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Conference on Water Observation and Information System For Decision Support 25 to 29 May 2004, in Ohrid, Macedonia Serhat Sensoy Turkish State Meteorological Service

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Geographical Status Turkey is located in between 36 and 42 north latitude, 26 and 45 east longitude. Geographically, the country is in the northern hemisphere. Turkey is a bridge between Asia and Europe. Turkey is quite high country with an average altitude of 1 130 meters. The mount Ararat is the Turkey`s highest mountain with the 5 137 m of height. Turkey is the thirty-fourth largest country of the world with the area of 814 578 km2. Turkey has a great variety of geographical characteristics from east to west and from north to south. The country’s location and geographical features give it a variety of landscapes, climates and plant covers.

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AIR MASSES AFFECTING TURKEY mP mP cP cT mT T R O P İ K A L (Warm) POLAR (Cold) It is originated from Russia and Siberian. It is cold and dry air masses and characterized by fog and dry cold at nights. When it passes over Black Sea, it gets moisture and can cause orographic rainfall in the Black Sea costal region. Its source is Atlantic Ocean and passes over Europe. It brings rainfall to the Black Sea Region and snow to inland regions. If it comes from over Mediterranean it became more effective. It is warm and humid. This air mass forms over Asor Islands. It brings a lot of precipitation especially to the western part of Turkey in the ssummer. It is hot and dry. It is originated from North African Desert. If it meets northern systems or gets sufficient moisture over Mediterranean, it can cause rainfall.

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Although Turkey is situated in large Mediterranean geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, results in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremely hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall. Eastern mountainous area has inhospitable climate, with hot, extremely dry summers and bitter winters. The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of rainfall. For example Rize and Hopa receive 2,200 millimeters annually . Hot and dry summers, mild and wet winters Hot and dry summers, cold and harsh winters Temperate and wet all the year round Geography of Turkey Temperate and wet all the year round Hot and dry summer, cold and harsh winter Hot and dry summer, mild and wet winter

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The lowest temperatures occur in the Eastern Anatolian (Kars,Ardahan, Erzurum) and highest temperatures occur in the Southeastern Anatolian and Mediterranean regions. Most part of central Anatolia has temperature between 8-12°C because of the mountains and terrestrial climate. In all parts of Marmara, coastal area of Black Sea, central part of Aegean region and inland of Mediterranean, the long-term annual mean temperatures in between 12-16°C. In the Aegean And Mediterranean coastal area and all part of southeast Anatolia regions, the annual mean temperature varies from 16 to 20°C LONG TERM MEAN TEMPERATURE IN TURKEY

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The Aegean and Mediterranean coasts have rainy in winters but dry in summers. Annual precipitation in those areas varies from 580 to 1,300 mm. The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of rainfall. (Rize, 2,200 mm) and is the only region of Turkey that receives rainfall throughout the year.The driest regions are the Konya, and Iğdır, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. LONG TERM ANNUAL PRECIPITATION OF TURKEY

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THE EFFECT OF MOUNTAINS ON RAINFALL AMOUNT IN TURKEY A big difference is observed when the total rainfall between coastal stations and inland stations, are compared. For example, Antalya station, located Mediterranean coast in front of the Taurus Mountain, receives greatest rainfall in the winter and its annual total is 1063 mm. On the other hand, Karaman and Burdur stations located in the back of Taurus, receive one-third amount of Antalya. Similar effect is viewed in the Black Sea Region. While the coastal Station Hopa receives 2182 mm annual rainfall, in the inland station Bayburt receives only 420 mm. In the Black sea coast, there is an orographic form of rainfall which humid air comes from over Black sea and rises through very High Mountain. When air mass became colder, it can’t carry their water content and most of the rainfalls drop in the coastal area. Therefore, the inland stations lack adequate rainfall.

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If the variation coefficient is high, this distribution can’t be represent Normal Distribution. Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian region have high V.C. It means that in these Regions it can be heavy rainfall.

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SEASONAL RAINFALL IN THE YEAR 2002 Turkey receives greatest amount of rainfall in the winter and spring seasons. Summer rainfall is very limited and because of the increasing temperature and evaporation, some region have drought risk. Mediterranean coasts have cool, rainy winters but hot, dry summers. The Black Sea coast is rainy in all season.

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anomaly Turkey rainfall normal is 630 mm. The country has drought problem in between 1956-1957, 1970-1974, 1989-1993 and 1999-2000 by receiving less rainfall.

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The driest regions are Konya, Karaman, Iğdır and Şanlıurfa, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 mm because of the prevention of mountains, and the semi dry regions are in Central Anatolia because of the same reason. The humid regions are Black Sea coastal regions where annual rainfall can reach 2,200 mm and these regions receives rainfall in all seasons. CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION OF TURKEY ACCORDING TO AYDENIZ FORMULA

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RAINFALL INTENSITY ANALYSIS In Turkey, there are 250 Climatolgical stations which have pluviograph. Rainfall intensity analysis is very important for flood forecasting, and agro meteorological research. A computer program and digitizer are being used for intensity analyses. This program provides easy analyze and correct intensity data for further needs, applications, and research. This program calculates intensive rainfall amount for given standard times. If rainfall amount is equal or higher than Ö 5*t - (t/24)² formula result, then this is called intensive rainfall. For example, in above formula if t=10 minutes, calculated result will be 7.1 mm. Program searches each pixel and find out the value that is higher than formula results and indicates it as an intensive rainfall for that given standart time.

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Serhat Şensoy ssensoy@meteor.gov.tr Tel :+90(312) 302 24 57 Fax :+90(312) 361 23 71

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