åçåå Scientific Impacts to Biotech

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September 30, 2005 Lan-Yang Ch’ang, Ph.D. Institute of Biomedical Sciences Academia Sinica lychang@ibms.sinica.edu.tw Scientific Impacts to the Biotech Future

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Scientific Impacts to Human life Physics – Nuclear Engineering – Energy Chemistry – Chemical Engineering – Synthetics Mathematics – Computer Engineering – Information Biology – Genetic Engineering – Therapeutics -Genome Engineering – Synthetic Genomes Biotech Future? What & How?

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Human Genome Project (1990-2003) 3 billion letters of A, C, G or T 2001: Draft Sequence 2003: finished Sequence ~ 30,000 Genes US$ 3 billion !

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The scientific quest of life What is life? Why is life what it is? How do we know why life is what it is?

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Life on Mars? Life under the Sea? What makes us different genetically?

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Gene Number in Eukaryotes Human 32,000 2.9 Gb Mustard Weeds 25,498 115 Mb Fly 13,601 116 Mb Worm 19,099 97 Mb Yeast 5,800 12 Mb Species # of Genes Genome Size

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Bio-Complexity of Human Life Exon ~2% Intron 24% Intergenic 74% Geno-Complexity 3,000 Mb Genome 40,000 Human Genes 50% Repetitive Elements Pheno-Complexity DNA Methylation Histone Acetylation Transcription Activation or Silencing Protein Modifications Complex Formation Functional Entity Protein Interactions Biochemical Cascade

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Biological Processes of Life Fertilization Fetal Development Neonatal Development Adolescence Maintenance & Aging Gene Repertoire Energy & Metabolism Information Processing Communications Genetic Factors Environmental Factors

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Gene mRNA Protein Structure Genome Transcriptome Proteome Bioinformatics SNPs Disease Gene Clinical Trials Lead Compound New Drug Chemical Library & HTS Optimization DNA Chip Protein Chip Peptide map Function Animal Model Haplotypes SNPs: single nucloetide polymorphisms

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Gene mRNA Protein Structure Genome Transcriptome Proteome SNP New Drug DNA Chip Protein Chip Protein Profiling Gene Discovery mRNA Profiling Target Discovery Drug Discovery Modeling Lead Identification Virtual Screening Splicing Variants Isoforms & Modification Target Drug Lead Dx

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Channels Consumers Healthcare Providers Pipelines Research & Development Drug Development The Roadmap of Biotech Development

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30,000 Genes Target HTS Drug Lead Preclinical Clinical Trial DRUG Disease Gene Discovery New Paradigm in Drug Development Phase IV Phase I Phase II Phase III Genome Drug Discovery Drug Development US$ 1 billion 10 years

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Disease Management Medical team Clinical Diagnosis Operation/Replacement Physical/Chemical Treatment Biotherapeutics Life Management Individual Genetic Profiles Individualized Medicine Preventive Medicine Impacts of Biotechnology in the Future Century 20 Century 21 Quality of Living Quality of Life

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Bio-Century 21 Disease Discovery Gene Discovery Drug Discovery Trauma Infectious Hereditary Environmental Complex Diseases Aging-related Diseases Disease Management Life Management New Diagnostics New Therapeutics Theranostics Individualized Healthcare Predictive Medicine Tissue Engineering

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Key Issues for the Biotech Future Changes in Population Dynamics Effects of New Healthcare Policies New Initiatives in Pipeline Development Transformation in Industrial Leadership Challenges in Business Intelligence Emergence of New Competitions

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1970 1980 1990 2000 Recombinant DNA Hybridoma DNA Sequencing Blotting RFLP/STRP Transgenic/KO PCR HGP Genome Sequencing Genotyping – SNP Combinatorial Chemistry High-throughput Screening DNA Microarray Protein Chip Bioinformatics RNAi IHMP Technology Development for Life Sciences

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Mabs in the Cancer Pipeline 2001: $ 1.3 B 2003: $ 3.0 B 2004: $ 4.3 B 2008: $12.8 B ~600 anticancer drugs in development >130 are Mab products ~13% of the cancer therapeutic market Annual growth of 60% since 2002 More FDA approvals

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US FDA Approved Mab Drugs (I) Rituxan (Genentech) 11/’97 for non-Hodgekin’s lymphoma US market: Genentech and Biogen Idec EU approval: 06/’98 EU market by Roche as MabThera Herceptin (Genentech) 09/’98 for metastatic breast cancer HER2 EU approval: 08/’00 EU market by Roche

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US FDA Approved Mab Drugs (II) Campath (Ilex Oncology) 05/’01 for chronic lymphocytic leukemia US market: Berlex Lab EU approval: 07/’01 EU market by Schering as Mabcampath Bexxar (Corixa) 06/’03 for non-Hodgekin’s lymphoma US market: GSK EU market by Amersham Health Panorex (Centocor) 1st Mab drug approved in 1995 For advanced colorectal cancer Only available in Germany by GSK

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Erbitux (ImClone) 02/’04 for metastatic colorectal cancer US market: Bristol-Myers-Squibb; $84 M in Q3/04 Switzerland approval: 12/’03 EU market by Merck; $30 M in Q3/04 Avastin (Genentech) 02/’04 for metastatic colorectal cancer Worldwide market: Roche, Chugai US FDA Approved Mab Drugs (III)

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Current Market of Mab Drugs 2003 (>US$4 billion) Genentech (61%): Rituxan & Herceptin Roche (33%): MabThera (Rituxan in EU) Berlex (2%): Campath Others: Bexxar (Corixa) & Panorex (Centocor) 2004 Erbitux (ImClone) US market: BMS; $84 M in Q3 EU market by Merck; $30 M in Q3 Avastin (Genentech) Worldwide market: Genentech Roche, Chugai

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Biotech Industry: New Revolution Every biotech company wants to be a pharmaceutical company, while the existing pharmas are heavily invested in biotech R/D. Platform Technology -- Tools Discovery –- Gene to Drug Bioinformatics – Knowledge Discovery CMO/CRO – Manufacturing & Clinical Trials AgriBiotech: Plant and Animal Genomics Nutriceuticals: Nutrigenomics Cosmeceuticals: Nutrigenomics BioPharmaceuticals: Pharmacogenomics

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VC Investment in Biotech: Jan.-Feb.,2005 USA Canada UK US$ 198.6 M US$ 14.6 M US$ 4.3 M 10 companies 2 companies 1 company US$ 384.4 M 19 companies Switzerland Germany US$ 60.5 M US$ 14.6 M 2 companies 2 companies France Italy US$ 42.9 M US$ 36 M 1 company 1 company TOTAL

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Biotech Deals: Jan.-Feb.,2005 1. Buyout: 6 deals for US$1,453.4 M 2. Merge & Acquisition: 5 deals 3. Licensing: 2 deals 4. Collaboration: 6 deals 6. Co-promotion: 1 deal

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Biotech Industry: Where do we go?

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1970 1980 1990 2000 Recombinant DNA Hybridoma DNA Sequencing Blotting RFLP/STRP Transgenic/KO PCR HGP Genome Sequencing Genotyping – SNP Combinatorial Chemistry High-throughput Screening DNA Microarray Protein Chip Bioinformatics RNAi IHMP Technology Development for Life Sciences Biopharmaceutics Immunotherapy Molecular Dx Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics RNAi CRO/CMO

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