Kashmir Fact Sheet: Kashmir Fact Sheet Developed by US India Relations War Against Terrorism: War Against Terrorism The central issue in the world today is terrorism
The reason India is threatening military action against Pakistan is terrorism.
Pakistan has been a state sponsor of terrorism! Therefore, it is terrorism we want to talk about.
Demographics: Demographics 150 million Moslems live in India and 140 million Moslems live in Pakistan.
1947: 40% of Pakistan was Non-Moslems. Today ONLY 3 % are left while the world has looked the other way.
1947: 25% of India was Moslem. Despite millions of Moslems migrating to Pakistan, TODAY 18% of Indians are Moslems. This shows that the Moslem population is reaching pre-partition demographics in India. Pakistan’s Role in Terrorism: Pakistan’s Role in Terrorism December 1999: George Tenet, Director of CIA and Michael Sheen, State Department Coordinator for Counter Terrorism Michael Sheen testified before a Senate
Sub-Committee that US intelligence has sufficient evidence that Pakistan is a state-sponsor of terrorism against India
Pakistan & Terrorism: Pakistan & Terrorism In 2000, the State Dept's report on terrorism described Pak's official involvement in terrorism against India.
But fell short of adding Pak to list of countries sponsoring terrorism because that would have triggered severe sanctions against an old cold-war ally. Pakistan & Terrorism: Pakistan & Terrorism Year 2000: a bipartisan congressional commission on terrorism recommended to the State Dept that sanctions be imposed on Pakistan for sponsoring terrorism.
Spring 2001 The British put Pakistani organizations openly engaged in terrorism on their official list of terrorist organizations. Pakistan is a State Sponsor of Terrorism: Pakistan is a State Sponsor of Terrorism November 2001: According to Benazir Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan:
Non-Kashmiris engaged in killings in India are terrorists.
Pakistani intelligence agency (ISI) is a force onto itself and she had no knowledge of what ISI was doing, let alone controlling it as prime minister. Pakistan and Terrorism: Pakistan and Terrorism Our own American Taliban, John Walker, has admitted to fighting in Kashmir.
This could not have happened without the help of ISI, which created and nurtured the Taliban. Robert Blackwill: US Ambassador to India: Robert Blackwill: US Ambassador to India Nov. 21, 2001 New Delhi
stated in a press conference for foreign media that “all persons involved in killings in Kashmir were terrorists and that they were no freedom fighters.” Ethnic Cleansing of Hindus in Kashmir: Ethnic Cleansing of Hindus in Kashmir Pakistani government’s direct aiding and abetting of terrorism in Kashmir has resulted in:
50,000 Hindus killed and 500,000 Hindus have fled Kashmir in terror.
The world has been mostly silent about this ethnic cleansing of Hindus from Kashmir. Atrocities in Bangladesh Against Hindu Minorities: Atrocities in Bangladesh Against Hindu Minorities The world is also silent about ethnic cleansing of Hindus from Bangladesh.
Amnesty International releases have shared the horrible atrocities committed against Hindu women. Musharraf: Musharraf Nov 1999: Shut down a Pak commando unit being trained by CIA to go after Bin Laden.
Dec 2001: Musharraf was warned by US to distance himself from an organization the US was about to add to its terrorist list.
Dec 2001: Sent airplanes and helicopters to rescue Pak army regulars who were fighting US coalition Recent Documents have Revealed: Recent Documents have Revealed 1948: US Secretary of State Gen. George C. Marshall told the British that Kashmir's accession with India was legal and final as far as US was concerned.
Therefore the inaccurate US stance of “Kashmir being a disputed territory” is very disturbing to India while it has further emboldened the position of Islamic militants. THE ROOT CAUSE OF THE CRISIS IN KASHMIR: THE ROOT CAUSE OF THE CRISIS IN KASHMIR Is a struggle between two conflicting value systems.
1) To India just like the US it is secularism with a peaceful co-existence of multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious populations that is the most important issue.
2) To Pakistan and to fundamentalist Moslems it is to validate the two nation theory that Moslems form a separate nation and cannot and should not be allowed to co-exist with other religions. 1947: Result of this Dichotomy: 1947: Result of this Dichotomy One section of Muslims led by Jinnah and his Muslim League Party demanded and agitated for a separate country.
Another section of Muslims (secular-minded) firmly believed in India’s secular policy and opposed partitioning India on the basis of religion. They chose to remain in India after India achieved its independence from the British.
Important to clarify: Important to clarify There were two categories of pre-partitioned India
1) British India that was partitioned based on religion
2) Princely States where the ruler had full autonomy to join India OR Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession OR remain independent.
1947: India: 1947: India When the British left, the 584 princely states, constituting 45% of undivided India became sovereign entities with 3 options:
1) Join Secular India
2) Join Moslem Pakistan
National Conference Party: National Conference Party Was the largest political party of Kashmir with a preponderance of Moslems with Hindus and Buddhists as members under the leadership of a Moslem Sheikh Abdullah.
This party had consistently since the 1930’s expressed opposition to the two nation theory and in 1947 urged that Kashmir join secular India. Sheikh Abdullah: 1947 : Sheikh Abdullah: 1947 Like many other secular-minded Moslems
who did not believe in two-nation theory, insisted on joining a secular India so that Kashmir would remain secular and multi-ethnic.
To India Kashmir was essential to its secular national project from the start. To lose Kashmir to Pakistan would be to lose India’s mantle as a secular, multiethnic democracy.
Further more: Further more The religious composition of the Princely States was not relevant at the time per British policy. Pakistan, which harps on self- determination, did not ascertain the will of the people of the princely states that acceded to it in 1947. PAKISTAN Invaded Kashmir: PAKISTAN Invaded Kashmir October 22, 1947
Commanded by General Akbar Khan, who later became the Chief of Pakistan’s army.
Entire villages e.g. Baramula, Rajouri and Poonch were destroyed by the Pakistani army while committing murder, rape and plunder.
Pakistan attacked Baramula in Kashmir: Pakistan attacked Baramula in Kashmir October 1947
Killing 7,000 in a town of 10,000 people
Especially brutal to Sikhs, whom the Pakistani army labeled as "Ball Walle Kafir", the non-believer with hair.
Even hospitals and both hindu and sikh temples were destroyed.
Ruler of Kashmir appealed to India for help: Ruler of Kashmir appealed to India for help Why?
Because Kashmir’s small state army was no match for the Pakistani army. Instrument of Accession to India was signed : Instrument of Accession to India was signed October 1947: Lord Mountbatten, the Governor General of India accepted the Kashmiri ruler’s request to join the Indian Union
A legal document called the Instrument of Accession was signed between India and the Kashmiri ruler.
This same document was also signed by the other 584 princely states.
Kashmir is saved from Pakistani invasion: Kashmir is saved from Pakistani invasion October 1947: Lord Mountbatten asked India to send its troops to save Kashmir from Pakistani aggression.
These troops were were sent with the enthusiastic consent of Sheikh Abdullah per Lord Mountbatten’s diaries. Sheikh Abdullah: Sheikh Abdullah October 1947: Kashmir's popular Moslem leader Sheikh Abdullah supported Kashmir’s accession to India
Of interest: Earlier Sheikh Abdullah had demonstrated against the Kashmiri ruler for greater democracy & civil rights.
Now: Sheikh Abdullah expressed the sentiments of the majority of Kashmiri people in a famous speech.
A key point of Sheikh Abdullah’s speech: A key point of Sheikh Abdullah’s speech "We the people of Jammu and Kashmir, have thrown our lot with the Indian people, not in a heat of passion or a moment of despair, but by a deliberate choice.”
Sheikh Abdullah: October 1947
First Muslim leader of Kashmir was appointed by India: First Muslim leader of Kashmir was appointed by India October 31, 1947: Sheikh Abdullah a Moslem was appointed Head of the Kashmir Emergency Administration and them the first Prime Minister of Kashmir. His was the first people's popular government in Kashmir.
And for 90% of the time since 1947 Kashmir has been ruled by the National Conference Party of Sheikh Abdullah and always headed by a Moslem.
Pakistan’s pattern of aggression: Pakistan’s pattern of aggression Initially Pakistan denied having sent troops into Kashmir in October 1947
Subsequently this fact was admitted by its leaders and army officers.
United Nations: Jan 1, 1948 : United Nations: Jan 1, 1948 India complained to the UN so as to get Pakistan declared as an invader and seek liberation of the Pakistan occupied territory of Kashmir.
This Pakistani tactic of aggression has been a consistent Pakistani pattern in 1947, 1948, 1965, 1971 and most recently in 1999 in Kargil. Noteworthy : Noteworthy Despite military superiority even in 1947 India did not want to use force to vacate the Indian territory in Kashmir occupied by Pakistan.
Instead India turned to the UN. If India had believed in a military solution on Kashmir, it could have done so both in 1965 and 1971 when India's military superiority was undisputed.
The United Nations Security Council: The United Nations Security Council UN avoided taking sides between India and Pakistan & did not even question the legality of Kashmir's accession to India.
Doing such would be like questioning the legality of the very partition of British India into India and Pakistan.
United Nations Appointed a Commission: 1948 : United Nations Appointed a Commission: 1948 Under Charter 6: to mediate between India and Pakistan
UN stated the issue is for India and Pakistan to resolve & these resolutions are NOT a directive, only recommendations.
Four UN resolutions were issued on April 21 1948, August 13 1948, Jan. 5 1949 and March 14 1950. UN Resolution: Jan 5, 1949: UN Resolution: Jan 5, 1949 Called for three actions in this sequential order
(1) First, Pakistan must withdraw all its troops from the Kashmir portion occupied by it.
(2) Next India should withdraw bulk of its troops RETAINING those required for law and order; all those who had left Kashmir (on both sides) as refugees should be allowed to return.
(3) AND ONLY THEREAFTER ascertain the wishes of the Kashmiri people in both portions of Kashmir under UN supervision.
The UN Resolution: The UN Resolution
Pakistan has NOT implemented the first of the three actions outlined by the UN resolution.
2 Questions?: 2 Questions? 1) Is Pakistan willing to implement step one even now by withdrawing its military from the portion of Kashmir it has occupied by aggression in 1947?
2) If refugees are allowed to return would that include the Kashmiri Pandits? Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK): Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK) lacks all democratic institutions. A minister is appointed for "Azad Kashmir" in all Pakistani governments in Islamabad to administer POK.
Pakistan officially disallows the option of an independent Kashmir. If anyone in POK raises that demand, it is an act of treachery and punishable by death.
In a referendum or plebiscite, Pakistan would allow only two options: join India or Pakistan. This is not fair to the Kashmiris. Pakistan Refused to Withdraw: Pakistan Refused to Withdraw Pakistan has refused to withdraw its forces from the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir portion.
Thus making UN resolutions null and void.
Instead, Pakistan joined big power blocks and received massive military and economic aid from the West.
Pakistan Attacked India in 1965: Pakistan Attacked India in 1965 34,000 Pakistani soldiers infiltrated Kashmir and launched massive land and air attacks against India.
Pakistan was defeated by India in this second invasion and signed the Tashkent agreement with India. Pakistan Attacked India in 1971: Pakistan Attacked India in 1971 Pakistan launched a third invasion of India which led to Pakistan’s dis- memberment and the birth of Bangladesh.
In all three wars, Kashmiris rose to the defence of India. They joined the Indian army to defeat the Pakistanis. Birth of Bangla Desh: Birth of Bangla Desh Buried the two nation theory of dividing nations on the basis of religion.
After losing the war, Pakistan then agreed to resolve all bilateral issues peacefully through negotiations.
July 1972: Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement with India in Simla, India. Furthermore: Furthermore 1971: India had captured vast areas of Pakistani territory and large number of POWs.
The fact that India returned all the Pak territory is proof that India was not interested in acquiring foreign territory. The Simla Agreement: The Simla Agreement Supported by the UN and the US the “Simla Agreement” required all disputes between Pakistan and India to be resolved bilaterally and not to resort to aggression to solve problems.
A Line of Control was established in 1972 as a result of the Simla agreement between Indira Gandhi and ZA Bhutto.
Simla Agreement: Simla Agreement The 1972 Simla agreement was later endorsed in the 1999 Lahore Declaration between Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif stating that all differences will be resolved by bilateral negotiations.
As army chief, Musharraf and his ISI did not like this action by Nawaz Sharif and hence the continuation of the terrorist acts. UN and Kashmir: UN and Kashmir "Unless the two sides approach us, we cannot get involved. If India and Pakistan approach the U.N. on this (Kashmir) issue, it will be ready to help. The best solution lies in direct contact between the two countries.”
Boutros B. Ghali, the U.N.Secretary General, March 1992
FOURTH Invasion by Pakistan: FOURTH Invasion by Pakistan 1999 Kargil War : When Prime Minister Vajpayee went to Lahore, Pakistan for signing a peace agreement in a BUS-Diplomacy tour the Pakistani army secretly invaded India and even occupied a portion of Indian territory in Kashmir. Lahore Declaration: Lahore Declaration Infact Musharraf refused to be present when Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif signed the “Lahore Declaration”.
He was the Chief of the Pakistani Armed Forces at the time; said he would not want to salute Vajpayee.
Current UN Secretary General: Current UN Secretary General December 2000
UN Secretary General Kofi Anan has said:
“ I call upon both India and Pakistan to retain the spirit of the Lahore Declaration.”
Pakistan Violated Simla Agreement: Pakistan Violated Simla Agreement 1999 Kargil War was a violation of the “Simla Agreement”by illegally taking control of part of Indian portion of Kashmir territory.
Subsequently Clinton & Nawaz Sharif met at Camp David & Clinton asked Nawaz Sharif to withdraw Pakistani army from Kargil, India.
With support of the world community India went to a limited war and had it vacated.
Pakistan's Obsession with Kashmir Continues On: Pakistan's Obsession with Kashmir Continues On In last 12 years, unemployed youth educated in the religious madarsahs of Pakistan are trained by Pakistan’s spy agency ISI to infiltrate into Indian Kashmir and ethnically cleanse the Hindus and secular Moslems, destroy schools, hospitals, and basic infrastructures.
Loss of Lives in Kashmir : Loss of Lives in Kashmir Today, of the 2,400 militants active in the Kashmir valley alone, 1,400 are foreigners
In last 12 year 35,000 lives have been lost and the world has remained silent.
Pakistan's participation in the US anti-terror coalition: Pakistan's participation in the US anti-terror coalition Was not a change of heart by Pakistan
It was due to the ultimatum given by US after the September 11 attacks.
The recent promise by Musharraf of cracking down on Kashmiri terrorists operating from Pakistan needs to be matched with real actions. LA Times Editorial: January 15 2002 “Pakistan’s Moderation” : LA Times Editorial: January 15 2002 “Pakistan’s Moderation” The Times Editorial rightly states “India welcomed the address (by Musharraf) but rightly demanded action as well. The key will be Pakistan’s dealings with the border guerrillas that it considers fighters for freedom of the disputed territory. India considers them terrorists.” Core of Indian Nationhood: Core of Indian Nationhood President Bush has said the September 11 attacks were an attack on the US spirit of freedom and democracy;
Likewise the terrorists activity going on in Kashmir is an attack on the principles of multi-cultural pluralism. This is the core of the Indian nationhood.
The world community must insist Pakistan stop attacking India’s principles of multi-cultural pluralism. Conclusions: Conclusions India and the US are the twin tower’s of the world’s democracies. Therefore it behooves the US to insist that:
Pakistan dismantle ALL its terrorist training complexes and not just move them.
Pakistan bring about a change of attitude in its army to honor the present line of control with India.
Summary: Summary Kashmir must remain an integral part of India. US must support India’s secular position on Kashmir.
Loss of Kashmir could result in the disintegration & talibanization of India.
India must remain a proud secular democratic republic like the US.
What should LA Times do with this information?: What should LA Times do with this information?
Do Four things LA Times: LA Times l. Ask any two experts on South Asia in any well-known universities to review our presentation and ascertain whether it is based on facts .
The document should then serve as a reference whenever articles invoking the history of Kashmir and the plebiscite are published in the LA Times. LA Times: LA Times 2. The LA Times reporters in Delhi and Islamabad should have a copy of the document to refer to when filing their dispatches. LA Times: LA Times 3. Articles and reports should draw the difference between peaceful and lawful demands (suited to democratic practices) for autonomy or independence on the one hand and state-sponsored or state-encouraged terrorism in Kashmir and the rest of India on the other. LA Times: LA Times 4. Publish an article written by an objective scholar on the history of Kashmir, the UN involvement, the 3 step options should be published in the LA times. LA Times: LA Times Thank you for the opportunity to present on behalf of
1) US India Relations
2) National Federation of Indian Americans &
3) Indian American Womens’ Group of Orange County Meeting Attendees: Meeting Attendees Arun Mehta, Member US India Relations
Anna Prasad President Elect National Federation of Indian Americans (NFIA)
Suresh Chaurasia Member US India Relations
Damodar Sardeasai Professor Emeritus of History UCLA Acknowledgement: Acknowledgement The author profusely thanks the following persons for contributing information & for carefully critiqing this presentation:
Damodar Sardesai, PhD Professor Emeritus of History UCLA
Consulate General of India Office San Francisco