EAT_U3.3vs2.1

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Unit 3 Outline:

Unit 3 Outline Emergency Related Equipment Importance when Responding to an Incident 9 Pieces of Equipment to Know Critical Concepts of CPR Dealing with Helmets Types of Helmets When to Remove the Helmet Helmet Removal Football Helmets and Equipment Unit 3 Videos References/Image Citations

Critical Concepts of CPR:

Critical Concepts of CPR

Critical Concepts of CPR: Introduction:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Introduction Today’s sports are continually progressing and becoming more challenging and more dangerous. They are seeking new thrills, new ways to compete, and adding new twists to what were once “traditional” or “lifestyle” sports. In this era of excitement, you as a Sports Medical Professional will encounter situations during sport competition and practice that require you to use various aspects of your CPR skills.

Critical Concepts of CPR: Introduction (cont’d):

Critical Concepts of CPR: Introduction (cont’d) Critical Concepts L essons that describe, in more detail and depth, the reasons for implementing certain techniques in particular ways Inevitable or possible outcomes of an emergent situation, depending on the Medical Professional’s course of action Challenges the Medical Professional will face while performing various techniques of CPR

Critical Concepts of CPR: Good Quality CPR:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Good Quality CPR Good Quality CPR improves a victim’s chance of survival The C ritical C oncepts for Quality CPR: Push hard, push fast: Compress at a rate of 100 compressions per minute . Allow full chest recoil after each compression. Minimize interruptions in chest compressions; try to keep interruptions to less than 10 seconds . Avoid hyperventilation

Critical Concepts of CPR: Good Quality CPR:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Good Quality CPR Why T hese Skills Are Important : Shallow chest compressions may not produce adequate blood flow Rate at 100 per minute should produce adequate blood flow and should improve survival Complete chest recoil maximizes refilling of the heart. This is necessary for effective blood flow during chest compressions Incomplete chest recoil will reduce the blood flow created by chest compressions Reduce interruptions – when you are not compressing the chest, blood does not flow Good Quality CPR improves a victim’s chance of survival

Critical Concepts of CPR: Head-Tilt – Chin-Lift:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Head-Tilt – Chin-Lift Things to AVOID with Head-Tilt-Chin-Lift: Do not press into the soft tissue under the chin because this might obstruct the airway Do not use the thumb to lift the chin Do not close the victim’s mouth completely (unless mouth-to-nose breathing is the technique of choice for the victim )

Critical Concepts of CPR: Risk of Gastric Inflation:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Risk of Gastric Inflation Frequently develops during mouth-to-mouth , mouth-to-mask , or bag-mask ventilation Can result in serious complications , such as vomiting , aspiration , or pneumonia Rescuers can reduce the risk of gastric inflation by avoiding giving breaths too rapidly or too forcefully During CPR, however, gastric inflation may develop even when rescuers give breaths correctly If you give breaths too quickly or with too much force, air is likely to enter the stomach rather than the lungs. This can cause GASTRIC INFLATION .

Critical Concepts of CPR: Risk of Gastric Inflation:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Risk of Gastric Inflation To P revent G astric I nflation : Take 1 second to deliver each breath Deliver enough air to make the victim’s chest rise

Critical Concepts of CPR: Positioning of Victim’s Head:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Positioning of Victim’s Head The position of the head may block the airway and prevent adequate breathing in some unresponsive victims Opening the airway with a head-tilt-chin-lift may allow the victim to resume adequate breathing without the rescuer taking any further actions

Critical Concepts of CPR: Pulse:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Pulse Starting CPR when Not Sure about PULSE: If you are not sure whether the victim has a pulse, you should start the steps of CPR Unnecessary CPR is less harmful than not performing CPR when a victim truly needs it

Critical Concepts of CPR: Minimizing Interruptions:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Minimizing Interruptions Studies have shown that professional rescuers provide chest compressions only about HALF of the time during resuscitations When a rescuer is not performing chest compressions, there is no blood flow to the brain and heart Rescuers must make every effort to minimize any interruptions in chest compressions

Critical Concepts of CPR: Minimizing Interruptions:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Minimizing Interruptions Possible Causes for NOT Providing Compressions: Rescuers should try to limit interruptions to less than 10 seconds , except for intubation , defibrillation , or moving the victim from danger . Prolonged pulse checks Taking too long to give breaths to the victim Moving the victim Using the AED

Critical Concepts of CPR: Respiratory Arrest:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Respiratory Arrest Respiratory arrest is present when: respirations are completely absent or clearly inadequate to maintain effective oxygenation and ventilation but the victim HAS a pulse Medical Providers must be able to: Identify respiratory arrest Determine when respirations are inadequate to maintain effective oxygenation or ventilation If respirations ARE inadequate: Immediately open the airway and give breaths to prevent cardiac arrest and hypoxic injury to the brain and other organs

Critical Concepts of CPR: Hyperventilation During CPR:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Hyperventilation During CPR Avoid delivering too many breaths per minute ( hyperventilation ) during CPR particularly once an advanced airway is in place ( Combitube , Endotracheal tube ) Hyperventilation may worsen the outcome of cardiac arrest . It can decrease venous return to the heart and reduce blood flow during chest compressions

Critical Concepts of CPR: Rescuer Fatigue:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Rescuer Fatigue Rescuers may start to feel fatigued after about 5 or more minutes of chest compressions HOWEVER… Chest compression QUALITY (depth and rate) will worsen after about 1-2 minutes

Critical Concepts of CPR: Rescuer Fatigue:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Rescuer Fatigue When 2 or More Rescuers are Available: Switch the compressor role about every 2 minutes (or after 5 cycles of compressions and ventilations) You can usually switch positions so that compressions are stopped for less than 5 seconds

Critical Concepts of CPR: Using the AED:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Using the AED Make sure everyone is C lear (including yourself) AED will “ Analyze ” AED will deliver Shock DO NOT be standing in or connected by water when delivering a shock This will shock yourself or give a false read The victim in a small puddle or snow is OK

Critical Concepts of CPR: Using the AED:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Using the AED Moving a Victim C onnected to the AED: You may leave an AED attached while transporting the victim on a stretcher or in an ambulance NEVER push the “ANALYZE” button while moving the victim Movement can interfere with rhythm analysis and artifacts can simulate VF Rescuer must bring the stretcher or vehicle to a complete stop and then reanalyze

Critical Concepts of CPR: Using the AED:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Using the AED Special Situations with AED : The victim is less than 1 year of age The victim has a hairy chest (“Check Electrodes ” may be a message on the AED) The victim is immersed in water or water is covering the victim’s chest The victim has an implanted defibrillator or pacemaker The victim has a transdermal medication patch or other object on the surface of the skin where the AED electrode pads are placed

Critical Concepts of CPR: Infant Airway:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Infant Airway Tilting (extending) the infant’s head beyond neutral position may cause blocking of the airway SO… Maximize airway patency by positioning the infant with the neck in a neutral position: external ear canal level with the top of the infant’s shoulder

Critical Concepts of CPR: Obstructed Airway:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Obstructed Airway Abdominal thrusts may cause complications Ex: damage to internal organs A victim who has received abdominal thrusts should be examined by a healthcare provider to rule out any life-threatening complications When to perform Abdominal Thrusts with the victim lying down : If you find a responsive choking victim lying down

Critical Concepts of CPR: Cricoid Pressure:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Cricoid Pressure Cricoid pressure (Sellick’s Technique): The application of pressure to the unresponsive victim’s cricoid cartilage The pressure pushes the trachea posteriorly, compressing the esophagus against the cervical vertebrae

Critical Concepts of CPR: Cricoid Pressure:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Cricoid Pressure The Cricoid Pressure Technique is Effective for: Preventing gastric inflation during positive-pressure ventilation of unresponsive victims A reduction in gastric inflation, in turn, reduces the risk of vomiting and aspiration Use Cricoid Pressure ONLY when the victim is unresponsive Proper use of this technique requires an additional rescuer to provide cricoid pressure alone, not assisting in other resuscitation activities

Critical Concepts of CPR: Agonal Gasps:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Agonal Gasps Agonal Gasps: May happen in the first minutes after sudden cardiac arrest Common when an Athlete is rendered unconscious after a fall Gasps are NOT adequate breathing ! If a victim is not breathing or is only gasping, you must give the victim breaths.

Critical Concepts of CPR: Jaw Thrust:

Critical Concepts of CPR: Jaw Thrust Jaw Thrust: Use when a cervical spine injury is suspect The second rescuer should maintain airway with the Jaw Thrust

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