Introduction to Multimedia: Introduction to Multimedia What is multimedia?: What is multimedia?
The word multimedia is composed of two parts: the prefix multi and media.
Multi = Plural, more than 1, many
Media = Medium of communication
What is multimedia?: What is multimedia? What is multimedia?: What is multimedia?
Multimedia is the presentation of a computer application
incorporating media elements such as text, graphics, animations,
audio, and video.
Classification of media types: Classification of media types Captured Versus Synthesized Media: Captured Versus Synthesized Media
Captured media refers to information types captured from the real world (e.g. Still pictures, moving pictures, and sound).
Synthesized media refers to information types synthesized by the computers (e.g. Text, graphics and computer animation).
Discrete Versus Continuous Media: Discrete Versus Continuous Media
Discrete media refers to media involving space dimension only (e.g. Still images, text and graphics). Discrete media is also referred to as static media or non-time-based media or non-temporal media or space-based media.
Continuous (time based) media refers to time-based media (e.g. Sound, moving images, and animation). Continuous media is also referred to as dynamic media or time-based media or temporal media.
Multi-sensory system: Multi-sensory system According to Dr. Albert Mehrabian, a specialist in interpersonal communication at the University of California, says:
Multimedia allows for seeing, hearing and doing (multi-sensory system) People recall 20% of what they see
40% of what they see & hear
70% of what they see, hear & do Characteristics of Multimedia System: Characteristics of Multimedia System
They must be computer-controlled. User is able to view, hear, and see using a Multimedia
They are integrated. At least one discrete and one continuous media
combined for information presentation and sharing.
The information they handle must be represented
digitally. Consists of various form of media i.e. text, graphics,
audio, video, and animations; created, stored, processed,
and transmitted DIGITALLY.
The interface to the final user may permit interactivity. User is able to navigate, interact, create, and
Benefits of using multimedia in software: Benefits of using multimedia in software
Ease of use
User friendly, increase user’s effectiveness
Allows user to determine functions of an application by their
- Software application takes over the entire computer screen,
allows user to focus on application
Benefits of using multimedia in software: Benefits of using multimedia in software Self-paced interaction & better retention
- allows information processing at one’s own pace
- simultaneous presentation of different media provides richer & broader range of information.
- less training, less technical support
Problems with Multimedia :
- multimedia involves high volume of content
- expensive copyright and royalty
Technical barriers (accessibility issues)
- upgrade IT & PC infrastructure
- Generation gap
- Learning rates
- Learning in group/individual
- Importance of teacher
- Copyright Problems with Multimedia Where to use multimedia ?: Where to use multimedia ?
Broadcasting & Entertainment
Research & Development
Health Business: Business Interactive Multimedia Merchandising
Virtual shopping / home shopping
Due to the high cost of transportation and the large amount of employee time spent traveling to meetings, videoconferencing is on the rise.
…continued: …continued Multimedia Travel Systems
These systems enable the travel agents to show their customers about where they will travel, what will be their accommodation like, and what they will be able to do at their destinations.
Multimedia systems enable buyers to visit hundreds of properties virtually, view on screen photos of homes, inspect floor plans, see street maps, and study neighborhood demographics.
www.penangtimessquare.com …continued: …continued Corporate Training
Many corporations have used multimedia to reduce training cost and improve employee productivity.
Advertising and Electronics Brochures
The electronic brochure is an advertising and marketing tool that usually consists of single diskette or CD-ROM sent to targeted audiences. Corporations are also beginning to offer shareholders annual reports on CD-ROM.
www.porsche.com Government: Government Public Service Kiosks
Multimedia kiosks convey public service information such as jobs and employment opportunities.
City-info kiosks offer to citizens and travelers the ability to find information on addresses, points of interest, shops, restaurants, public transportation, hours of opening, guided tours, city transport info.
…continued: …continued Politics
Multimedia in general and internet in particular are playing a big role in politics and virtual campaigning where every political candidate contesting in an election has a web site.
Multimedia based CD-ROMs are available which
contains government information on a wide variety of
topics: government forms, list of government offices in
each state, tax preparation etc.
Education: Education Computer Aided Learning
To assist student through simulation for better understanding such as volcano eruption, corrosion, language pronunciation, etc.
Learning takes place in a virtual classroom using video conferencing and online lecture so that students all around the world can attend.
Broadcasting and Entertainment: Broadcasting and Entertainment Electronic catalogue
Product features and descriptions are advertised through web, CD and mobile devices.
Viewers can decide the direction of the plot of the movie and camera angle.
On-demand News or movies
News, movies and TV series can be watched on demand through web and mobile devices.
…continued: …continued 3D or animated movies
Movies created through advance 3D technology and animation techniques.
Advances in the field of multimedia have led to more attractive video and computer games being available now in the consumer market.
…continued: Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality refers to the use of a computer to immerse the user into a simulated experience that it seems real. Virtual reality systems often use special hardware to enhance the experience, including visual displays. …continued Cyber Sports
Cyber Sports is the use of virtual reality to provide computer users with a realistic sports experience. Two new interactive virtual reality devices let you “Swing” and “Hit” balls at your PC. Medicine: Medicine Virtual Surgery
Virtual surgery authoring system has been created for producing surgical training simulation.
Surgeons can use 3-D images created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the human body to practice complicated procedures such as brain tumor removal and reconstructive surgery. …continued: …continued Video Conferencing and Image Retrieval
The use of imaging techniques (X-Rays, CT, MRI etc) is growing in health care. The collection, maintenance, processing and distribution of these records can be significantly improved by using computer based storage and multimedia networking. Once these records are integrated with the on-line patient information and easily shared by both local and remote physicians, it results in a large number of benefits like reduced cost and improved care.
Multimedia Products: Multimedia Products
eg: corporate presentation, sales presentation and educational lectures.
eg: encyclopedias, dictionaries
eg: library system, phone directory
…continued: …continued Education and Training
eg: - Instructor support products – Resource materials
- Standalone or self-paced products – Learning
materials for students
to study at their own
eg: bank machines, mall information centers.
Entertainment and Games
eg: computer games and movies.
Evaluating Multimedia Products: Evaluating Multimedia Products
Evaluation can be done from two perspectives: User’s Perspective
Subject and Content
User’s perspective: User’s perspective Subject/content
Area of interest
Entertainment value – multimedia games and sports-related products
Education, training or learning objectives – how-to and subject-related products
Need for information – encyclopedia or similar reference products …continued: …continued Platform (hardware and software)
Focus on what type of equipment the user has and if it is compatible with a specific product.
Criteria for evaluation:
Computer processor speed and data bus requirements
…continued: …continued Usability
Usability means that the user can apply, learn, use the program efficiently.
The key criteria here are:
Learning/training time: how long does it take to learn how to use the product,
Error rate: how often mistakes made by the users and how severe is the mistake?,
Task Time: how long does it take to accomplish a task,
Retention: how difficult is for the user to operate and how attractive is the product to use. …continued: …continued Cost
The cost can be the first or the last factor considered by many people. Generally, users are willing to spend depending on how much is gained.
Developer’s perspective: Developer’s perspective
Developer must evaluate and aim to improve their product better than the last.
From the developer’s perspective, evaluation will cover:
- Interface Developer’s perspective: Developer’s perspective Content
Product domain or subject matter- is the material useful for the end user?
Message – How does the product communicate the information? Will the users understand it?
Comparison to comparable products
…continued: …continued Performance
Developer must consider that general users have equipment that has much less capabilities, so products should always be tested on a range of platforms before they are released.
Graphic, audio and video presentation should be use wisely not to slow down the application for slower machine. …continued: …continued Delivery
Delivery means how fast user is able to use the product depending on the speed of the installation procedure, the configuration and documentation.
The instructions should be straightforward, easy to configure and documentation are thorough and adequate. …continued: …continued Interface
Ease-of-use for novice users
Depth for experienced or expert users
Navigation features all work and are all useful and user-friendly Enabling Technologies: Enabling Technologies The main reason for increasing popularity of multimedia lies in dramatic concurrent advances in some enabling technologies
Higher processing power
More memory capacity
Bigger storage capacity
Better compression technology
Carrier and transmission technology
Input and output device technology