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66 International Journal of Yogic Human Movement and Sports Sciences 2020 51: 66-71 ISSN: 2456-4419 Impact Factor: RJIF: 5.18 Yoga 2020 51: 66-71 © 2020 Yoga www.theyogicjournal.com Received: 01-11-2019 Accepted: 03-12-2019 Manish Singh Senior Research fellow- Exercise Physiology Sports Science Department SAI NSSC Bangalore Karnataka India Dr. Malay Mandal JSO- Exercise Physiology Sports Science Department SAI NSSC Bangalore Karnataka India Dr. Athoni Rhetso JSO- Anthropometry Sports Science Department SAI NSSC Bangalore Karnataka India Madhura A Sagarkar Senior Research fellow- Biochemistry Sports Science Department SAI NSSC Bangalore Karnataka India Dr. P Majumdar SSO- Exercise Physiology Sports Science Department SAI NSSC Bangalore Karnataka India Corresponding Author: Manish Singh Senior Research fellow- Exercise Physiology Sports Science Department SAI NSSC Bangalore Karnataka India Study of training induced physiological changes in different training phases of Indian junior hockey players Manish Singh Dr. Malay Mandal Dr. Athoni Rhetso Madhura A Sagarkar and Dr. P. Majumdar Abstract The study aimed to find out the effect of training on physiological parameters of Indian hockey player. 33 hockey players age: 19.22±1.58 height: 173.4±5.51 weight: 64.7±5.63kg who were trained in SAI NSSC Bangalore were volunteered for the present study. These athletes were given training according to the scientific training principles and technique of program design. At the two different phases of training i.e. preparatory phase and competitive phase the physiological parameters viz. VO2max Heart Rate HR 8km/ speed HR 10 Km per speed HR maximum Recovery HR after 3 min back strength grip strength flexibility fatigue index anaerobic peak lactate after 3 minutes recovery body fat percentage muscle mass and bone mass were measured with all safety precautions. The data were statistically analyzed by pooled “t”-test comparing preparatory and competitive phase values of selected variables using SPSS software. The results revealed that there was a significant increase P0.001 in the back strength grip strength left and right hand flexibility and fatigue index in competitive phase compared to the preparatory phase. Whereas significant decrease was observed in HR 8Km /hr speed in competitive phase compared to preparatory phase. Study results indicate that the systematic training protocol will lead to enhance the performance related parameters of athletes by adopting training induced physiological changes. Keywords: Physiological training phases junior hockey players Introduction Modern trends of elite sport require systematic and prolonged approach to sportsmen with gradation of efficiency on control and operation of microcycles mesocycles and on match situations competition phase. Field hockey is a team sport that offers a total body workout that includes both aerobic and anaerobic components 2 3 . The development of motor skills speed body balance stamina and strength are possible outcomes of effective instruction in the sport of field hockey 4 9 11 . All the major muscle groups are activated during the game 10 . Aerobic exercises stimulate both the respiratory frequency and the heart beat 7 8 . Due to aerobic and anaerobic component of training there will be a physiological and anthropological adaptation will occur in the body. The systematic training program can bring about desirable changes in the physiological and anthropometry parameters to enhance the performance outcomes in sport. This study was focused on the field hockey players as the game is popular and played throughout the world. It’s necessary to know individual reaction on the body composition and physiology to training program and to analyze rate of breaching of internal organs balance. The anthropometry physiological variables have important role for the evaluation of training of the athletes. Studies on these parameters of field hockey players particularly in the junior elite age group are lacking in India. In view of it the above study was undertaken to investigate the effect training on selected physiological and anthropometry variables of junior elite Indian male field hockey players.

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67 International Journal of Yogic Human Movement and Sports Sciences http://www.theyogicjournal.com Material and methodology Training Protocol Subjects Total 33 senior elite Indian male field hockey players age: 19.22±1.58 represented India volunteered for this study. The selected physiological and anthropometrical parameters were measured in the laboratory at the Preparatory Phase and Competitive Phase of the training. All the tests were conducted at 25 ± 1 ºC with relative humidity of 60 - 65. The athletes were informed about the possible complications of the study and gave their consent. The study was conducted at Sports Authority of India NSSC Bangalore and was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Institute. Training Protocol The players were given training program which involves i Preparatory Phase PP 8 weeks and ii Competitive Phase CP 4 weeks. The volume and intensities of the training components also varies in each phase of training. In the preparatory phase the volume and intensity of training increased gradually. On the other hand in the competitive phase the training volume and intensity was changed according to the competition schedule. At the same time highly specified training related to field hockey and practice match play was followed in the competitive phase. The players completed an average of 2 hours of training in morning sessions which was mostly performed to improve the physical fitness of the players. On the other hand in the evening sessions 2 hours of technical and tactical training which included dribbling tackle set up movements penalty corner penalty shootout and match practice. The training sessions were followed 5 days per week according to the requirement of the game and competitive demand. Measurement of Anthropometry Variables The athletes were tested for their body composition viz. Height breadth and girth measurements was taken in centimeter cm and the skin fold measurements in millimeter mm. Bone mass: Players height was measured by stadiometer and humerus bicondylar femus bicondylar wrist diameter and ankle length was measured by sliding calliper. Bone mass was calculated using “Matiegkas Bone Mass Formula”. Skeletal Muscle mass: Players height was measured by stadiometer rod and circumference of upper arm forearm thigh and calf was measured by anthropometry tape. The Skeletal muscle mass was calculated using “Matiegkas Skeletal Muscle Mass Formula”. Percent body fat: Players bicep triceps subscapular and supraspinale skin fold was measured for the estimation of fat percentage and calculation was done by “Siris Body Fat Percentage Equation”. Measurement of Physiological Variables The direct assessment of maximal aerobic capacity was carried out using a portable gas analyzer Metamax 3B Germany and a treadmill Jaeger LE 500 Jaeger Germany. Subjects were asked to run on treadmill at 0 gradient and at 4-km h-1 6-km h-1 8-km h-1 and 10-km h-1 for 2 minutes at each speed with the face mask attached to the mouth-piece. Then the subject was told to stand on the treadmill with the face mask attached to the mouth-piece while the treadmill was stationary. Expired gases were sampled breadth-by- breadth and the heart rate maximum oxygen consumption VO2 max carbon dioxide production pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient RQ were measured from a mixing chamber using a computerized metabolic analyzer. The back strength was measured by back dynamometer usually composed of a cable tensiometer. To know the maximum isometric strength of the hand and forearm muscles of athletes the hand grip strength was measured by the instrument Handgrip dynamometer. Anaerobic power was measured using cycle ergo-meter Jaeger LE 900 Germany following the Wingate anaerobic test. Strength of the grip and back was measured with the help of dynamometers following standard procedure. The physiological parameters viz. VO 2 max Heart Rate HR 8km/ speed HR 10 Km per speed HR maximum Recovery HR after 3 min back strength grip strength flexibility fatigue index and anaerobic peak lactate after 3 minutes recovery were measured at preparatory and competitive phase of training with all safety precaution. Statistical Analysis All the values of physiological and anthropometry variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation SD. The selected anthropometry physiological variables were compared between preparatory and competitive training phases using Pooled t-test analysis. In each case the significant level was chosen at 0.05 levels. Accordingly a statistical software package SPSS-12 version was used. Result and Discussion Differences in Physiological variables i.e. sub maximal HR1 p0.01 Back strength p0.001 flexibility p0.05 Anaerobic Fatigue Index p0.05 and Grip strength of Right hand p0.001 left hand p0.01 was found significantly higher in Jr. Hockey players but no significant difference was observed in VO 2 max Sub maximal HR HRmax Recovery HR and Anaerobic peak lactate. Cardiovascular parameters such as VO 2 max HR Max Recovery does not show much significant change in the current study. Similar results were found in the study done by Idranil Manna et.al. in 2016 i.e. there was no significant changes in VO 2 max and HR max parameters after 12 weeks of training in hockey players. This study results also shows the significant decrease in VO 2 max HR 8km/hr speed along with insignificant increase in the HRmax and anaerobic peak lactate values. This indicates that the athletes adopted the training and their lactate threshold level is improved in a better way. The lactate threshold is the maximum effort or intensity that an athlete can maintain for an extended period of time with little or no increase in lactate in the blood 5. The anthropometry parameters shows significant decrease in Body fat percentage and insignificant decrease in bone mass and muscle mass. Indannil manna et. al. also found similar results in hockey players in 2016 after 12 weeks of training 6. The possible reason for reduction in body fat might be due to endurance training which increases greater utilization of fat 7. Similar findings were also noted by some researchers who studied on field hockey players and reported that percent body fat was significantly lower in-season and postseason vs. preseason 1. Therefore it can be stated that field hockey players can accumulate body fat in the pre- season and lose body fat during preparatory phase and competitive phase of training. This might be due to intensive training during preparatory phase and high level of performance during the competitive phase. In this study no

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68 International Journal of Yogic Human Movement and Sports Sciences http://www.theyogicjournal.com significant difference was observed in stature body mass and bone mass of the field hockey players after the training program. It might be due to the shorter duration of the training. It has been reported that short term exercise training has no significant effect on body mass of the sports persons 7. Table 1: Effect of training on Physiological Variables of Jr. Hockey players. Values are expressed as mean ±SEM. p0.05 p 0.01 p0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Parameter Preparatory Phase n29 Competitive phase n29 P-Value Significance level VO2max l/min 3.51±.370 3.50±.332 0.816 Ns VO2max ml/kg/min 54.04±4.04 53.64±2.93 0.495 Ns HR at 8km/hr speed bpm 135±8.98 130±9.92 0.004 p0.01 HR at 10km/hr speed bpm 150±9.01 147±8.91 0.069 Ns HRmax bpm 187±7.38 188±6.57 0.226 Ns Recovery HR bpm after 3min 106±13.69 107±12.13 0.442 Ns Back Strength kg 140±16.23 152±14.50 0.000 p0.001 Grip strength kg Right hand 45±4.91 48±5.07 0.000 p0.001 Left hand 46±5.28 49±4.98 0.001 p0.01 Flexibility inches 16.54±4.55 18.14±4.23 0.000 p0.001 Fatigue Index 5.6±1.62 7.1±2.02 0.019 p0.05 Anaerobic peak lactate mmol/l after 3 rd minutes recovery 12.17±2.22 12.68±2.15 0.248 Ns Table 2: Effect of training on Anthropometry parameters of Jr. Hockey players. Values are expressed as mean ±SEM. p0.05 p 0.01 p0.001 was considered to be statistically significant Parameter Preparatory Phase n25 Competitive Phase n25 P-Value Significance level Body composition Body fat 11.54± 1.88 10.28 ±1.5 .000 p0.001 Bone Mass kg 10.69±1.04 10.5±1.01 .640 Ns Muscle mass kg 31.93±3.22 31.6±6.34 .786 Ns Somatotype Endo 1.85±.397 1.67±.345 .000 p0.001 Meso 4.23±1.00 4.41±.954 .001 p0.01 Ecto 3.09±.946 3.09±.902 1.000 Ns

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69 International Journal of Yogic Human Movement and Sports Sciences http://www.theyogicjournal.com Fig 1: Effect of Physiological variables of Jr. Hockey players. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. p0.05 p0.01 p0.001 when compared between two phase.

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70 International Journal of Yogic Human Movement and Sports Sciences http://www.theyogicjournal.com Fig 2: Effect of training on anthropometry parameters of Jr. Hockey players. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. p0.05 p 0.01 p0.001 was considered to be statistically significant.

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71 International Journal of Yogic Human Movement and Sports Sciences http://www.theyogicjournal.com Conclusion The present study concludes that the specific training including speed strength and endurance will enhance the physical fitness and performance of the athletes by adopting training induced physiological changes. Current study will help to understand the player’s physical fitness and their predisposition to handle aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Acknowledgement The author sincerely and whole heartedly acknowledges to Shri. Shyamsunder Ex-Regional director Dr. Praveen Nair JSO-Biomechanics coaches and players of field hockey and all the staff members of Dpt. Of Sports Sciences SAI NSSC Bangalore for their valuable support and guidance for the present study. This study was funded by a Sports Authority of India under research fellow fellowship Reference 1. Astorino TA Tam PA Rietschel JC Johnson SM Freedman TP. Changes in physical fitness parameters during a competitive field hockey season. J Stren Cond Res 2004 18:850-854. 2. Calo CM Sanna S Piras IS Pavan P Vona G. Body composition of Italian female hockey players. Biology of Sport. 2009 26:23-31. 3. Carling C Reilly T Williams AM. Performance assessment for field sports. Routledge 2009. 4. Elferink-Gemser MT Visscher C Lemmink KAPM Mulder T. Multidimensional performance characteristics and standard of performance in talented youth field hockey players: A longitudinal study. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2007 25:481-489. 5. https://www.lactate.com/lactate_threshold_definitions.ht ml 6. Indranil Manna F Gulshan Lal Khanna Prakash Chandra Dhara Effect of Training on Anthropometry Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Elite Field Hockey Players. International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering. 2010 2016 0404:229-238. 7. Katch VL McArdle WD Katch FI. Essentials of exercise physiology 4th ed. Baltimore MD: Lippincott Williams Wilkins 2011. 8. Kraemer WJ Fleck SJ Deschenes MR. Exercise physiology integrating theory and application 1st ed. Baltimore: MD: Lippincott Williams Wilkins 2012. 9. Macutkiewicz D Sunderland C. The use of GPS to evaluate activity profiles of elite women hockey players during match-play. Journal of Sports Sciences 2011 29:967-973. 10. Manna I Khanna GL Dhara PC. Effects of training on anthropometry physiological and biochemical variables of elite field hockey players. International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering 2010 4:229-238. 11. Podgorski T Pawl M. A half century of scientific research in field hockey. Human Movement 2011 12:108-123.

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