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Premium member Presentation Transcript Water Resources: Water Resources Global Environment Awareness Lectured by: Dr. Sin Meng Srun Presented by: Mr. Pen VanndarongTable of Contents: Table of Contents Water – The Definition Water Forms and Distribution Types of Water Uses Water Availability Fresh Water Shortage Water Use Problems and Conflicts Increase Water Supply Watershed Management Multipurpose Water Resource Management Conclusion and Recommendation 21. Water – The Definition: 1. Water – The Definition Water is a marvelous substance which can be beautiful, powerful and destructive. 31.1. Water Physical Attributes: 1.1. Water Physical Attributes Water is found in three states 4 Liquid Solid Gas1.2. Hydrologic Cycle: 1.2. Hydrologic Cycle 52. Water Forms and Distribution: 2. Water Forms and Distribution 6 About 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water.2. Water Forms and Distribution: 2. Water Forms and Distribution 7 Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management2.1. Oceans: 2.1. Oceans Is the largest area and volume of water. Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Contain an average of 35g salt per liter. Can be used after being desalinated. 82.2. Ice and Snow: 2.2. Ice and Snow Contain almost 90% of freshwater. Is as much as 2km thick. Situate mostly in Antarctica (85%), Greenland (10%), and other snow mountain (5%). 92.3. Groundwater: 2.3. Groundwater Groundwater is water in the rock and soil layer beneath Earth’s surface. Absorb excess runoff rain and snow on ground. Return to lakes, streams, rivers and/or marshes. Is readily available for use and drinking. 102.4. Lakes: 2.4. Lakes Lakes are created from variety of geological events: Tectonic-basin lake Volcanic lake Glacial lake Groundwater-discharge lake Lakes generate water from: Collection of water in low areas Natural or man-made dam(s) Rivers and streams Groundwater 112.4. Lakes (cont.): 2.4. Lakes (cont.) Freshwater lakes Contribute 91,000km 3 (about 0.007% of total Earth’s water) Provide water for agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, municipal uses and residential water supplies. Major freshwater lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), Baikal Lake (Russia), Tanganyika Lake (Eastern Africa), Lake Superior (U.S), and Malawi Lake (Eastern Africa) 122.4. Lakes (cont.): 2.4. Lakes (cont.) Saline lakes Possess 85,000km 3 (about 0.006% of total Earth’s water) Saline lakes’ water cannot be used due to high salinity. Major saline lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), The Great Salt Lake (U.S.), The Dead Sea (between Jordan & Israel), and Aral Sea (between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). 13 The Great Salt Lake The Dead Sea2.5. Rivers and Streams: 2.5. Rivers and Streams Rivers and streams are bodies of flowing surface water driven by gravity. Rivers and Streams contain only 2,120km 3 (about 0.6% of liquid fresh water surface and around 0.0002% of the Earth’s water.) 14 Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management2.5. Rivers and Streams (cont.): 2.5. Rivers and Streams (cont.) World’s Major Rivers (based on average annual discharge) 15 Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management2.6. Wetlands and Soil Moisture: 2.6. Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetland are areas of land where water covers the surface for at least part of the year. They are not as important as lakes and rivers for water storage. However, they play vital roles in: Erosion protection Flood reduction Groundwater replenishment Trapping nutrient and sediment Water purification Providing fish and wildlife habitat 165.7. Atmosphere: 5.7. Atmosphere Atmosphere contains about 0.001% of total Earth’s water. It is around 4% of air volume in the atmosphere. Movement of water through atmosphere provide mechanism for distributing freshwater to terrestrial reservoir (in form of rain, snow, hail…). 173. Types of Water Uses: 3. Types of Water Uses Off-Stream Uses Agriculture Thermoelectric Industrial Mining Domestic Commercial 18 In -Stream Uses Hydropower Navigation Recreation Ecosystem Support3. Types of Water Uses: 3. Types of Water Uses Basic Assumption (by UN Water) 19 Source: World Water Assessment Program (WWAP) Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)3. Types of Water Uses: 3. Types of Water Uses 20 Source: China 2008 Water Resources Report Source: Cambodian Ministry of Environment3.1. Off-Stream Uses: 3.1. Off-Stream Uses Agriculture Thermoelectric Industrial Mining Domestic Commercial 21a. Agriculture: a. Agriculture Irrigation Crop irrigation consume 2/3 of water withdrawal. Evaporation and seepage from unlined irrigation systems are the principal water losses. There are three types of irrigation systems: 22 Flood Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation Drip Irrigationa. Agriculture (cont.): a. Agriculture (cont.) Livestock Watering livestock Dairy operation Cooling livestock facilities Dairy sanitation and clean-up Animal waste disposal 23a. Agriculture (cont.): a. Agriculture (cont.) Aquaculture Raising fish. Raising shellfish. Raising shrimp and lobster. Raising other creatures living in water. 24b. Thermoelectric: b. Thermoelectric Water is used in production of electrical power. Thermoelectric is one of the largest uses of water in U.S. In 2005, it consumed about 201,000 million gallons of water each day. Thermoelectric occupied 49% of total water use in U.S. Both freshwater and saline water are used in thermoelectric. 25c. Industrial: c. Industrial Industries need water to cool down their machinery to a temperature that allows the manufacturing process to keep going. Water is also needed to clean machinery, products, and buildings. 26c. Industrial (cont.): c. Industrial (cont.) In 2005, U.S. industrial uses were 83% (15,000 gallons/day) surface water and 17% (3,110 gallons/day) groundwater. In Cambodia, rough estimation by Water Environment Partnership in Asia showed: Major industry consumed: 1,000-2,000 m 3 /day Large industry consumed: 100-500 m 3 /day Medium & small industry: 50 m 3 /day 27d. Mining: d. Mining Water is used for the extraction of minerals that can be in forms of: Solid: coal, iron, gold, sand – etc. Liquid: crude oil. Gas: natural gases. 28e. Domestic: e. Domestic Domestic water use is the consumption for household purposes – both indoor and outdoor. In Cambodia, domestic water use was around 136 million m 3 (17% of total consumption). Only people in Phnom Penh can access to piped water. 85% of piped water was consumed. 29f. Commercial: f. Commercial Water is used in businesses such as hotels, restaurants, marketplaces, and so on. In Phnom Penh, commercial use was 14% of total piped water consumption (about 11,480 m 3 per day). 303.2. In-Stream Uses: 3.2. In-Stream Uses 31 Hydropower Recreation Navigation Ecosystem Support4. Water Availability: 4. Water Availability 32 Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management4.1. Earth’s Water: 4.1. Earth’s Water 334.2. Water Stress & Water Scarcity: 4.2. Water Stress & Water Scarcity Water Stress: Annual water supplies is less than 1,700m 3 per person. Water Scarcity: Annual water supplies is less than 1,000m 3 per person. Absolute scarcity: Annual water supplies is less than 500m 3 per person. 34PowerPoint Presentation: 355. Fresh Water Shortage : 5. Fresh Water Shortage Fresh Water Shortage is due to: Population growth Lack of access to clean water Groundwater is being depleted Climate change / global warming Rivers and lakes are shrinking 36Strangled by the water policies of its neighbors, Turkey and Syria, a two-year drought and years of misuse by Iraq and its farmers, the Euphrates River is significantly smaller than it was just a few years ago, and some officials worry that it could soon be half of what it is now. : Strangled by the water policies of its neighbors, Turkey and Syria, a two-year drought and years of misuse by Iraq and its farmers, the Euphrates River is significantly smaller than it was just a few years ago, and some officials worry that it could soon be half of what it is now. 37Leaky canals and wasteful irrigation practices squandered the water, and poor drainage left fields so salty from evaporated water.: Leaky canals and wasteful irrigation practices squandered the water, and poor drainage left fields so salty from evaporated water. 38In the marshes, where the Euphrates nears the end of its 1,730-mile journey and mingles with the less salty waters of the Tigris before emptying into the Persian Gulf, the situation is grave. : In the marshes, where the Euphrates nears the end of its 1,730-mile journey and mingles with the less salty waters of the Tigris before emptying into the Persian Gulf, the situation is grave. 39Fishermen in the Hafar Canal, a shallow tributary of the Euphrates River. : Fishermen in the Hafar Canal, a shallow tributary of the Euphrates River. 40PowerPoint Presentation: 41 1983 2007 10 year drought in the Colorado River basin.6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts : 6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts Water Overuse Overuse in agriculture Overuse in residence Overuse in community Some interesting facts: Water needed to produce our daily food: 40 liters to produce 1 slice of white bread. 70 liters to produce 1 apple. 1,300 liters to produce 1kg of wheat. 3,400 liters to produce 1kg of rice. 3,900 liters to produce 1kg of chicken meat. 15,500 liters to produce 1kg of beef. 426. Water Use Problems and Conflicts : 6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts Water Conflict Control of Water Resources : where water supplies or access to water is at the root of tensions. Military Tool : where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation or state as a weapon during a military action. Political Tool : where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation, state, or non-state actor for a political goal. Terrorism : where water resources, or water systems, are either targets or tools of violence or coercion by non-state actors. Military Target : where water resource systems are targets of military actions by nations or states. Development Disputes : where water resources or water systems are a major source of contention and dispute in the context of economic and social development 437. Increase Water Supply : 7. Increase Water Supply Water Conservation Reclamation of sewage water Development of groundwater Desalinization Developing salt-resistant crops Developing drought-resistant crops Rainmaking Harvesting iceberg Long distance water transport Improve integration of water use 448. Watershed Management: 8. Watershed Management Watershed – the definition A watershed is a connected series of streams, rivers, and lakes that collects water from a specific area of land. Watersheds are important habitats for animals and plants, and offer a source of drinking and recreational water for many communities. 458. Watershed Management: 8. Watershed Management Objectives: The rehabilitation of degraded lands. The protection of soil and water resources under land use systems that produce multiple products of the land. The enhancement of water quantity and quality. Strategies: Managing Watershed Land-Use Practice Managing Riparian Areas Vegetation-Type Conversion Water Harvesting Water Spreading 469. Multipurpose Water Resource Management: 9. Multipurpose Water Resource Management Integrated water resource management Flood-damage reduction Irrigation and water supply Navigation Recreation Environmental protection & improvement Water Management Engineering Reservoir construction Levee construction Dredging Stream drainage channelization 4710. Conclusion & Recommendation: 10. Conclusion & Recommendation Water resources is EVERYONE’s concern! The consumption has been increased significantly due to population growth. Water availability is decreasing due to human overuse and natural degradation. Many sources of water have become unusable. Allegedly control over water lead to intraboundary and transboundary conflicts. Effective water resource management and policy must be implemented on both local and international levels. 48Tips on How to Save Water: Tips on How to Save Water Increasing water resources start from all of us! Don’t flush every time you use the toilet. Take shorter showers Don’t wash your car so often. Don’t let the faucet run while washing hands, dishes, food, or brushing your teeth. Don’t run the dishwasher when half full. Dispose of used motor oil, household hazardous waste, batteries, etc., responsibly. 49Tips on How to Save Water: Tips on How to Save Water Don’t dump anything down a storm sewer that you wouldn’t want to drink. Avoid using toxic or hazardous chemicals for simple cleaning or plumbing jobs. If you have a lawn, use water sparingly. Water your grass and garden at night, not in the middle of the day. Use water-conserving appliances: low-flow showers, low-flush toilets, and aerated faucets. Use recycled (gray) water for lawns, house plants, car washing. Check your toilet for leaks. 50 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.