Leadership Skills : Leadership Skills UC Debate Club Officer Training Activity 1 Lesson Frame : Lesson Frame Leadership – An Introduction
Power and Influence Tactics
Leadership’s Learning Styles
Group and Team Development
Conflict Management 2 I. Leadership – The Definition : I. Leadership – The Definition Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve the organizational goals.
Leadership is an interaction between the leader, the followers, and the situation. 3 Boss says “Go!”, leader says “Let’s go!” Leader knows the way, shows the way, &
goes the way. 1. Several Definitions of Leadership : 1. Several Definitions of Leadership Leadership as a focus of group processes;
Leadership as a personality and its effects;
Leadership as an act or behavior;
Leadership as an instrument of goal achievement;
Leadership as an emerging effect of interaction;
Leadership as a differentiated role;
Leadership as the initiation of structure;
Leadership as the art of inducing and compliance;
Leadership as the exercise of influence;
Leadership as a form of persuasion and relationship… 4 2. Leader Vs. Manager : 2. Leader Vs. Manager 5 3. Quality of a Perfect Leader : 3. Quality of a Perfect Leader Creative and disciplined
Visionary and detailed
Motivational and commanding
Directing and empowering
Ambitious and humble Reliable and risk-taking
Intuitive and logical
Intellectual and ethical
Coaching and controlling
Inspiring and mentoring Be not a perfect leader, only an effective one! 6 II. Leadership Styles : II. Leadership Styles Leadership Style: the patterns of how a leader interacts with his/her followers.
“Leadership style impacts the motivations of employees, either positive or negative.”
The 6 leadership styles:
Coaching 7 1. Coercive Style : 1. Coercive Style Why:
Obtaining immediate compliance from employees.
Provides clear directives – no empathy
Tightly control situations
Use occasional attention-getting strategies
Emphasizes the negative
Focus on getting the job done
“Do what I tell you!”
“You must do this NOW!” 8 2. Authoritative Style : 2. Authoritative Style Why:
Mobilizing people toward a vision.
Develop a clear vision
Obtain employee’s perspective
Empower and delegate
Set standards & monitor performance
Use balance of positive & negative feedbacks
“This is where we’re going & why.”
“Come with me.” 9 3. Affiliative Style : 3. Affiliative Style Why:
Promoting harmony and collaboration among employees.
Promote friendly interactions among employees
Put people first & tasks second
Try to meet employee’s emotional needs
Identifies opportunities for positive feedback
Provide job security & work/life balance
“People come first.”
“Everyone must get along.” 10 4. Democratic Style : 4. Democratic Style Why:
Building group consensus & commitment through group-management in making decisions.
Give employees full participation
Emphasize the importance of consensus
Include all view in the decision-making
Listen to employees for ideas
Reward group rather than individual
“What do you think”
“Let’s see what the group wants to do” 11 5. Pacesetting Style : 5. Pacesetting Style Why:
Setting high performance standards and getting quick results from a highly motivated & competent team.
Lead by example
Allow employee work independently
Delegates demanding tasks to only
Exert tight control over poor performers
Promote individual effort rather than teamwork
“Do as I do.”
“This is how it must be done! WATCH ME!” 12 6. Coaching Style : 6. Coaching Style Why:
Developing people for future performance.
Help employees identify their performance
strengths & weaknesses
Work with employees to establish
Encourage employees to solve their own work problem
Treat mistakes as learning opportunities
“Let’s see how can I support you!” 13 7. Using the Right Style : 7. Using the Right Style “There is no certain guideline to be an effective leader.”
“There is no a fixed way to fit all situations.”
Effective leaders consider
The skill level and experience of the team
The work involved
The organizational environment
Your own preferred or natural style 14 A good leader will find him- or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with. III. Power and Influence Tactics : III. Power and Influence Tactics Power – the definition
The capacity to produce effects on others in terms of behavior and attitudes. P = f (L, F, S)
The motivation to lead:
Maintain good relationships with authority figure
Eager to compete for recognition and improvement
Be active and assertive
Want to exercise influence over the others
Be visibly different from followers
Be willing to do routine and administrative tasks 15 1. Sources of Leader’s Power : 1. Sources of Leader’s Power Expert Power: power of knowledge or expertise. Ability to use influence to build others; and supply needed info & skills.
Reward Power: ability to deliver something of value to others (tangible / intangible) due to control over desired outcomes.
Coercive Power: ability to administer punishment or to give negative sanctions or removal of positive reinforcements.
Referent Power: ability to influence others that arises when
one person admires another.
Legitimate Power: ability to use rights to prescribe behavior with specified parameters due to organizational role or formal
or official authority. 16 2. Influence Tactics : 2. Influence Tactics Influence tactics – the definition
One person’s actual behaviours designed to change another person’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviours.
Types of influence tactics:
Rational persuasion tactic: when an agent uses logical arguments or factual evidence to influence others.
Inspirational tactic: when people make a request or proposal designed to arouse enthusiasm or emotions in targets.
Consultation tactic: when agent ask targets to participate in planning and activities.
Ingratiation tactic: when agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request. 17 2. Influence Tactics (cont.) : 2. Influence Tactics (cont.) Personal tactic: asking another to do a favor out of friendship.
Coalition tactic: seeking the aid or support of others to influence the target.
Pressure tactic: when mistakes occur.
Legitimizing tactic: making requests based on their position or authority. 18 “You’ve got to give loyalty down, if you want loyalty up.” “When we think we lead, we are most led” IV. Motivation : IV. Motivation Motivation:
A sort of shorthand that provides direction, intensity, and persistence. 19 Key Elements
Direction: guidance for beneficial goal
Intensity: how hard a person tries
Persistence: how long a person tries IV. Motivation (cont.) : IV. Motivation (cont.) “Leaders who are knowledgeable about different motivational theories are more likely to choose the right theory for a particular follower and situation, and often have higher-performing and more satisfied employees as a result.”
Factors for motivating followers
(1). Need theories (2). Individual difference
(3). Cognitive (4). Situational
(5). Intrinsic 20 1. Need Theories : 1. Need Theories 21 Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Existence: provision of basic material requirements.
Relatedness: desire for relationships.
Growth: desire for personal development. Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs 2. Individual Difference : 2. Individual Difference 22 Achievement orientation
the exertion of effort to accomplish socially acceptable endeavors and activities. Values
people are motivated to do activities that aligned with their preferable personal or social mode of conducts or end-state of existence. Intrinsic motivation
behavior seemingly motivated for its own sake, for personal satisfaction, and increased feelings of competence or control one gets from doing it. 3. Cognitive Theories : 3. Cognitive Theories 23 Goal Setting Theory
The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Expectancy Theory
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Process of Expectancy Theory 3. Cognitive Theories (cont.) : 3. Cognitive Theories (cont.) 24 Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of other and then response to eliminate any inequities. Self-efficacy
The individual belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. 4. Situational Approaches : 4. Situational Approaches 25 Operant approach
The motivation by which leaders substitute reward and punishment to change followers’ behaviors. Empowerment
The delegation by which people are provided autonomy and latitude in order to increase their motivation for work. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the org are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. 5. Intrinsic Motivation : 5. Intrinsic Motivation 26 Choice – the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. Competence – the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. Meaningfulness – pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. Progress – the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose. Performance Dimensions 6. Why Motivation? : 6. Why Motivation? Direct behavior toward particular goals.
Lead to increased effort and energy.
Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities.
Enhance cognitive processing.
Determine what consequences are reinforcing
Lead to improved performance.
Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job.
Motivated employees are more quality oriented.
Motivated workers are more productive. 27 V. Leadership Traits – Bright Side : V. Leadership Traits – Bright Side 28 V. Leadership Traits – Bright… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Bright… (cont.) 29 V. Leadership Traits – Dark Side : V. Leadership Traits – Dark Side Dark-side personality traits
The irritating, counter-productive behavioral tendencies that interfere with a leader’s ability to build cohesive and cause followers to exert less effort toward goal accomplishment.
Dark-side personality traits:
Is equipped with everyone, at least one dark-side personality trait.
Usually emerge during crisis or periods of high stress and are coping mechanisms for dealing with stress.
Have bigger influence on performance for people in leadership rather than followership roles. 30 V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) Excitable
Dramatic mood swings, emotional outbursts, and inability to persist on projects. 31 Skeptical
Unhealthy mistrust of others, challenging the integrity of the follower, and vigilance for signs of disloyalty. Reserved
During the time of stress, leaders become extremely withdrawn, uncommunicative, difficult to find, and unconcerned about the welfare of their staffs. Colorful
An unhealthy need to be in the center of attention. Worrying with being noticed of his failure or incompetence. V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) 32 Imaginative
His/her thought is quite eccentric. Often changing their mind, and making odd or strange decisions. Leisurely
Exert efforts only in the pursuit of their own agendas and will procrastinate or not follow other requests that are not in line with his/her agendas. Bold
An extreme self-lover. Pride of entitlement, inability to share credit for success, adopt attribution of blame, inability to learn from experience often result in resent followers. Cautious
Fearful of making mistakes, alienate the followers by not making decisions or taking action on issues. V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) : V. Leadership Traits – Dark… (cont.) Mischievous
A charming leader, but often takes pleasure in seeing a way of breaking the commitments, rules, policies… Very good in finding excuse. 33 Diligent
Perfectionism. This leader frustrate and disempower. Poor prioritization and inability to delegate effectively. Dutiful
Outcome-oriented. Unwilling to refuse unrealistic requests. Won’t stand up for their staffs, and burn them out as a result. VI. Emotional Intelligence : VI. Emotional Intelligence Goleman et al’s model of EQ
Self-Awareness – Our ability to read & understand our emotions & recognize their impact on work performance & relationships.
Self-Regulation – Our ability to maintain self-control while remaining flexible, honest, optimistic, & sustain behaviors to improve performance.
Motivation – A passion to work for reasons beyond money or status, & propensity to pursue goals with energy & persistence.
Empathy – Our ability to empathize with others & understand the social dynamics in our organizations & with our clients.
Social Skill – Our ability to find common ground & build rapport. 34 VII. Leadership’s Learning Styles : VII. Leadership’s Learning Styles 35 Spiral of Experience Single-Loop Learning
The learning between the individual and the environment in which learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions. Double-Loop Learning
The willingness to confront one’s own views and others’. Learner opens to info. and power sharing with others to improve communication’s effectiveness and decision making. VIII. Followership : VIII. Followership Followers, rather than representing the antithesis of leaders, are best viewed as collaborators with leaders.
Followers fall into two groups:
Independent, critical thinking
Dependent, uncritical thinking
Best followers think for themselves and offer constructive advice or even creative solution.
Worst followers need to be told what to do, or
even dodge the responsibility. 36 1. Followership Styles : 1. Followership Styles Alienated followers
They habitually point out all the negative aspects of the org to others. Leaders often see them as cynical & adversarial.
The “yes-people” of the organization. They are really active at doing the organization’s work, but they can be dangerous*.
They rarely committed to their group’s goals. They have learned not to make new waves, and tend to be only average performers.
They rely on the leader to do all thinking. Lack of enthusiasm, initiative, sense of responsibility. Require constant direction.
They are independent, innovative, and willing to assume responsibility and stand up to superiors. They apply their talents for the benefits of the org. 37 2. Leader-Follower Relationship : 2. Leader-Follower Relationship 38 Leadership Personality,
… IX. Delegation : IX. Delegation Why:
Free time for other activities
Strengthen the organization
Delegation takes too much time
Delegation is risky
The job will not be done as well
The task is a desirable one
Other are already too busy 39 1. Principles for Effective Delegation : 1. Principles for Effective Delegation Combined principles of effective delegation
Decide what to delegate
Decide whom to delegate
Make the assignment clear and specific
Assign an objective, not a procedure
Allow autonomy, but monitor performance
Match the amount of responsibility and authority
Provide adequate support
Avoid “upward delegation”
Give credit, not blame 40 X. Group and Team Development : X. Group and Team Development 41 1. Why People Join Group? : 1. Why People Join Group? 42 Security
Goal Achievement 2. Stages of Group Development : 2. Stages of Group Development 43 2. Stages of Group Development (cont.) : 2. Stages of Group Development (cont.) 44 3. Group Processes : 3. Group Processes 45 4. Group Decision Making : 4. Group Decision Making 46 Strengths
More complete information
Increased diversity of views
Higher quality of decisions
Increased acceptance of solutions Weaknesses
More time consuming
Increased pressure to conform
Domination by one or a few members
Ambiguous responsibility 5. Team Vs. Group : 5. Team Vs. Group 47 6. Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams : 6. Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams 48 A Team-Effectiveness Model : 49 A Team-Effectiveness Model 7. Being a Good Team Player : 7. Being a Good Team Player Ten Qualities of effective team player:
Function as an active participant
Share openly and willingly
Cooperate and pitches in to help
Show commitment to the team
Work as a problem-solver
Treat others in a respectful and supportive manner 50 XI. Conflict Management : XI. Conflict Management Conflict – the definition
The opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings, ideas, or interests.
Benefits of conflicts
Increased group cohesion
Drawbacks of conflicts
Disengagement from work
Downward spiral of negativity and recrimination 51 1. Conflict Resolution Techniques : 1. Conflict Resolution Techniques 52 Competitive
Assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. Collaborative
Work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. Compromising
Find a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied. Avoiding
Avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc. Accommodating
Surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party. unassertive assertive uncooperative cooperative Conclusion : Conclusion Leadership is the process, not the position.
Use the combination of transactional and transformational.
Use the styles appropriately.
Combine the power and influence into process of work.
Keep the bright-side of yours and improve the dark ones
Enhance your skills in perceiving, managing, using, & understanding emotions.
Leadership and learnership is indispensable.
Keep followers close to the heart & improve them through effective delegation.
Establish effective groups and teams to help you achieve the overall goals.
Understand the pros and cons conflicts, and apply the appropriate techniques to resolve them.
“Leadership is based on inspiration, not domination;
on cooperation, not intimidation” 53 16 Desires Guiding Human Behaviors : 16 Desires Guiding Human Behaviors Acceptance, the need for approval
Curiosity, the need to think
Eating, the need for food
Family, the need to raise children
Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group
Idealism, the need for social justice
Independence, the need for individuality
Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments 54 Physical Activity, the need for exercise
Power, the need for influence of will
Romance, the need for sex
Saving, the need to collect
Social Contact, the need for friends (peer relationships)
Status, the need for social standing/importance
Tranquility, the need to be safe
Vengeance, the need to strike back References : References Leadership Skills (textbook)
Organizational Behaviors (textbook)
International Leadership Skills Training (handouts)