Person perception

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Presentation Transcript

Person Perception: 

Person Perception Our Knowledge of People

Asch Procedure 1: 

Asch Procedure 1 Kind

Slide3: 

Kind Energetic

Slide4: 

Kind Energetic Competitive

Slide5: 

Kind Energetic Competitive Intelligent Industrious

Slide6: 

Industrious Intelligent Competitive Energetic Kind

Central Versus Peripheral Traits: 

Central Versus Peripheral Traits Intelligent Skillful Industrious Warm Determined Practical Cautious

Slide8: 

Intelligent Skillful Industrious Cold Determined Practical Cautious

Central Vs Peripheral and Inferences: 

Central Vs Peripheral and Inferences 91% of Subjects Told Person is Warm Infer Person is Generous Only 9% Told Person is Cold Infer Generous

Peripheral Traits: 

Peripheral Traits Intelligent Skillful Industrious Polite Determined Practical Cautious

Slide11: 

Intelligent Skillful Industrious Blunt Determined Practical Cautious

Peripheral Inferences: 

Peripheral Inferences 87% of Subjects Told Person Is Polite Infer Person is Good-natured But 56% Of Those Told Person Is Blunt Infer Good-Natured

Implicit Personality Theory: 

Implicit Personality Theory Asch -- Inferences Wishner – Correlations Shweder – Semantic Similarity

Kelley’s Attribution Theory: 

Kelley’s Attribution Theory Key Question: Internally or Externally Causes? Three Kinds of Evidence Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness

Kinds of Evidence: 

Kinds of Evidence Consistency: Does the Person Do The Same Thing Each Time? Consensus: Does Everybody Do It? Distinctiveness: Is Response Unique to That Stimulus?

Claire Laugh’s at a Comedian: 

Claire Laugh’s at a Comedian Is it something about the comedian or about Claire? Does she always laugh at him? Do other people laugh at him? Does she laugh only at him? If all are Yes, then external cause – the comedian

Jones and Davis’ Attribution Theory: 

Jones and Davis’ Attribution Theory Correspondent Inferences The more desirable consequences there are for an act the less certain one should be that any one of them was the cause of the person’s behavior.

Your Partner Follows You to San Francisco: 

Your Partner Follows You to San Francisco Near You Great Weather Beauty of the Bay Great Food Close to Wine Country Prestige Challenge High salary Pacific Coast Highway Victorian Homes Coffee Houses China Town North Beach Berkeley Pebble Beach

Your Partner Follows You to Cleveland: 

Your Partner Follows You to Cleveland Near You

Sub-Mariner Study: 

Sub-Mariner Study

Actors and Observers: 

Actors and Observers

Observers’ Predictions: 

Observers’ Predictions

Observers’ Predictions and Actors’ Expectations: 

Observers’ Predictions and Actors’ Expectations

Jones and Harris Study: 

Jones and Harris Study

Fundamental Attributional Error: 

Fundamental Attributional Error The Tendency To Attribute Behavior to Personality (Internal Factors, Dispositions) When It Should Be Attributed To The Situation (External Factors).

Ross et al. Quizmaster Study: 

Ross et al. Quizmaster Study

Fundamental Attributional Error Summary: 

Fundamental Attributional Error Summary The Fundamental Attributional Error Occurs Unless People Are Suspicious of an Ulterior Motive

Ulterior Motives and Attributions: 

Ulterior Motives and Attributions

Fundamental Attributional Error Summary: 

Fundamental Attributional Error Summary People are Suspicious of an Ulterior Motive The Essay Writer Mentions Constraints in the Essay The Writer Distances Self from Essay

Biases – Self and Other 1: 

Biases – Self and Other 1

Biases – Self and Other 2: 

Biases – Self and Other 2

Flaws and Biases: 

Flaws and Biases

Egocentric Bias: 

Egocentric Bias

Better Than Average Effect: 

Better Than Average Effect

Better than Average Effect Results: 

Better than Average Effect Results Mean Self Rating (Positive) = 6.44 (vs 5) Mean Self Rating (Negative) = 3.64 (vs 5) 79/91 rate self as better than average

Criticisms of Attribution Theory: 

Criticisms of Attribution Theory Are Situational and Dispositional Accounts Competing Explanations? Are People Interested in Causes or in Responsibility? Do The Experiments Work By Violating Grice’s Maxims?

Grice’s Maxims: 

Grice’s Maxims Relevance Say Only Relevant Things Quantity Only as Much Detail as Listener Needs Quality Say Only What You Have Reason To Believe Directness Don’t Beat Around The Bush

President Rodin: 

President Rodin I saw President Rodin This Morning and She Was Sober

Process Models: 

Process Models

Process Model of Attribution: 

Process Model of Attribution Characterize the Act Characterize the Actor In The Same Terms Search for Situational Factors Recharacterize the Actor

Cognitive Schemata: 

Cognitive Schemata Control Attention Control Interpretation Control Memory Activation

Schemata Affect Act-Characterization: 

Schemata Affect Act-Characterization

Schema Incongruity and Recall: 

Schema Incongruity and Recall During CONSTRUCTI0N of a Schema,Schema Incongruent Information is Remembered Better Once a Schema Is Established. Schema Congruent Information is Remembered Better

Schemata Can Be Primed Implicitly: 

Schemata Can Be Primed Implicitly Subjects primed with: Adventurous, self-confident, independent, and persistent Interpret mountain-climbing as adventurous Subjects primed with: reckless, aloof, conceited, and stubborn Interpret mountain-climbing as reckless

Dual-Representation Theory: 

Dual-Representation Theory When given information about someone: People Retain the Information and Update their Overall Impressions.

Consequences of Dual Representation: 

Consequences of Dual Representation 1) There can be a disjunction between information recalled and General Impression 2) Very difficult to remove effects of mistaken or misinterpreted information

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