Cultural Sensitivity

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Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare :

Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare

What is CULTURE?:

What is CULTURE? A set of values, social practices, and forms of expression held in common by a group of people BASED ON: Ethnicity Gender Geography Religion Socio-economic status Mental or physical ability Academic or professional experience 1

DIVERSITY within CULTURE:

DIVERSITY within CULTURE Gender Age Length of time in the U.S. or your current region, county, city Religion Education Degree of assimilation (if any) from your family’s original culture Occupation choice Income prospects Familiarity or contact with your culture’s elders or other leaders 1

Stereotypes and generalizations:

STEREOTYPES GENERALIZATIONS END POINT Oversimplified opinion Prejudiced attitude A  B “This person is A, so he/she must be B” START POINT Vague or incomplete thought “This person is A, generally that means B. I wonder if he/she is B” 1 Stereotypes and generalizations

STEREOTYPES :

STEREOTYPES Often view shared by members of one culture about a different culture Members believe this view without checking for accuracy There is no attempt to see if this is actually true of the individual person 1

Generalizations:

Generalizations Individual is willing to see if the generalization is true Can be HELPFUL if the individual is willing to investigate Can be HARMFUL if the individual does not 1

Blending CultureS in the US:

Assimilation Acculturation Blending in with a culture “melting pot” Modification of culture after coming in to contact with another “salad bowl” 1 Blending CultureS in the US

Cultural Sensitivity:

Cultural Sensitivity “Knowledge, understanding, skills, and protocols that allow an individual or system to provide services across cultural lines in the best possible way” 1

CULTURAL SENSITIVITY CONTINUUM :

CULTURAL SENSITIVITY CONTINUUM Cultural destructiveness CULTURAL INCAPACITY CULTURAL BLINDNESS CULTURAL PRE-SENSITIVITY CULTURAL SENSITIVITY Advanced Cultural Sensitivity

CULTURAL DESTRUCTIVENESS:

CULTURAL DESTRUCTIVENESS Lowest level on continuum Individual sets pointed limitations towards a specific population It is DESTRUCTIVE to cultures and the individuals in them 1

CULTURAL INCAPACITY:

CULTURAL INCAPACITY Not PURPOSEFULLY destructive Individual lacks the capacity to help people from different cultures Individual is exceedingly biased and feels culturally superior 1

CULTURAL BLINDNESS:

CULTURAL BLINDNESS Midpoint on the cultural continuum Individual thinks he/she is unbiased “we are all the same” Individual promotes assimilation 1

CULTURAL PRE-SENSITIVITY :

CULTURAL PRE-SENSITIVITY Individual realizes his/her weakness and attempts to improve them Individual has respect for cultural differences Individual is willing to try new things “there is no right answer 1 ”

CULTURAL SENSITIVITY:

CULTURAL SENSITIVITY Individual is open to different cultures Individual treats people as INDIVIDUALS not STEREOTYPES Willing to look through other’s point of view Has the ability to adapt 1

ADVANCED CULTURAL SENSITIVITY :

ADVANCED CULTURAL SENSITIVITY Highest level on continuum Willingness & ability to adapt to many cultural situations Seek new knowledge to develop new approaches 1

Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare :

Cultural Sensitivity in Healthcare “Knowledge, understanding, skills, and protocols that allow an individual or system to provide services across cultural lines in the best possible way” 1

WHY IS CULTURAL SENSITIVITY IMPORTANT IN HEALTHCARE?:

WHY IS CULTURAL SENSITIVITY IMPORTANT IN HEALTHCARE? To ensure the PATIENT gets the BEST care Culture shapes the way patients: View causes, prevention, and treatment of pathologies Maintain their health Interact with healthcare providers Healthcare providers must be culturally sensitive in order to be able to adapt treatment to best fit the patient 1

HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS VIEW OF CULTURE:

INCORRECT CORRECT Cultural superiority “MY culture is the BEST culture” “MY views are the MOST SENSIBLE views” “MY values are the CORRECT values” Cultural sensitivity “My culture may be different, but I am willing to learn and adapt to provide the best care possible” HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS VIEW OF CULTURE

PATIENTS CULTURAL VALUES THAT AFFECT HEALTHCARE:

PATIENTS CULTURAL VALUES THAT AFFECT HEALTHCARE Time Literacy/language Decision making Authority Comfort with healthcare providers 1

BRIDGING THE GAP:

BRIDGING THE GAP Treat patients as individuals Build trust Explore influences Be willing to adapt treatment or confront patient’s cultural misconceptions about treatment if necessary 1

CULTURAL SENSITIVITY: WHAT THE PATIENTS WANT:

CULTURAL SENSITIVITY: WHAT THE PATIENTS WANT HISTORY OF STUDY Study done in 2003 by Tucker et al Focused on what patients were looking for instead of looking from healthcare provider’s view interviewed African Americans, Latin Americans, and European Americans RESULTS People skills Individualized treatment Effective communication Technical competence Physical and social environment 2

PEOPLE SKILLS:

PEOPLE SKILLS Patients want healthcare professionals who: Listen Show empathy Take time Make eye contact Make the patient feel at ease Avoid stereotypes Are polite and respectful without being arrogant 2

INDIVIDUALIZED TREATMENT:

INDIVIDUALIZED TREATMENT Patients want health care professionals to: Have personal knowledge of the patient Give them special attention Not see too many patients at one time Be consistent 2

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION:

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Patients want healthcare professionals who: Explain procedures and treatment Are honest Avoid medical jargon Willing to work around language barriers 2

TECHNICAL COMPETENCE:

TECHNICAL COMPETENCE Patients want a healthcare professional who: Is thorough Is willing to recommend a specialist when needed Is knowledgeable Conducts correct evaluations and prescribes correct treatments 2

PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT :

PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Patients want an environment that: Avoids racial bias Has unbiased receptionists Signs and pamphlets in other languages Has multicultural employees 2

How to implement cultural sensitivity as a healthcare provider:

How to implement cultural sensitivity as a healthcare provider Be willing to LEARN! L isten E xplain A cknowledge R ecommend N egotiate 3

Listen:

Listen Sympathy Understanding How does the patient interpret the problem? 3

Explain:

E xplain How do you see the problem? What were the factors that lead you to this opinion? What are some other issues that you ruled out? How did you do so? 3

Acknowledge:

A cknowledge What are the similarities between your and the patient’s perceptions? What are the differences between your and the patient’s perceptions? Discuss what these similarities or differences mean. 3

Recommend:

R ecommend Recommend a treatment based on all the information you have gathered. Discuss why this is your recommendation. Answer any questions the patient has about the treatment. 3

Negotiate:

N egotiate Be willing to negotiate the treatment without compromising the efficacy of the treatment. Make sure the patient is comfortable with the terms or knows the reasoning behind the ones that are non negotiable. 3

Conclusion:

Conclusion Thank you!

References:

References Community HealthCorps . Prescription 4: cultural sensitivity. NACHC Community HealthCorps . 2008. Available at: http://www.communityhealthcorps.org/client/documents/Prescription-4-Cultural-Sensitivity-Member.pdf Accessed on: 1 April 2012 Tucker CM , Herman KC , Pedersen TR , Higley B , Montrichard M , and Ivery P . Cultural sensitivity in physician-patient relationships: perspectives of an ethnically diverse sample of low-income primary care patients. Med Care. 2003 Jul; 41(7): 859-70. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12835610 Accessed on: 5 April 2012. US Department of Health and Human Services. Teaching cultural competence in health care: a review of current concepts, policies, and practices. American Institutes for Research. 2002 March. Available at: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/assets/pdf/checked/em01garcia1.pdf Accessed on: 12 April 2012

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