a story is or how to use this mighty architecture. : 

The dictionary is wrong! And we are left without an understanding of what a story is or how to use this mighty architecture.

My Methodology:…. Search for a confluence of research about the human brain and mind from the fields of: Neural biology & linguistics Developmental psychology Computer neural net modeling Information Science & knowledge management Cognitive Sciences Education to construct a more accurate and useful definition of STORY.: 

My Methodology:…. Search for a confluence of research about the human brain and mind from the fields of: Neural biology & linguistics Developmental psychology Computer neural net modeling Information Science & knowledge management Cognitive Sciences Education to construct a more accurate and useful definition of STORY.

Brain Anatomy: • The average brain has: 100 billion brain cells that send out 500 trillion axons and dendrites. • 4 weeks after conception, a human embryo produces 500,000 neurons every minute. • During the first two trimesters, neurons begin to stretch tentacles out to each other, establishing synapses at the rate of 2 million a second! • 3 months before birth, a baby’s brain has more neurons than at any other time in its life.: 

Brain Anatomy: • The average brain has: 100 billion brain cells that send out 500 trillion axons and dendrites. • 4 weeks after conception, a human embryo produces 500,000 neurons every minute. • During the first two trimesters, neurons begin to stretch tentacles out to each other, establishing synapses at the rate of 2 million a second! • 3 months before birth, a baby’s brain has more neurons than at any other time in its life.

Brain Monitoring Technology CT (CAT--computerized axial tomography), MRI, fMRI (functional MRI), EEG, PET (positron emission tomography) and OIS (optical imaging of intrinsic signals) track • Real time electrical activity • Blood consumption • Oxygen consumption • Glucose consumption • Metabolic activity • Tiny shifts in brain shape and color • Shifts in the way light is reflected off of the brain: 

Brain Monitoring Technology CT (CAT--computerized axial tomography), MRI, fMRI (functional MRI), EEG, PET (positron emission tomography) and OIS (optical imaging of intrinsic signals) track • Real time electrical activity • Blood consumption • Oxygen consumption • Glucose consumption • Metabolic activity • Tiny shifts in brain shape and color • Shifts in the way light is reflected off of the brain

Your brain is hardwired for stories. Bruner (1998). “Humans have an inherent readiness or predisposition to organize experience into story form: into viewpoints, characters, intentions, sequential plot structures, and the rest.” PINKER (2000). “100,000 years of evolutionary preference for, and reliance on, STORY has built into the human genetic code instructions to wire the brain to think in story terms by birth.” McAdams (1993). “It is because of the narrative nature of human minds at and before birth that we are impelled as adults to make sense of our lives in terms of narrative.” : 

Your brain is hardwired for stories. Bruner (1998). “Humans have an inherent readiness or predisposition to organize experience into story form: into viewpoints, characters, intentions, sequential plot structures, and the rest.” PINKER (2000). “100,000 years of evolutionary preference for, and reliance on, STORY has built into the human genetic code instructions to wire the brain to think in story terms by birth.” McAdams (1993). “It is because of the narrative nature of human minds at and before birth that we are impelled as adults to make sense of our lives in terms of narrative.”

The Brain’s Story Predisposition Is Reinforced and Strengthened as the Brian Develops. Kotulak (1999). “Cells that fire together, wire together.” Applebee (1998). “The child begins quite early to make use of the conventions of story to interpret their direct experiences of the world. Johnson (1993). “Small children first encounter rational explanation in story form.” Ambruster (1997). Research documents that children have more difficulty comprehending expository than story texts. Nelson (2003). “Infants and toddlers use narrative to explain and to create meaning because that’s what parents and their culture do. Kotulak (1999). “Beyond the age of about 12, the brain’s physical, neural ‘maps’ have been made.”: 

The Brain’s Story Predisposition Is Reinforced and Strengthened as the Brian Develops. Kotulak (1999). “Cells that fire together, wire together.” Applebee (1998). “The child begins quite early to make use of the conventions of story to interpret their direct experiences of the world. Johnson (1993). “Small children first encounter rational explanation in story form.” Ambruster (1997). Research documents that children have more difficulty comprehending expository than story texts. Nelson (2003). “Infants and toddlers use narrative to explain and to create meaning because that’s what parents and their culture do. Kotulak (1999). “Beyond the age of about 12, the brain’s physical, neural ‘maps’ have been made.”

SUMMARY: The human brain is predisposed to think in story terms. This predisposition is continuously reinforced and strengthened as the brain develops up through age 12. Adults arrive dependent on interpreting events and other human’s behavior through a specific story architecture.: 

SUMMARY: The human brain is predisposed to think in story terms. This predisposition is continuously reinforced and strengthened as the brain develops up through age 12. Adults arrive dependent on interpreting events and other human’s behavior through a specific story architecture.

The Mind is what the brain does.: 

The Mind is what the brain does.

HUMAN MINDS: Assume inputs make sense. Assume rational behavior. Assume connections. Expect to work with partial information. Use existing neural maps and banks of experience to identify and to fill in missing information. In order to create context and relevance. : 

HUMAN MINDS: Assume inputs make sense. Assume rational behavior. Assume connections. Expect to work with partial information. Use existing neural maps and banks of experience to identify and to fill in missing information. In order to create context and relevance.

Research confirms: Without established context and relevance, the human mind is unlikely to remember new information, and is even less likely to ever recall it.: 

Research confirms: Without established context and relevance, the human mind is unlikely to remember new information, and is even less likely to ever recall it.

EXAMPLES: “Where’s John?” “Well….I didn’t want to say anything. But I saw a green VW parked in front of Carol’s.” “Hi, Ken.” “No! I’m not Ken. I’m not here. I’m not here!”: 

EXAMPLES: “Where’s John?” “Well….I didn’t want to say anything. But I saw a green VW parked in front of Carol’s.” “Hi, Ken.” “No! I’m not Ken. I’m not here. I’m not here!”

What Maps? The story frameworks and the story maps you were born using and developed through childhood. : 

What Maps? The story frameworks and the story maps you were born using and developed through childhood.

Examples: You see a woman slumped on a bench crying, dress smeared with grass and dirt… and assume there is a logical reason for it, that something happened to her (in the recent past) to make her cry. You see a man chasing a dog…. and assume the man wants to catch the dog and that the dog has done something to deserve the man’s pursuit. You see a black rock against white snow… and assume even lighting. You see black and white dots on a screen… and mentally assume it’s a 3-dimensional reality : 

Examples: You see a woman slumped on a bench crying, dress smeared with grass and dirt… and assume there is a logical reason for it, that something happened to her (in the recent past) to make her cry. You see a man chasing a dog…. and assume the man wants to catch the dog and that the dog has done something to deserve the man’s pursuit. You see a black rock against white snow… and assume even lighting. You see black and white dots on a screen… and mentally assume it’s a 3-dimensional reality

Humans use mental maps (cheat sheets) to process incomplete sensory input and to combine our interpretation of that input with existing banks of experience to make it make sense. What mental maps, schema, systems, and cheat sheets do human adults poses to interpret human behavior and temporal input? Story architecture!: 

Humans use mental maps (cheat sheets) to process incomplete sensory input and to combine our interpretation of that input with existing banks of experience to make it make sense. What mental maps, schema, systems, and cheat sheets do human adults poses to interpret human behavior and temporal input? Story architecture!

what Information? 1. Character and enough information about the character to relate to that character 2. Intent (goal and motive) 3. Actions 4. Sensory details #1 & 4 activate your experiential memory banks #2 & 3 activate neural maps: 

what Information? 1. Character and enough information about the character to relate to that character 2. Intent (goal and motive) 3. Actions 4. Sensory details #1 & 4 activate your experiential memory banks #2 & 3 activate neural maps

MIND MECHANISMS Human minds use a number of specific mechanisms to accomplish this. Metaphor/Parable Correlation/Prior Knowledge/Pattern matching Inference/Elaboration Mapping/Schema Cheat Sheets/Framing Language (& Grammar) Relevance/Context/Empathy : 

MIND MECHANISMS Human minds use a number of specific mechanisms to accomplish this. Metaphor/Parable Correlation/Prior Knowledge/Pattern matching Inference/Elaboration Mapping/Schema Cheat Sheets/Framing Language (& Grammar) Relevance/Context/Empathy

Metaphor/Parable Pinker (1997). “Mental metaphors form Rules of Thumb. Events are explained as an agent exerting force and will to overcome resistance.” Lakoff and Johnson (2003). “Argument is war. Argument is a dance. Argument is a fight. Argument is a gift of energy and idea.” The metaphor you choose defines how you create meaning and how you understand the world. Example: AFFECTION IS WARMTH. “He’s a warm person.” “She’s cold.” “She’s like ice today.” Built from infancy experience of being held (affection) and warmth of physical human body. : 

Metaphor/Parable Pinker (1997). “Mental metaphors form Rules of Thumb. Events are explained as an agent exerting force and will to overcome resistance.” Lakoff and Johnson (2003). “Argument is war. Argument is a dance. Argument is a fight. Argument is a gift of energy and idea.” The metaphor you choose defines how you create meaning and how you understand the world. Example: AFFECTION IS WARMTH. “He’s a warm person.” “She’s cold.” “She’s like ice today.” Built from infancy experience of being held (affection) and warmth of physical human body.

Correlation & Prior Knowledge Bransford (1993). An example of the value of prior knowledge to use for elaboration and the subsequent value of elaboration to memory. Consider the following sentences: John walked on the roof. Bill picked up the eggs. Pete hid the ax. Jim flew the kite. Frank built the boat. Harvey flipped the electric switch. Ted wrote the play. : 

Correlation & Prior Knowledge Bransford (1993). An example of the value of prior knowledge to use for elaboration and the subsequent value of elaboration to memory. Consider the following sentences: John walked on the roof. Bill picked up the eggs. Pete hid the ax. Jim flew the kite. Frank built the boat. Harvey flipped the electric switch. Ted wrote the play.

How many can you remember? Who build the boat? Who flew the kite? Etc.? You understood the sentences, but have no context or relevance for them and so weren’t able to remember them.: 

How many can you remember? Who build the boat? Who flew the kite? Etc.? You understood the sentences, but have no context or relevance for them and so weren’t able to remember them.

Now lets shift the character to invoke prior knowledge to aid in your understanding (creating meaning) and memory. Santa Clause walked on the roof. The Easter Bunny picked up the eggs. George Washington hid the ax. Benjamin Franklin flew the kite. Noah built the boat. Thomas Edison flipped the electric switch. William Shakespeare wrote the play. : 

Now lets shift the character to invoke prior knowledge to aid in your understanding (creating meaning) and memory. Santa Clause walked on the roof. The Easter Bunny picked up the eggs. George Washington hid the ax. Benjamin Franklin flew the kite. Noah built the boat. Thomas Edison flipped the electric switch. William Shakespeare wrote the play.

Another example: Bransford (1993). Compare how you understand and remember these two paragraphs: Paragraph #1 A thirsty ant went to the river. He was carried away by the rush of the stream and was about to drown. A dove, sitting in a tree overhanging the water, plucked a leaf. The leaf fell into the stream close to the ant and the ant climbed onto it. The ant floated safely to the bank. Shortly after, a birdcatcher came and laid a trap in the tree. The ant bit and stung him on the foot. In pain, the birdcatcher threw down his trap. The noise made the dove fly away. : 

Another example: Bransford (1993). Compare how you understand and remember these two paragraphs: Paragraph #1 A thirsty ant went to the river. He was carried away by the rush of the stream and was about to drown. A dove, sitting in a tree overhanging the water, plucked a leaf. The leaf fell into the stream close to the ant and the ant climbed onto it. The ant floated safely to the bank. Shortly after, a birdcatcher came and laid a trap in the tree. The ant bit and stung him on the foot. In pain, the birdcatcher threw down his trap. The noise made the dove fly away.

Now compare with paragraph #2. Pete argued that data gathered from a NASA voyage to Venus called into question current theories about the formation of our solar system. Part of his talk emphasized the importance of mass spectrometers. He then discussed the isotopes of argon 36 and argon 38 and noted that they were of higher density than expected. He also cited the high values of neon found in the atmosphere. He has a paper that is already written, but he was aware of the need for further investigation as well. Cooper (1997). “Many studies have shown that prior knowledge greatly influences comprehension & memory.” : 

Now compare with paragraph #2. Pete argued that data gathered from a NASA voyage to Venus called into question current theories about the formation of our solar system. Part of his talk emphasized the importance of mass spectrometers. He then discussed the isotopes of argon 36 and argon 38 and noted that they were of higher density than expected. He also cited the high values of neon found in the atmosphere. He has a paper that is already written, but he was aware of the need for further investigation as well. Cooper (1997). “Many studies have shown that prior knowledge greatly influences comprehension & memory.”

Inference/Elaboration Bransford (1998). “If you know a lot about a topic, it is much easier to elaborate on, and to create meaning from, the information and remember what you have read or heard.” Bransford (1998). “When a topic is unfamiliar to readers/listeners, research shows that the natural tendency is to use familiar story structure with character goal, motive, and struggles to elaborate on available information and to provide mapping structures to bring prior knowledge and experience to bear on the interpretation of current input.”: 

Inference/Elaboration Bransford (1998). “If you know a lot about a topic, it is much easier to elaborate on, and to create meaning from, the information and remember what you have read or heard.” Bransford (1998). “When a topic is unfamiliar to readers/listeners, research shows that the natural tendency is to use familiar story structure with character goal, motive, and struggles to elaborate on available information and to provide mapping structures to bring prior knowledge and experience to bear on the interpretation of current input.”

Story Elements (Causality/Agent/Intent/Conflicts/Details/Actions) 1. Goal: Bransford (1993). He offers this paragraph: Sally let loose a team of gophers. The plan backfired when a dog chased them away. She then threw a party but the guests failed to bring their motorcycles. Furthermore, her stereo system was not loud enough. Sally spent the next day looking for a “Peeping Tom” but was unable to find one in the Yellow Pages. Obscene phone calls gave her some hope until the number was changed. It was the installation of a blinking neon light across the street that finally did the trick. Sally framed the ad from the classified section and now has it hanging on her wall.: 

Story Elements (Causality/Agent/Intent/Conflicts/Details/Actions) 1. Goal: Bransford (1993). He offers this paragraph: Sally let loose a team of gophers. The plan backfired when a dog chased them away. She then threw a party but the guests failed to bring their motorcycles. Furthermore, her stereo system was not loud enough. Sally spent the next day looking for a “Peeping Tom” but was unable to find one in the Yellow Pages. Obscene phone calls gave her some hope until the number was changed. It was the installation of a blinking neon light across the street that finally did the trick. Sally framed the ad from the classified section and now has it hanging on her wall.

Let’s add goal and motive (intent): Sally hates the woman who moved in next door and wants to drive her out. Now reread the paragraph and see if your mind doesn’t conjure images and sequences that make sense to you. Sally let loose a team of gophers. The plan backfired when a dog chased them away. She then threw a party but the guests failed to bring their motorcycles. Furthermore, her stereo system was not loud enough. Sally spent the next day looking for a “Peeping Tom” but was unable to find one in the Yellow Pages. Obscene phone calls gave her some hope until the number was changed. It was the installation of a blinking neon light across the street that finally did the trick. Sally framed the ad from the classified section and now has it hanging on her wall. : 

Let’s add goal and motive (intent): Sally hates the woman who moved in next door and wants to drive her out. Now reread the paragraph and see if your mind doesn’t conjure images and sequences that make sense to you. Sally let loose a team of gophers. The plan backfired when a dog chased them away. She then threw a party but the guests failed to bring their motorcycles. Furthermore, her stereo system was not loud enough. Sally spent the next day looking for a “Peeping Tom” but was unable to find one in the Yellow Pages. Obscene phone calls gave her some hope until the number was changed. It was the installation of a blinking neon light across the street that finally did the trick. Sally framed the ad from the classified section and now has it hanging on her wall.

Human minds automatically seek (or create) key story elements. Pinker (1997). Here is the gist of a movie: A protagonist strives to attain a goal. An antagonist interferes. Thanks to a helper, the protagonist finally succeeds. This movie….stars are three dots. One dot moves some distance up an inclined line, back down, and up again, almost reaching the top. Another abruptly collides with it, and it moves back down. A third gently touches it and moves together with it to the top of the incline. All observers see the first dot as trying to reach the top, the second as hindering it, and the third as helping it to reach its goal. : 

Human minds automatically seek (or create) key story elements. Pinker (1997). Here is the gist of a movie: A protagonist strives to attain a goal. An antagonist interferes. Thanks to a helper, the protagonist finally succeeds. This movie….stars are three dots. One dot moves some distance up an inclined line, back down, and up again, almost reaching the top. Another abruptly collides with it, and it moves back down. A third gently touches it and moves together with it to the top of the incline. All observers see the first dot as trying to reach the top, the second as hindering it, and the third as helping it to reach its goal.

Another Example: Bransford (1993). Intent (goal & motive) create the mental frame that creates meaning and relevance. Read once and try to remember: The fat one bought the padlock. The skinny one purchased the scissors. The toothless one plugged in the cord. The barefoot one climbed the steps. The bald one cut out the coupon. The blind one closed the bag. : 

Another Example: Bransford (1993). Intent (goal & motive) create the mental frame that creates meaning and relevance. Read once and try to remember: The fat one bought the padlock. The skinny one purchased the scissors. The toothless one plugged in the cord. The barefoot one climbed the steps. The bald one cut out the coupon. The blind one closed the bag.

Do you remember which one purchased scissors? Which cut out a coupon? Which one climbed steps? Etc. Etc. Probably not. Now reread with the addition of a stated (or implied) goal. The fat one bought the padlock to place on the refrigerator door. The skinny one purchased the scissors to use when taking in her pants. The toothless one plugged in the cord to the food blender. The barefoot one climbed the steps leading to the vat of grapes. The bald one cut out the coupon for a hair restoration clinic. The blind one closed the bag after feeding her seeing-eye dog. Intent (goal & motive) creates context, meaning, relevance and memory.: 

Do you remember which one purchased scissors? Which cut out a coupon? Which one climbed steps? Etc. Etc. Probably not. Now reread with the addition of a stated (or implied) goal. The fat one bought the padlock to place on the refrigerator door. The skinny one purchased the scissors to use when taking in her pants. The toothless one plugged in the cord to the food blender. The barefoot one climbed the steps leading to the vat of grapes. The bald one cut out the coupon for a hair restoration clinic. The blind one closed the bag after feeding her seeing-eye dog. Intent (goal & motive) creates context, meaning, relevance and memory.

Fact Is Made Relevant by Turning It into STORY. Turner (1996). “Science writings imply (bury) most of the key story elements. Make those explicit and information turns into STORY!” EXAMPLE: Mother pours milk into a glass. (an event) Unstated: goal/motive/resolution/obstacles Make those explicit: Mother has been crippled by a stroke. Left side paralyzed. Fights to regain use of left hand and arm. Obstacles: grip, gravity, slips, spills, missing the glass, overfilling the glass, embarrassment, etc. This is the first time she has tried a complex action with her left hand. She is determined to pour the milk to prove that she can.... Now its a STORY!: 

Fact Is Made Relevant by Turning It into STORY. Turner (1996). “Science writings imply (bury) most of the key story elements. Make those explicit and information turns into STORY!” EXAMPLE: Mother pours milk into a glass. (an event) Unstated: goal/motive/resolution/obstacles Make those explicit: Mother has been crippled by a stroke. Left side paralyzed. Fights to regain use of left hand and arm. Obstacles: grip, gravity, slips, spills, missing the glass, overfilling the glass, embarrassment, etc. This is the first time she has tried a complex action with her left hand. She is determined to pour the milk to prove that she can.... Now its a STORY!

A summary of how the mind works. Human minds work with narrative input through simple sequential questions: 1. Should I pay attention? 2. How can I interpret and understand what I received? 3. What of my experience and prior knowledge applies here? 4. So, what does this mean to me? (Can I place it within a context and create relevance?) 5. File to memory.: 

A summary of how the mind works. Human minds work with narrative input through simple sequential questions: 1. Should I pay attention? 2. How can I interpret and understand what I received? 3. What of my experience and prior knowledge applies here? 4. So, what does this mean to me? (Can I place it within a context and create relevance?) 5. File to memory.

The Elements of Story From this combined research we can identify eight specific elements that define successful stories.: 

The Elements of Story From this combined research we can identify eight specific elements that define successful stories.

THE EIGHT ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS Of Every Story/Narrative 1. Who is the MAIN CHARACTER? 2. What CHARACTER TRAITS make them interesting and relevant? 3. What do the character need to do or get (GOAL)? 4. Why is that goal important (MOTIVE)? 5. What CONFLICTS/PROBLEMS block the character? 6. How do they create RISK & DANGER? 7. What does the character do (STRUGGLES) to reach the goal? 8. What sensory DETAILS will make the story seem Real? : 

THE EIGHT ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS Of Every Story/Narrative 1. Who is the MAIN CHARACTER? 2. What CHARACTER TRAITS make them interesting and relevant? 3. What do the character need to do or get (GOAL)? 4. Why is that goal important (MOTIVE)? 5. What CONFLICTS/PROBLEMS block the character? 6. How do they create RISK & DANGER? 7. What does the character do (STRUGGLES) to reach the goal? 8. What sensory DETAILS will make the story seem Real?

A BETTER DEFINITION. What we really mean by the word STORY: A character-based narrative account of a character’s struggles to overcome obstacles and reach a defined and important goal presented in sufficient detail to make the story real, vivid, and memorable. Short Version: Characters at war.: 

A BETTER DEFINITION. What we really mean by the word STORY: A character-based narrative account of a character’s struggles to overcome obstacles and reach a defined and important goal presented in sufficient detail to make the story real, vivid, and memorable. Short Version: Characters at war.

What the definition means: A word on FICTION and NONFICTION. We associate NONFICTION with Reality, Truth, Facts FICTION with False, Made-Up, Lies, Stories BUT: 1. Mental processes that create MEANING and UNDERSTANDING fictionalize. 2. Mental acts of INTERPRETING and REMEMBERING fictionalize. 3. The writing process automatically fictionalizes. : 

What the definition means: A word on FICTION and NONFICTION. We associate NONFICTION with Reality, Truth, Facts FICTION with False, Made-Up, Lies, Stories BUT: 1. Mental processes that create MEANING and UNDERSTANDING fictionalize. 2. Mental acts of INTERPRETING and REMEMBERING fictionalize. 3. The writing process automatically fictionalizes.

The REAL difference between “Fiction” and “Nonfiction”: “ Fiction Presents Fiction (Stories) About Events That Haven’t Happened Yet…. “Nonfiction Present Fictionalized Stories About Events That Have.” : 

The REAL difference between “Fiction” and “Nonfiction”: “ Fiction Presents Fiction (Stories) About Events That Haven’t Happened Yet…. “Nonfiction Present Fictionalized Stories About Events That Have.”

APPLYING THE DEFINITION to SCIENCE OUTREACH WRITING Goal: adapt story elements and architecture to increase attention, retention, memory, meaning, understanding, accuracy, and recall. : 

APPLYING THE DEFINITION to SCIENCE OUTREACH WRITING Goal: adapt story elements and architecture to increase attention, retention, memory, meaning, understanding, accuracy, and recall.

It’s information you want to communicate. But it’s story that creates context and relevance for that information and makes it memorable. It’s accomplishment you want to communicate. But it’s obstacles and struggle that create the story. It’s the concepts you want to present. But stories are always about character. : 

It’s information you want to communicate. But it’s story that creates context and relevance for that information and makes it memorable. It’s accomplishment you want to communicate. But it’s obstacles and struggle that create the story. It’s the concepts you want to present. But stories are always about character.

Story Concept: Create… 1. A Character with whom the audience can relate (peer, decision maker, customer, etc.) 2. A Goal that you want the audience to adopt (themes and teaching points) 3. A Dilemma the concept you want to promote (conflict—internal or external or struggle) Examples: Burger King Girl, Denning Story: 

Story Concept: Create… 1. A Character with whom the audience can relate (peer, decision maker, customer, etc.) 2. A Goal that you want the audience to adopt (themes and teaching points) 3. A Dilemma the concept you want to promote (conflict—internal or external or struggle) Examples: Burger King Girl, Denning Story

APPLYING THE DEFINITION TO SCIENTIFIC OUTREACH WRITING • “Family” stories—the science problem • Story Architecture—the science outreach answer • Put a face on it (left implicit in family stories) • Create context, empathy, and relevance through character • Provide explicit goal & motive (left implicit in family stories) • Help reader create meaning and understanding—write to their existing mental maps, cheat sheets, and knowledge base • Sensory details of scenes, events, human reaction/interaction activate reader mental maps and experiential banks to create relevance, context, and empathy.: 

APPLYING THE DEFINITION TO SCIENTIFIC OUTREACH WRITING • “Family” stories—the science problem • Story Architecture—the science outreach answer • Put a face on it (left implicit in family stories) • Create context, empathy, and relevance through character • Provide explicit goal & motive (left implicit in family stories) • Help reader create meaning and understanding—write to their existing mental maps, cheat sheets, and knowledge base • Sensory details of scenes, events, human reaction/interaction activate reader mental maps and experiential banks to create relevance, context, and empathy.

authorStream Live Help