Social 05 0 Attitudes and Behavior

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Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency

What is a belief?: 

What is a belief? The perception of a relationship between two objects or something and a characteristic of it Bananas are yellow Physical activity is boring Lawyers are dishonest Bob loves Jane

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency

The relationship of beliefs to attitudes: 

The relationship of beliefs to attitudes Beliefs are translated into attitudes through values BELIEF: Lawyers overcharge their clients VALUE: Fairness ATTITUDE: I don’t like lawyers

Cognitive structure: 

Cognitive structure Beliefs: Lawyers overcharge their clients Values: Fairness Attitude: I don’t like lawyers

Cognitive structure: 

Cognitive structure Beliefs: Lawyers overcharge their clients Lawyers help their clients lie Values: Fairness Honesty Attitude: I don’t like lawyers

Cognitive structure: 

Cognitive structure Beliefs: Lawyers overcharge their clients Lawyers help their clients lie Lawyers help rich people Values: Fairness Honesty Equality Attitude: I don’t like lawyers

Cognitive structure: 

Cognitive structure Beliefs: Lawyers overcharge their clients Lawyers help their clients lie Lawyers help everybody Values: Fairness Honesty Equality Attitude: I don’t like lawyers

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency

Classic studies in attitude-behavior consistency: 

Classic studies in attitude-behavior consistency LaPiere Kutner Wicker (1969)--review of attitude-behavior studies Average correlation [r] = .30 % of variance in behavior explained = 9% (r2)

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams: 

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Attitude Behavior Freq Never Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams: 

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Attitude Behavior Freq Never Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams: 

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Attitude Behavior Freq Never Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams: 

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Attitude Behavior Freq Never Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree r = 1.0

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams: 

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Attitude Behavior Freq Never Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams: 

Attitude-behavior correlation: Cheating on exams 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 Attitude Behavior Freq Never Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree r = 0

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency

Criticisms of classic research: 

Criticisms of classic research Methodological Not necessarily measured the same person Two measures of behavior (no measure of attitude) Used only single measures (low reliability) Theoretical Ignoring social norms

Weigel & Neuman (1976): 

Weigel & Neuman (1976) Measured attitudes toward environment (20 item scale) Also measured six environmentally related behaviors, e.g., Signing a petition against off shore oil drilling Leaving newspapers out for recycling weekly over a period of 8 weeks

Weigel & Neuman results: 

Weigel & Neuman results Each behavior by itself correlated about .29 with the attitude scale All the behaviors added together (a behavior scale) correlated .68 with the attitude scale

Weigel & Neuman: 

Weigel & Neuman Attitude1 Behavior1 Attitude2 Behavior2 Attitude3 Behavior3 Attitude4 Behavior4 Attitude5 Behavior5

Weigel & Neuman: 

Weigel & Neuman Attitude1 Behavior1 Attitude2 Behavior2 Attitude3 Behavior3 Attitude4 Behavior4 Attitude5 Behavior5 r = .30

Weigel & Neuman: 

Weigel & Neuman Attitude1 Behavior1 Attitude2 Behavior2 Attitude3 Behavior3 Attitude4 Behavior4 Attitude5 Behavior5 r = .30

Weigel & Neuman: 

Weigel & Neuman Attitude1 Behavior1 Attitude2 Behavior2 Attitude3 Behavior3 Attitude4 Behavior4 Attitude5 Behavior5 r = .30

Weigel & Neuman: 

Weigel & Neuman Attitude1 Behavior1 Attitude2 Behavior2 Attitude3 Behavior3 Attitude4 Behavior4 Attitude5 Behavior5 r = .70

Weigel & Neuman results: 

Weigel & Neuman results Each behavior by itself correlated about .29 with the attitude scale All the behaviors added together (a behavior scale) correlated .68 with the attitude scale CONCLUSION: High attitude-behavior consistency when both measured reliably and situational pressures not overwhelming attitudes

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior: 

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Beliefs, attitudes, and values Cognitive structure Attitude-behavior consistency Historical research Criticisms Methodological Theoretical Explanations for inconsistency Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US unconditioned stimulus

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR unconditioned response

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS conditioned stimulus

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR conditioned response

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR meat powder

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR meat powder salivating

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR meat powder salivating bell

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR meat powder salivating bell salivating

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR Obscene, vulgar words

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR Obscene, vulgar words Negative emotional reaction

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR Obscene, vulgar words Negative emotional reaction Ethnic group

Classical conditioning of emotional responses: 

Classical conditioning of emotional responses US UR CS CR Obscene, vulgar words Negative emotional reaction Ethnic group Negative emotional reaction

Instructions: 

Instructions These statements concern your personal reactions to a number of different situations. No two statements are exactly alike, so consider each statement carefully before answering. If a statement is TRUE or MOSTLY TRUE as applied to you, mark T; if a statement is FALSE or MOSTLY FALSE, mark F.

Self-monitoring (Mark Snyder): 

Self-monitoring (Mark Snyder) Concern for social appropriateness Sensitive to self-presentation of others Used as guidelines for monitoring own self-presentation Two components of self-monitoring Interest in social information Ability to control self-presentation

Self-monitors’ interest in social comparison: 

Self-monitors’ interest in social comparison Subjects given a self-descriptive (T-F) “personality test” [designed to facilitate self-monitoring] Given opportunity to consult “majority response sheet” D.V.: Observer noted frequency of looking at sheet and length of time spent looking High self-monitors: looked more frequently for longer time

Expression of emotion: 

Expression of emotion Different groups’ ability to convey emotion Students Actors Hospitalized mental patients Communication of emotion Subjects conveyed seven different emotions: anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, guilt Judges guessed emotions

Expression of emotion: 

Expression of emotion Different groups’ ability to convey emotion Students mean=14 Actors Hospitalized mental patients Communication of emotion Subjects conveyed seven different emotions: anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, guilt Judges guessed emotions

Expression of emotion: 

Expression of emotion Different groups’ ability to convey emotion Students mean=14 Actors mean=18.4 Hospitalized mental patients Communication of emotion Subjects conveyed seven different emotions: anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, guilt Judges guessed emotions

Expression of emotion: 

Expression of emotion Different groups’ ability to convey emotion Students mean=14 Actors mean=18.4 Hospitalized mental patients mean=10.3 Communication of emotion Subjects conveyed seven different emotions: anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, guilt Judges guessed emotions

Expression of emotion: 

Expression of emotion Different groups’ ability to convey emotion Students mean=14 Actors mean=18.4 Hospitalized mental patients mean=10.3 Communication of emotion Subjects conveyed seven different emotions: anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, guilt Judges guessed emotions High SM conveyed emotions better

Self-monitoring and attitude-behavior correlations: 

Self-monitoring and attitude-behavior correlations High self-monitors have lower attitude-behavior correlations Their behavior is less reflective of their actual attitudes; more in line with what they think is socially appropriate

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