The Middle East in the World Today

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The Middle East in the World Today::

The Middle East in the World Today: Regional and Global Issues

Why does the Middle East have Global Importance?:

Why does the Middle East have Global Importance?

The Middle East and the Cold War:

The Middle East and the Cold War The superpower rivalry between the USA and the Soviet Union was focused on the Middle East due to oil reserves and the strategic importance of it’s waterways including the Suez Canal and the Persian Gulf Many Middle Eastern nations chose to remain nonaligned and accepted weapons and economic aid from both sides The weapons strengthened the military but also created more tensions in the region

Post Cold War Extremism:

Post Cold War Extremism Extremism has many causes including: 1. lack of democracy 2. poverty and social inequality 3. anger over westernization of Islamic societies Extremism can take on many forms but terrorism against civilians was often used to promote extremist goals Countries like Iraq, Iran and Israel worked to create nuclear weapons which further destabilized the region

The Power of O.P.E.C.:

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (1960) The Power of O.P.E.C.

O.P.E.C. (11 nations):

O.P.E.C. (11 nations)

OPEC Actions::

OPEC Actions: The goal of OPEC was to end the power of western oil companies over oil prices OPEC officials meet regularly to decide how much oil to produce and at what price to offer it at When oil prices rise, developing nations have to cut spending on social programs to pay for oil while industrialized nations face inflation

Wars in the Persian Gulf:

Iran vs. Iraq “Desert Storm” Persian Gulf War I “Operation Iraqi Freedom” Persian Gulf War II Wars in the Persian Gulf

Iran vs. Iraq War 1980:

Iran vs. Iraq War 1980

Iran vs. Iraq War Facts::

Iran vs. Iraq War Facts: Border skirmishes spilled over into full-scale conflict when Iraq invaded Iran in 1980 During the 8 year war each side destroyed the others cities, ports and oil fields More than 1 million Iranians and Iraqi’s died in the fighting International fears were raised when both sides attacked oil tankers and set mines in the Persian Gulf The two sides finally accepted a UN cease-fire in 1988

Operation Desert Storm (1990):

Operation Desert Storm (1990) Saddam Hussein, faced with massive debt and social unrest sought to strengthen his grip on the region by invading Kuwait

Operation Desert Storm:

Operation Desert Storm The global response to the Iraqi invasion included UN condemnation, a UN Trade Embargo and the formation of a coalition of Arab, American and other nations forces From the coalition point of view, the Gulf War consisted of two main phases: An air phase, lasting about six weeks, during which Allied air forces softening up Iraqi military forces by aerial bombardment. A ground phase, during which Allied ground forces advanced into Kuwait and Southern Iraq, and evicted the Iraqi military from Kuwait. (lasted 44 days)

Operation Desert Storm Air Attacks:

Operation Desert Storm Air Attacks

Tomahawk Missiles Launched Toward Iraq:

Tomahawk Missiles Launched Toward Iraq

Desert Storm brings a quick surrender :

Desert Storm brings a quick surrender Within days, Iraqi forces surrendered Kuwait had been freed and a major defeat for Iraq occurred but Saddam remained in power Saddam used attacks by Allies as an excuse to oust arms inspectors leading President Bush to refer to Iraq as part of an Axis of Evil, nations that threaten world peace The threat of “weapons of mass destruction” would lead the US to again go to war in Iraq

Operation Iraqi Freedom:

The Second Persian Gulf War (2003) Operation Iraqi Freedom

The Fall of Saddam Hussein:

The Fall of Saddam Hussein

Operation Iraqi Freedom:

Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20, 2003 the immediate stated goal of was to remove Saddam Hussein’s government and destroy its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists. (Al-Queda) A secondary goal was to create a stable democratic government with a sustainable economy

A Controversial Occupation:

A Controversial Occupation The United States and Great Britain claimed Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (WMD) which became the basis for the invasion France, Russia and Germany didn’t support the US invasion straining relations with these allies After the defeat of the Iraqi military and the capture and execution of Saddam Hussein the United Nations confirmed that Iraqi WMD didn’t exist and that production of these had ceased in 1991

Saddam’s Capture and Execution:

Saddam’s Capture and Execution

The Green Zone:

The Green Zone

Outside the Green Zone:

Outside the Green Zone

US Troop Draw-downs:

US Troop Draw-downs On November 27, 2008, the Iraqi Parliament ratified a Status of Forces Agreement with the United States, establishing that combat forces will withdraw from Iraqi cities by June 30, 2009, and will be completely out of Iraq by December 31, 2011 (if the situation is stable) The pact forbids holding prisoners without criminal charges, and limits searches of homes and buildings. Coalition forces and contractors will be subject to Iraqi law if they commit major and premeditated crimes while off-duty and off-base.

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