Evolution PowerPoint slides

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Slide1: 

Evolution Definition: All organisms are descended (with modification) from pre-existing organisms overtime, the process by which this occurs is called evolution

Charles Darwin: 

Charles Darwin English naturalist Born 1809 While studying theology he became interested in natural history 1831 - invited to join an expedition to map coastline of South America

Captain Robert FitzRoy: 

Captain Robert FitzRoy Ship – HMS Beagle Captain – a young aristocrat called Robert FitzRoy. Sailed 27th December 1831 He was to be away five years

Slide4: 

Fourth great grandson of Charles II(1600s) This king replaced Cromwell! His consuming passion was the weather 1826 given the command of a ship after the captain commited suicide. . In 1831 his request for a second surveying mission was granted and his companion was Charles Darwin . In 1854 he was appointed to head a department that became known as the British Meteorological Office

Darwin: 

Darwin Not an experienced scientist Undistinguished candidate for Holy Orders Courage Horse sence Hardest headed biologist of the century He learned to apply critical judgement Upon his return to England, he worked for 20 years before he began to write about evolution in 1856 5:494

HMS Beagle: 

HMS Beagle

Model of the HMS Beagle: 

Model of the HMS Beagle

HMS Beagle: 

HMS Beagle The compass used by Charles Darwin on HMS Beagle 27m-long Crew: 73 men 22 chronometers – instruments for accurately measuring longitude

The Voyage: 

The Voyage In Brazil he saw his first tropical forest

The Voyage (Cape Verde Is.): 

The Voyage (Cape Verde Is.) The Fogo volcano, a major tourist attraction today, reaches a height of 2829m. Varied colour tones contrasting lava landscapes with the agricultural and vineyard plantations that produce Fogo wine. The Cape Verde Islands provided him with his first object lesson of a volcano.

The Cape Verde Islands: 

The Cape Verde Islands

The Voyage (Argentina): 

The Voyage (Argentina) In Argentina he found his first fossils – sloths, mastodons, and horses.

The Voyage( Tierra del Fuego): 

The Voyage( Tierra del Fuego) In Tierra del Fuego he saw a race of men so savage, so devoid of any beliefs ( and occasionally cannibalistic) that they hardly seemed human. Three of them had been taken to England three years previously by Fitzroy “ to teach them the elements of Christianity and the use of tools”, and they were now being repatriated. Darwin was astonished that “ three years had been sufficient to change savages into as far as habits go complete and voluntary Europeans.” But they soon reverted to savagery.

Tierra del Fuego: 

Tierra del Fuego

The Voyage (Chile): 

The Voyage (Chile) In Chile, Darwin witnessed an earthquake and observed both its effects in raising the level of the land and its connection with volcanic eruption. Repeatedly when ashore he went on long, arduous, and dangerous expeditions on horseback, collecting and shooting, which showed that his addiction to sport had not been useless.

The Voyage: 

The Voyage On one journey from Chile to Argentina over high passes of the Andes, he was bitten massively by bugs. From the Galapagos Islands the Beagle sailed to Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, Cocos Keeling Island, Brazil again ( to check chronometers), and then home. Darwin landed at Falmouth on Oct. 2, 1836.

The Galapagos Islands: 

The Galapagos Islands The Galapagos Islands are located 650 miles west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean.

Species on the islands: 

Species on the islands Dozens of unique species of both plants and animals found nowhere else in the world Giant tortoises A comorant that has lost its ability to fly The only lizard that feeds in the sea The only equatorial penguin in the world

The Penguins: 

The Penguins

Giant Tortoises: 

Giant Tortoises

Harriet – she didn’t look a day over 154: 

Harriet – she didn’t look a day over 154 Harriet was one of three tortoisis Darwin brought back from the Galapagos Islands to England. Subsequently, he gave Harriet to a friend heading for Australia. Harriet was mistakenly considered a male for over 100 years. Ouch! She died in June, 2006 at an Australian Zoo where she’s been a key attraction for years.

A unique form of giant cactus: 

A unique form of giant cactus

Slide27: 

Darwin’s visit to the Galapagos for 5 weeks in 1835 provided the starting point for his theory of natural selection. He did not understand a great deal of what he was seeing when he was there. It wasn’t until he got back to England and had ornithologist John Gould and other experts look at the finches that he realized he had discovered something big.

Darwin’s Beagle Diary: 

Darwin’s Beagle Diary 22nd [Sep., 1835; San Cristóbal {Chatham} Island, Galápagos] We slept on the sand-beach, & in the morning after having collected many new plants, birds, shells & insects, we returned in the evening on board. October 1st [1835; Isabela {Albemarle} Island, Galápagos] Albermale [sic] Is is as it were the mainland of the Archipelago ... From different accounts we had hoped to find water here. -- To our disappointment the little pits in the Sandstone contained scarcely a Gallon & that not good. -- it was however sufficient to draw together all the little birds in the country. -- Doves & Finches swarmed around its margin.

The different types of finch.: 

The different types of finch. The diversity of beak structure and feeding habits within the group of finches is remarkable. The different species are adapted to feed in a variety of ways. Some eat seeds Some eat insects Some remove ticks from tortoises Some eat leaves Some eat flowers, Some drink blood from seabirds Some use twigs to extract insect larve

Back Home: 

Back Home At first his interests were geological e.g. he discovered in the Andes – at an altitude of 7000 feet – a fossil forest overlain by thousands of feet of sedimentary deposits laid down by the sea, thus proving the occurrence of earlier earth movements of the order of 10,000 feet vertical height. In 1856 Darwin started to put on paper his discoveries about evolution and natural selection.

Back Home: 

Back Home . In 1858 out of the blue, he received from Alfred Wallace, a naturalist then in the Malay Archipelago, a succinct but complete statement of his own conclusions on evolution and natural selection. A joint paper by both was read to the Linnean Society of London in 1858 Darwin then made an abstract of the work on which he had been engaged for 20 years. This abstract was called the Origin of Species which was published on November 24, 1859, and sold out immediately.

“Origin of Species”: 

“Origin of Species” In the eyes of posterity, his publications on geology were so eclipsed by the bombshell on evolution that they have been neglected. With his book Darwin brought down on himself enemies of two kinds. Scientists (Adam Sedgwick and Richard Owen) and upholders of orthodox religious beliefs e.g. Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford.

What was in the book?: 

What was in the book? In it, Darwin makes one long argument with copious examples as support, for his theory that organisms gradually evolve not individually but in groups through the process of natural selection, a mechanism the book effectively introduced to the public.

Summary – statements 1 and 2: 

Summary – statements 1 and 2 S1 Organisms produce far more offspring than ever give rise to adult individuals. S2 The numbers of individuals of a species remain more or less the same (in a particular ecosystem).

Deduction 1: 

Deduction 1 Therefore there must be a high death rate, resulting from the constant struggle taking place between all organisms for food, in avoiding predators and disease, and in coping with climatic conditions.

Statement 3: 

Statement 3 S3 The individuals in a species are not all identical, but show variations in their characteristics that have arisen, by chance, through sexual reproduction and mutations.

Deduction 2: 

Deduction 2 In the competition for survival, variations allow some individuals to adapt, survive and reproduce better than others, so passing on these ‘successful’ traits to their offspring. Over many generations, these small changes accumulate until two groupings within the population can no longer interbreed and a new species is formed.

Evolution: 

Evolution Evolution is the changing of one species into another that takes place through natural selection.

Summary Revision: 

Summary Revision More offspring…………….. Numbers ……….. the same Death rate ……….. Struggle Variations Adapt, survive and reproduce …….’successful’ …….new species

Evidence for evolution: 

Evidence for evolution Palaeontology: The study of fossils Comparative Embryology Comparative Anatomy Comparative Biochemistry

Palaentology: 

Palaentology Fossil Record ( Palaeontology) Fossil = Remains of an organism or evidence that it once existed Fossils Actual remains e.g. Bones and Teeth Rock Fossils e.g. Casts or impressions of organisms and petrifaction of organisms Ice Fossils e.g. Woolly Mammoths in Siberia Amber Fossils e.g. flies trapped in resin which becomes amber. Sedimentary rocks are laid down in layers making it possible to date the fossils in each layer. The organisms in the lower layers being older than those in the top layers. The changes which occurred over time can clearly be seen in clear, simple and sequential fossil records e.g. the horse.

Embryology: 

Embryology Embryos of different species tend to pass through the same stages of development e.g. Human embryos have gill slits at an early stage. The similarities in the these stages of development can reflect the evolutionary relationships between organisms. The genes for basic embryo development e.g. Hox genes are shared by many complex animals. They express themselves similarly in the early stages of embryo development and then modify the structures produced, during the steps of development in order to make them suitable for the new organism

Comparative Embryology: 

Comparative Embryology

Comparative anatomhy: 

Comparative anatomhy

Comparative Anatomy: 

Comparative Anatomy Homologus Structures: Organs which have the same basic structure but different functions. e.g. pentadactyl limb Humerus Radius and Ulna Carpals Phalanges The same basic bone structure but different functions indicate that the organisms have common ancestors by evolution. Panda’s Thumb : Five fingers and a thumb(modified wrist bone) Exception which proves rule of common ancestry. Evolution from a common ancestor to varied descendants is also known as Divergent Evolution or Adaptive Radiation.

Biochemistry: 

Biochemistry If you compare the chemicals e.g. DNA, Haemoglobin, ATP found in different animals and plants, the degree of similarity between these organisms can be measured There is a 1% difference between our DNA and that of Chimpanzees

Famous debate at Oxford 1860 : 

Famous debate at Oxford 1860 Thomas Huxley “Darwin’s bulldog” vs Archbishop Samuel Wilberforce “Soapy Sam” Wilberforce was coached against Huxley by Richard Owen , a biologist. Wilberforce ridiculed evolution and asked Huxley whether he was descended from an ape on his grandmother’s side or his grandfather’s. One account has it that Huxley concluded his brilliant defence of Darwin’s theory, by saying “ I would rather be the offspring of two apes than be a man and afraid to face the truth”

Evolution: 

Evolution Note: there is no direction or plan to Evolution; it is merely the rule book for the game of life. As Darwin concluded his book “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection “ “There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator in a few forms or into one ; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wondrous have been and are been evolved”.

Slide60: 

Other examples of Natural Selection in action include: Evolution of pesticide resistance in beetles, incidence of sickle cell anaemia in areas which historically had malaria and the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

How Evolution Works - Natural Selection : 

How Evolution Works - Natural Selection Biston Betularia, the Peppered Moth The peppered moth comes as two forms, a typical one which is peppered coloured to camouflage itself on the lichen covered barks of trees and a mutant black form which was first noticed in 1848 in Manchester. Pollution from the Industrial Revolution in England killed the lichens on the trees and covered their barks with soot making them black. The environment had changed and now selected for the black form of the moth, so by 1898 in the polluted areas of England like Manchester the black form made up over 95% of the moths population and the peppered form less than 5%. This process is known as Natural Selection. Both – unpolluted area Both – polluted area

Religious problems: 

Religious problems The issues for religious believers were two fold If evolution was true, the account of the Creation in the Book of Genesis was false or, at least not literally true If evolution worked automatically by natural selection, there was no room for divine guidance and design in the production of living plants and animals, including man on earth. Darwin’s findings became well known but eventually gave Fitzroy great distress because he was a creationist

Pope John Paul II 1996: 

Pope John Paul II 1996 Today, almost half a century after the publication of Pius XII’s Encyclical, fresh knowledge has led to the recognition that evolution is more than a hypothesis. It is indeed remarkable that this theory has been progressively accepted by researchers, following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favour of this theory

Web addresses: 

Web addresses www.whywework.com Blackbackground images http://members.virtualtourist.ccom/m/6987/f/8d3/ http://oikos.villanova.edu/Nesomimus/darwinquote.html#calandria diary http://www.abdn.ac.uk/zoohons/lecture5/sld011.htm slides onfinch http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/images/collections/invertebrates/fossils/16.jpg fossil

Slide66: 

Many are born Not all survive Individuals vary Variations are inherited ‘Useful’ variations increase Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Information on this slide is from lecture given at the Annual Conference of the ISTA in UCC on Saturday 24th March by Dr. Jeremy Pritchard, University of Birmingham.

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