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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Solar Voltaic Energy: Solar Voltaic Energy Outline: Outline Overview of Solar Power How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work How Solar PV Cells are Made Solar PV Applications Efficiencies Economics Facts & Trends ResearchSolar Power Overview: Solar Power OverviewSlide4: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Sun_w920607.jpgPV Solar Radiation: PV Solar Radiation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsPhoton Energy: Photon EnergyLight & the Photovoltaic Effect: Light & the Photovoltaic Effect Certain semiconductor materials absorb certain wavelengths The shorter the wavelength the greater the energy Ultraviolet light has more energy than infrared light Crystalline silicon Utilizes all the visible spectrum plus some infrared radiation Heat vs. electrical energy Light frequencies that is too high or too low for the semiconductor to absorb turn into heat energy instead of electrical energyHow PV Cells Work: How PV Cells WorkSlide9: Florida Solar Energy CenterCross Section of PV Cell: Cross Section of PV Cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsHow Solar Cells are Made: How Solar Cells are MadeSolar Cell Construction: Solar Cell Construction Materials Crystalline Silicon Gallium Arsenide (more expensive) Grown into large single-crystal ingots Sawed into thin wafers 2 wafers are bonded together (p-n junction) Wafers grouped into panels or arrays http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panelCreating Silicon Wafers: Creating Silicon WafersGrowing Silicon Ingots: Growing Silicon Ingots http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czochralski_process Czochralski ProcessDrawing a Silicon Ingot: Drawing a Silicon Ingot http://www.answers.com/topic/siliconSilicon Ingots & Wafers: Silicon Ingots & Wafers http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/products2.htmlCreating PV Cells: Creating PV CellsComputer Chips on Wafer: Computer Chips on Wafer http://d0server1.fnal.gov/projects/silicon/www/svxwafer.jpegSilicon Solar Cell: Silicon Solar Cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Solar_cell.pngSlide20: Florida Solar Energy Center PV Cells have efficiencies approaching 21.5%Solar Modules and Arrays: Solar Modules and ArraysSolar PV Systems: Solar PV Systems Cells are the building block of PV systems Typically generate 1.5 - 3 watts of power Modules or panels are made up of multiple cells Arrays are made up of multiple modules A typical array costs about $5 – $6/watt Still need lots of other components to make this work Typical systems cost about $8/wattSlide23: Florida Solar Energy CenterSlide24: Florida Solar Energy Center PV Modules have efficiencies approaching 17%Slide25: Florida Solar Energy CenterSolar Panel: Solar Panel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel Solar panel by BP Solar at a German autobahn bridgeSlide27: Florida Solar Energy CenterSlide28: Florida Solar Energy CenterSlide29: Florida Solar Energy CenterSlide30: Florida Solar Energy CenterSolar PV Applications: Solar PV ApplicationsSpacecraft: SpacecraftRecreational Use (Sailboat): Recreational Use (Sailboat)Remote Areas (Mexico): Remote Areas (Mexico) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel A solar panel in Marla, Cirque de Mafate, Réunion Residential: Residential http://www.californiasolarco.com/photos_html/grid_tied/rootop_system/nevada-city-2-4.htmlCommercial: Commercial http://www.c-a-b.org.uk/projects/tech1.htm Solar Centre at Baglan Energy Park in South Wales Solar PV Efficiency: Solar PV EfficiencySolar Cell Efficiencies: Solar Cell Efficiencies Typical module efficiencies ~12% Screen printed multi-crystalline solar cells Efficiency range is 6-30% 6% for amorphous silicon-based PV cells 20% for best commercial cells 30% for multi-junction research cells Typical power of 120W / m2 Mar/Sep equinox in full sun at equator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsSolar Panel Efficiency: Solar Panel Efficiency ~1 kW/m2 reaches the ground (sunny day) ~20% efficiency 200W/m2 electricity Daylight & weather in northern latitudes 100 W/m2 in winter; 250 W/m2 in summer Or 20 to 50 W/m2 from solar cells Value of electricity generated at $0.08/kWh $0.10 / m2 / day OR $83,000 km2 / day http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panelSolar PV Facts & Trends: Solar PV Facts & TrendsWorld Largest PV Solar Plants:  World Largest PV Solar Plants http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panelWorld Solar Power Production: World Solar Power Production http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panelSolar Cell Production Volume: Solar Cell Production Volume http://sharp-world.com/solar/generation/images/graph_2004.gif Sharp CorporationSolar PV Cell Research: Solar PV Cell ResearchSolar PV Components: Solar PV Components Inverter Converts DC power from solar array to AC for use in your home Wiring Connects the system components Batteries Used to store solar-produced electricity for nighttime or emergency use Mainly used for remote sites that aren’t tied into the electrical grid Charge controller Prevents batteries from being over charged Disconnect switches Allows power from a PV system to be turned off Electrical meter Measures electrical production and use Often runs backward if system is attached to the electrical grid Total system cost = ~$8.00 / wattStand Alone Solar PV System: Stand Alone Solar PV SystemGrid Connected Solar PV System: Grid Connected Solar PV SystemConnecting PV to the Grid: Connecting PV to the GridNet Metering: Net Metering When your system produces more electricity than your home uses electricity flows backward out to the grid Meter runs backward and you get credit for the electricity you sell to the utility Slide50: Florida Solar Energy CenterSlide51: Florida Solar Energy CenterSiting & Designing Solar PV : Siting & Designing Solar PV Solar PV Dependencies: Solar PV Dependencies Location, Location, Location ! Latitude Lower latitudes better than higher latitudes Weather Clear sunny skies better than cloudy skies Temperature not important Direction solar arrays face South preferred, east and west acceptable Absence of shade Trees, Flatirons, etc.Solar PV Design – Key Factors: Solar PV Design – Key Factors Location How much solar radiation does the system receive? DC rating How big is the systemSolar PV Design – Module: Solar PV Design – Module Module Efficiency How efficiently does the solar system convert solar radiation into DC power Best retail systems approaching 17% Holy Grail of solar PV research DC to AC derate factor How efficient is the system converting DC to AC powerSolar PV Array Design: Solar PV Array Design Array Flat Panel Remains in a constant fixed position Array tilt (equal to latitude best) Increase solar radiation by 10-20% compared to 0% tilt Sunnier locations benefit more Array azimuth (180° best) Directly southSolar PV Array Tracking: Solar PV Array Tracking Array 1-axis tracking Tracks sun across the sky during each day Stays at a constant tilt Increase solar radiation by 25-30% compared to no tracking Sunnier locations benefit more Array 2-axis tracking Tracks sun across the sky during each day Adjusts tilt – more in winter, less in summer Increase solar radiation by 33-38% Sunnier locations benefit morePV Design Website: PV Design Website National Renewable Energy Lab PVWATTS http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/ Examples Portland (97229) Phoenix (85034) Boulder (80309)Solar PV Economics: Solar PV EconomicsSolar PV Energy Payback: Solar PV Energy Payback Expected lifetime of 40 years Payback of 1-30 years Typically < 5 years Solar cells 6-30× energy required to make them http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsCost Analysis: Cost Analysis US retail module price = ~$5.00 / W (2005) Installations costs = ~$3.50 / W (2005) Cost for a 4 kW system = ~$17,000 (2006) Without subsidies Typical payback period is ~24 years Honda 4 kW system = ~$12,500 (2007) With subsidies Payback is ~12 years http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsEconomic Example 1/3: Economic Example 1/3 4000 watt system @ 40o fixed tilt $32,000 initial cost 4000 watt (4 kW) system is about 23.5 m2 Assume 5.5 kWh / m2/day 23.5 x 5.5 = 129.25 DC kWh/day hitting the solar modulesEconomic Example 2/3: Economic Example 2/3 Module Efficiency = 17% 129.25 kWh/day x 0.17 = 21.97 DC kWh/day Derate factor – 77% Takes into account inefficiencies in the DC/AC conversion and internal module components 21.97 DC kWh/day x 0.77 = 16.92 AC kWh/day Output = ~17 kWh / dayEconomic Example 3/3: Economic Example 3/3 Pay $32,000, save $555/year 16.92 kWh/day x $0.09/kWh x 365 days/year 1.7% return Over 20 years @ 6% Cost of Energy = $0.452/kWh Compared to $0.09/kWh from Xcel EXPENSIVE!Solar PV Policy: Solar PV PolicyCO Amend. 37 Solar Provision: CO Amend. 37 Solar Provision $4.50 rebate/watt up to 10 kW Combination rebate/REC for larger systems REC = “Renewable Energy Credits” Funded by a $0.63/month surcharge on all Xcel customer bills $20 million/year program for 10 yearsCO Amend. 37 Solar Provision: CO Amend. 37 Solar Provision On-site solar requirement 2007 – 2010: 0.06% of a retail electricity sales 2011 – 2014: 0.12% of a retail electricity sales 2015 – On: 0.2% of a retail electricity sales Focus on Xcel 44,000 kW of on-site solar by 2015 1500 to 2000 new on-site solar installations Depending on average size $352 million in PV solar installation sales $200 million in rebatesFederal Tax Credit: Federal Tax Credit 30% tax credit Max of $2,000 for residential installations No maximum for businessesCO Cost Analysis: CO Cost Analysis 4,000 watt system $32,000 initial cost $18,000 Amendment 37 rebate 4000 x $4.50 $2,000 Federal Tax Credit ($32,000 - $18,000) x 0.30 = $4,200 However, maximum of $2,000 After rebate/tax credit cost $32,000 - $18,000 - $2,000 = $12,000Return on Investment: Return on Investment For $12,000 you can save $555/year 4.6% return Over 20 years @ 6% Cost of Energy = $0.169/kWh Compared to $0.09/kWh from Xcel Still EXPENSIVE! – $$$ Solar PV Cell Research: Solar PV Cell ResearchEmerging PV Techologies: Emerging PV Techologies Cells made from gallium arsenide molecular beam epitaxy 35% efficiencies have been achieved Non-silicon panels using carbon nanotubes Quantum dots embedded in special plastics May achieve 30% efficiencies in time Polymer (organic plastics) solar cells Suffer rapid degradation to date http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsThin Film Solar Cells: Thin Film Solar Cells Use less than 1% of silicon required for wafers Silicon vapor deposited on a glass substrate Amorphous crystalline structure Many small crystals vs. one large crystal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cellsSlide74: Florida Solar Energy CenterFlexible PV Cells : Flexible PV Cells http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/SolarCells/potential%20images/flexible_pv_cell.jpgSlide76: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.pngBenefits/Costs of Solar PV: Benefits/Costs of Solar PV Reduces pollution Stabilizes electricity costs Lessens dependence on fossil fuels Increases self-reliance Can size for small, on-site installations Not grid dependent Currently expensive $$$$$Solar Thermal Energy: Solar Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Collectors: Solar Thermal Collectors Focus the sun to create to create heat Boil water Heat liquid metals Use heated fluid to turn a turbine Generate electricitySolar Thermal Dish Collector: Solar Thermal Dish Collector http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarthermal/solarthermal.htmlSolar Thermal Dish Schematic: Solar Thermal Dish SchematicSolar Power Towers: Solar Power Towers http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/re-kiosk/solar/solar-thermal/case-studies/central-receiver.shtmlSolar Trough Scheme: Solar Trough Scheme http://solarbridge.org/pedestrians.htmlParabolic Trough Cross-Section: Parabolic Trough Cross-Section http://www.irishsolar.com/howdoes/how_does_1.htmSolar Thermal Collector Trends: Solar Thermal Collector Trends http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarthermal/solarthermal.htmlNext week:Geothermal Energy: Next week: Geothermal Energy You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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