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Premium member Presentation Transcript THE COLD WAR1945-1990: THE COLD WAR 1945-1990 Slide2: The two most significant features of post war period were: WESTERNIZATON OF THE GLOBE DOMINANCE OF ECONOMICS IN DETERMINING WORLD LEADERSHIPSlide3: WESTERN FIGHT AGAINST GERMAN AND JAPANESE OPPRESSION INSPIRED COLONIES OF WESTERN IMPERIALISTIC NATIONS TO SEE THEMSELVES AS OPPRESSED AND DEMAND INDEPENDENCE (seeds of nationalism and liberty)Slide4: AT SAME TIME FORMER IMPERIALISTIC POWERS WERE NO LONGER CAPABLE OR DESIREOUS OF MAINTAINING EMPIRES REPALCED BY US VS USSR ***THUS STALIN’S CREATION OF AN EMPIRE OF SATELLLITES IN A WORLD WHERE DECOLONIZATION WAS THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE WAS DOOMED!!!!!!!***** LENIN & STALIN: LENIN & STALIN Slide6: ECONOMIC ***WHILE THE US AND THE USSR ENTANGLED THEMSELVES IN FABULOUS MILITARY EXPENDITURES IN AN EFFORT TO CONTROL THE WORLD----OTHER POWERS SLOWLY EMERGED AS ECONOMIC GIANTS: THESE 2 CONSUMED WEALTH IN MILITARY EXPENDITURES THE MORE PURE MARKET ECONOMY PROUDCED WEALTH RISE OF GERMANY & JAPAN AND FALL OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE MILITARY DOMINANCE = PAST ECONOMIC DOMINANCE = FUTURE= GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE COLD WAR DEFINED: THE COLD WAR DEFINED 1. a diplomatic, economic and ideological struggle accompanied by localized military encounters 2. a struggle between the free world led by US and Communists led by USSR. Europe and America alarmed by: Soviet aim of world Communism Soviet expansion and Hot SpotsTHE COLD WAR PRODUCED:: THE COLD WAR PRODUCED: RIVAL 1. ECONOMIC alliances and competition 2. TECHNOLOGICAL competition and arms race 3. Military alliances: NATO, WARSAW. SEATOCONFLICTS: CONFLICTS BERLIN AIRLIFT 1948-49 BERLIN WALL 1961 (to retain East Germany) Hungarian revolt 1956 Viet Nam 1963 Korea 1953 Cuba Crisis Afghanistan Middle East Crisis POLICY OF CONTAINMENT: POLICY OF CONTAINMENT Started by Truman Policy of keeping USSR from gaining control of additional countriesPOLICY OF PEACEFUL CO-EXSTENCE: POLICY OF PEACEFUL CO-EXSTENCE Khrushchev 1953 following death of Stalin A thaw in the cold war tension a/k/a “Détente” De-Stalinization period ..denounced the cult of personality of Stalin Allowed some writers to detail the grimness of life in the GULAG GULAG.. Forced labor camps for political dissidentsDÉTENTE: DÉTENTE A thaw in cold war tensions Era of negotiation in an era of better understanding Differences stressed but stressed an interest in avoiding nuke war Process of managing relations with a potentially hostile country in order to preserve peace while maintaining our vital interests. Sets limits on each side in what they can do without risking war and encourages talksSlide14: Soviet view of Détente was : The way to create more favorable conditions for peaceful socialists and communist constructionAUTHORS OF DE-STALINZATION: AUTHORS OF DE-STALINZATION BORIS PASTERNAK (1890-1960) “Dr. Zhivago” A novel condemning the brutality of Stalin Awarded Nobel Prize and was refused permission to leave USSR to accept prize.AUTHOR’S CON’T: AUTHOR’S CON’T ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN (1918- ) “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovesch” Details life in the GULAG ANDRE SAKAROV Nuclear physicist and Nobel Peace Prize in 1975 Atone for atomic age in USSR Political dissidents sent into political exile in closed city of GorkeyCONFLICTS WITH USSR: CONFLICTS WITH USSR 1. TITO - ( a/k/a J. Broz) leader of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence from USSR influence He called their BLUFFSlide19: 2. HUNGARIAN REVOLT 1956 Leader was Imre Nagy Eastern European country..very strongly and Catholic Country Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break away from the USSR CARDINAL MINDSZENTY was harassed and imprisoned by the Communists US promised help BUT it didn’t come through Terrible response..The Tanks Rolled (use doc. In alpern pg 185) Kadar 200,000 fled and thousands killedSlide22: 3. Uprising in POLAND 1956 Led by GOMULKA Was bloodless and =some degree of economic independence 4. POLAND 1970 KAROL CARDNAL WOJTYLA = 1ST POLISH POPE Spurred POLISH NATIONALISM LECH WALESA led strike at shipyard in GADNASK….successfulSlide25: 5. The U-2 Incident 1960 Francis Gary Powers caught and shot down in spy plane 6. The Bay of Pigs.. Failed invasion of Cuba..Kennedy 7. The Cuban Missal Crisis 1962..Kennedy and KhruschevSlide26: 7. Afghanistan invaded by USSR ..became their VietnamBREZHNEV 1964 -1982: BREZHNEV 1964 -1982 Quietly replaced Khruschev Formualted HARDLINE POLICY DOCTRINE KNOWN AS “THE BERZHNEV DOCTRINE”BREZHNEV DOCTRINE : BREZHNEV DOCTRINE POLICY THAT THE SOVIETS HAD THE RIGHT TO INTERVENE IN ANY SOCIALIST COUNTRY WHENEVER THEY DETERMINED THER WAS A NEED. EG. CHECKSLOVIKIA “THE PRAGUE SPRING” 1968 ALEXANDER DUBECK WAS THE COMMINIST PARTY SEC. WHO INTRODUCED LIBERAL REFORMS & 20,000 SOVIET TROOPS ENTERED & OCCUPIED PRAGUE TO UNDO REFORMS. DUBECK WAS REPLACED BY HUSAK AND THEN HAVAL PRAGUE SPRING: PRAGUE SPRING PRAGUE SPRING: PRAGUE SPRING WEAPONS IN THE COLD WAR: WEAPONS IN THE COLD WAR 1. PROPGANDA – Spreading of ideas & beliefs that further a particular cause or damage a role or a cause. 2. DIPLOMATIC MOVES – international conferences and alliances 3. SCIENTIFIC COMPETITION – space and nuclear weapons 4. ECONOMIC COMPETITION- aid to 3rd world nationsSlide32: 5. ESPONIAGE – SPIES TO SATELLITES 6. SUBVERSION- weaken & overthrow Western gov’ts by demonstration, strikes, guerrilla warfare. ABSENCE OF WAR BUT ABSENCE OF PEACE COLD WAR ENDS 1992---NEW WORLD ORDER ?????COLLAPSE OF COMMINISUM IN EASTERN EUROPE 1989-1990: COLLAPSE OF COMMINISUM IN EASTERN EUROPE 1989-1990 Response of Economic disasters and public unrest in several nations began major reforms as early as 1982 Gorbachev w/ prestroikia & glasnost remain committed not to use forces to crush movements for liberationSlide35: Romania and CeausecuCONCLUSION: CONCLUSION EUROPE HAD THE FOLLOWING: ECONOMIC ALLIANCE COMMON MARKET 2. MILITARY ALLIANCE WITH NATO MORE SOVIET AGGRESSION Slide37: PROBLEMS OF NATO 1. NUCLEAR FEARS FRENCH NATIONALISM & WITHDRAWL UNDER DEGAULLE GREECE V TURKEY BOTH MEMBERS TODAY EASTERN EUROPE WANTS IN to NATO (POLAND & HUNGARY ADMITTED IN 98) SUCCESS IN THE BALKANS(?) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.