The science of scientific writing

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The science of scientific writing ?:

The science of scientific writing ? Mr. Mohamed Omar El-Farok M.Sc , FRCSEng , FRCSEd , IME

Nice story:

Nice story

Time distribution of vascular surgeon :

Time distribution of vascular surgeon

Searching for an Article :

Searching for an Article Google BMJ Journals Collection ScienceDirect EBSCOhost databases Wiley Online Library IngentaConnect Cambridge Journals Online Ovid Online JAMA Network Journals ProQuest NICE BNF and BNFC Mobile Applications SAGE Journals

Medical knowledge doubling time ?:

Medical knowledge doubling time ?


SOURCE: Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters The top ten countries ranked according to average citations per paper in all fields (that is, 22 main subject areas, (including general social sciences)) Science Impact – Top Ten Countries Rank    Country Papers 1993-2003 Avg. citations per paper 1 Switzerland 142,982 13.24 2 United States 2,799,593 12.63 3 Netherlands 202,184 11.33 4 Denmark   79,929 11.14 5 Sweden  158,136 10.85 6 Scotland  96,571 10.75 7 England  619,707 10.74 8 Canada  370,928 10.25 9 Finland   74,106 10.17 10 Belgium   103,181 9.74


Rank      Country Papers 1998-2008 1 United States 2,798,448 2 Japan 757,586 3 Germany 723,804 4 England 641,768 5 France 517,096 6 People's Republic of China 511,216 7 Canada 388,471 8 Italy 370,053 9 Spain 271,753 10 Russia 262,982 SOURCE: Essential Science Indicators SM from Thomson Reuters Science Output – Top Ten Countries

What is SCOPUS ?:

What is SCOPUS ? Is the largest abstract and citation database of peer reviewed literature It is the best research tool I have ever used

How it works:

How it works

Researchers wear many hats :

Researchers wear many hats -You can do many things in the reseachers Process -You should at least read 4 hours a day in Your vascular carer

What is Scientific Writing:

What is Scientific Writing The purpose of scientific writing is to communicate new scientific findings Thus it has to be clear, simple and well ordered communication to transmit new scientific findings Scientific writing must use proper English which gives the sense in the fewest short words

Origins of Scientific Writing:

Origins of Scientific Writing Knowledge is lost without written records Cave paintings and inscriptions were the first attempts to leave records About 2000 BC, Papyrus paper was used as a medium of communication In 190 BC, parchment made from animal skin came into use In 105 AD, the Chinese invented paper Knowledge could not be widely circulated with no effective duplication In 1100 AD, the Chinese invented movable type In 1455 AD, Gutenberg printed his 42-line Bible from movable type on a printing press By the year 1500 thousands of copies of hundreds of books (called “incunabula”) were printed In 1665, the first scientific journals were published

IMRAD Story (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion):

IMRAD Story (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) Early journals published descriptive papers (still used in case reports, geological surveys etc..) By the second half of the 19 th century, reproducibility of experiments became a fundamental principle of the philosophy of science. The methods section became all important since Louis Pasteur confirmed the germ theory of disease IMRAD organization of a scientific paper started to develop IMRAD format slowly progressed in the latter half of the 19 th century

IMRAD Format:

IMRAD Format I = Introduction , what question (problem) was studied M = Methods , how was the problem studied R = Results , what are the findings A = and D = Discussion , what do these findings mean

What is a scientific paper:

What is a scientific paper A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results. It must be the first publication of original research results, In a form whereby peers of the author can repeat the experiments and test the conclusions, and In a journal or other source document readily available within the scientific community

Definition of Scientific paper:

Definition of Scientific paper An accepted original scientific publication containing scientific information to enable peers: To assess observations To repeat experiments To evaluate intellectual processes Must have an impact Available to scientific community without restriction Available for regular screening by one or more of the major recognized secondary services (Biological abstracts, Index Medicus , Pub Med etc …)

Before Starting to Write the Paper:

Before Starting to Write the Paper Record your readings (results) Make tables Draw graphs Keep file to record summaries of results and any observation however insignificant Date the files Revise your readings, you may need to repeat an experiment while you still have the materials. Write ideas when ever they come to you

Essential Parts of a Scientific paper:

Essential Parts of a Scientific paper Title : Describe concisely the core contents of the paper Abstract : Summarize the major elements of the paper Introduction : provide context and rationale for the study Materials : Describe the experimental design so it is reproducible Methods : Describe the experimental procedures Results : Summarize the findings without interpretation Discussion : Interpret the findings of the study Summary : Summarize the findings Acknowledgement : Give credit to those who helped you References : List all scientific papers, books and websites that you cited

Title :



Types of title that can be used for scientific papers Indicative titles indicate the subject matter of a paper but give no indication of any results obtained or conclusions drawn e.g. The effectiveness of bed nets in controlling mosquitoes at different seasons of the year. Informative titles give an indication of results achieved and conclusions drawn as well as the subject matter of the paper e.g. Bed nets control mosquitoes most effectively when used in the rainy season. Question-type titles This type of title obviously asks a question. e.g. When are bed nets most effective when used to control mosquitoes? Main-subtitle (series) type This approach is not liked by editors of scientific journals because if they accept the first paper they will be duty bound to accept sequels. e.g. The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes: 1.Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season.

The Title:

The Title A good title is defined as the fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of the paper. The title is extremely important and must be chosen with great care as it will be read by thousands, whereas few will read the entire paper Indexing and abstracting of the paper depends on the accuracy of the title. An improperly titled paper will get lost and will never be read.


Titles should neither be too short nor too long as to be meaningless Waste words (studies on, investigations on, a, an, the etc ) should not be used. Syntax (word order) must be very carefully considered It should contain the keywords that reflect the contents of the paper. It should be meaningful and not general It should be concise, specific and informative It should capture the fundamental nature of the experiments and findings

How to Prepare the Title:

How to Prepare the Title Make a list of the most important keywords Think of a title that contains these words The title could state the conclusion of the paper The title NEVER contains abbreviations, chemical formulas, proprietary names or jargon Think, rethink of the title before submitting the paper Be very careful of the grammatical errors due to faulty word order Avoid the use of the word “using”

Abstract :



The Scientific Paper:  Abstract An abstract is a shortened version of the paper and should contain all information necessary for the reader to determine:  (1) what the objectives of the study were; (2) how the study was done; (3) what results were obtained; (4) and the significance of the results.  Frequently, readers of a scientific journal will only read the abstract , choosing to read at length those papers that are most interesting to them. For this reason, and because abstracts are frequently made available to scientists by various computer abstracting services, this section should be written carefully and succinctly to have the greatest impact in as few words as possible .  Although it appears as the first section in a paper, most scientists write the abstract section last .

The Abstract:

The Abstract An abstract can be defined as a summary of the information in a document It is of fundamental importance that the abstract be written clearly and simply, as it is the first and sometimes the only part of the manuscript read. It should provide a brief summary of each of the main sections (IMRAD) of the paper: State the principal objective and scope of the investigation Describe the methods used Summarize the results, and State the principal conclusions It is easier to write the abstract after completion of the paper

Criteria of the Abstract:

Criteria of the Abstract It should not exceed 250 words It should be written in one paragraph. It should be written in the past tense as it refers to work done. Long words should be followed by its abbreviation which would be used through out the abstract and paper. It should not cite any references (except in rare cases) It should never give any information or conclusion that is not stated in the paper Must be accurate with respect to figures quoted in the main text.



Introduction- Setting the Scene :

< 2% readers actually cite your article And among these < 2% approximately 98% reader just read the introduction Brief background information of the current study Focused Integrated review of pertinent work Updated literature citation Should not be too long Importance of current study/advancement needed/summary of new findings Introduction- Setting the Scene


The Scientific Paper:  Introduction Why is this study of scientific interest and what is your objective? This section discusses the results and conclusions of previously published studies , to help explain why the current study is of scientific interest.  The Introduction is organized to move from general information to specific information . The background must be summarized succinctly, but it should not be itemized. Limit the introduction to studies that relate directly to the present study. Emphasize your specific contribution to the topic.  The last sentences of the introduction should be a statement of objectives and a statement of hypotheses .  This will be a good transition to the next section , Methods , in which you will explain how you proceeded to meet your objectives and test your hypotheses.

The Introduction:

The Introduction The introduction should answer the following questions: What was I studying? Why was this an important question? What did I know about this topic before I did this study? What model was I testing? and What approach did I take in this study?

Suggested rules for a good introduction::

Suggested rules for a good introduction: It should present the nature and scope of the problem investigated Review the pertinent literature State the method of investigation State the principal results of the investigation State the principal conclusion(s) suggested by the results

General rules:

General rules Use the present tense when referring to work that has already been published, but past tense when referring to your own study. Use the active voice as much as possible Avoid lengthy or unfocused reviews of previous research. Cite peer-reviewed scientific literature or scholarly reviews. Avoid general reference works such as textbooks. Define any specialized terms or abbreviations

Material and methods:

Material and methods

How to write the Materials and Methods section:

How to write the Materials and Methods section Provide full details so that the experiments are reproducible If the peer reviewer has doubts that the experiments could be repeated, the manuscript will be rejected. Organize the methods under subheadings, with related methods described together (e.g. subjects, experimental design, Measurement of…, Hormonal assays etc …). Describe the experimental design in detail Do not mix some of the Results in this section Write in the past tense


Materials Must identify accurately experimental animals, plants, and microorganisms used by genus, species and strain The source of subjects studied, number of individuals in each group used, their sex, age, and weight must be clearly stated If human subjects are used, the criteria for selection should be described, and consent For chemicals used, include exact technical specifications and source or method of preparation. Avoid the use of trade names of chemicals, generic or chemical names are preferred.


Methods This part of the manuscript must be clear, precise and concise so that it can be reproducible If the method is new, all details must be provided If the method has been previously published in a scientific journal, only the reference should be given with some identification: e.g. “cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described by …”. Preferable than “cells were broken as previously described by …. “ Questions such as “how” or “how much” must be answered and not left to be puzzled over Methods used for statistical analyses must be mentioned; ordinary ones without comments, but advanced or unusual ones require literature citation



How to write the Results:

How to write the Results Results section is written in the past tense It is the core or heart of the paper It needs to be clearly and simply stated since it constitutes the new knowledge contributed to the world The purpose of this section is to summarize and illustrate the findings in an orderly and logical sequence, without interpretation The text should guide the reader through the findings, stressing the major points Do not describe methods that have already been described in the M&M section or that have been inadvertently omitted

Methods of presenting the data:

Methods of presenting the data Directly in the text In a table In a figure All figures and tables must be accompanied by a textual presentation of the key findings Never have a table or figure that is not mentioned in the text

Tables and figures:

Tables and figures Tables are appropriate for large or complicated data sets that would be difficult to explain clearly in text. Figures are appropriate for data sets that exhibit trends, patterns, or relationships that are best conveyed visually. Any table or figure must be sufficiently described by its title and caption or legend, to be understandable without reading the main text of the results section. Do not include both a table and a figure showing the same information



How to write the Discussion:

How to write the Discussion It is the hardest section to write. Its primary purpose is to show the relationships among observed facts It should end with a short summary or conclusion regarding the significance of the work.

Components of the discussion:

Components of the discussion Try to present the principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by the Results Point out any exceptions or any lack of correlation and define unsettled points Show how your results and interpretations agree or contrast with previously published work Discuss the theoretical implications of your work, and any possible practical applications. State your conclusions as clearly as possible Summarize your evidence for each conclusion

How to State the Acknowledgments:

How to State the Acknowledgments You should acknowledge: Any significant technical help that you have received from any individual in your lab or elsewhere The source of special equipment, cultures, or any other material Any outside financial assistance, such as grants, contracts or fellowships Do not use the word “wish”, simply write “I thank …..” and not “I wish to thank…” Show the proposed wording of the Acknowledgement to the person whose help you are acknowledging

References :



References What is referencing? Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your document. A list of ALL the references used in the text must be written. Reference format varies widely: Harvard format (the name and year system) is the most widely used Alphabet-Number system is a modification of name and year system Citation order system


In-text citations In name and year system: Citation in the text is followed by the author’s last name and year of publication between parentheses. If they were two authors then both last names are written. If more than two then the only first author’s name is written followed by the abbreviation et al If a single statement requires more than one citation then the references are arranged chronologically from oldest to more recent, separated by semicolons. If more than one reference share the same year then they are arranged alphabetically within the year. In alphabet-number system: Citation by number from an alphabetically arranged numbered reference list. In Citation order system: The references are numbered in the order they are mentioned in the text

Reference List:

Reference List Any papers not cited in the text should not be included. Reference lists allow readers to investigate the subject in greater depth. A reference list contains only the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document. A bibliography includes all sources consulted for background or further reading.


In name and year system: The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title. If more than one item has the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication. Each reference appears on a new line. There is no indentation of the references There is no numbering of the references In alphabet-number system: It the same as above in addition each reference is given a number In Citation order system: The reference list is arranged by the number given to the citation by the order that it were mentioned in the text

Ethics, Rights and Permissions:

Ethics, Rights and Permissions Beware of originality and copyrights of others. Do not copy anything without giving the credit to the owner by referencing it. In some cases permissions are needed Repetitive publication of the same data is considered plagiarism


References Robert Day (1995): How to write and publish a scientific paper. 4 th Edition, Cambridge University Press University of Queensland (2009) References/Bibliography Harvard Style

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, What makes good writing? 1. Good writing communicates an idea clearly and effectively. 2. Good writing is elegant and stylish. Takes time, revision, and a good editor! Takes having something to say and clear thinking.

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, What makes a good writer? Inborn talent? Years of English and humanities classes? An artistic nature? The influence of alcohol and drugs? Divine inspiration?

Scientific Writing,:

Scientific Writing, What makes a good writer (outside of poets, maybe): Having something to say. Logical and clear thinking. A few simple, learnable rules of style (the tools we’ll learn in this class). Take home message: Clear, effective writing can be learned!

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, How much can you improve your writing in one short quarter? A lot! In addition to taking this class, other things you can do to become a better writer: Read, pay attention, and imitate. Let go of “academic” writing habits (deprogramming step!) Talk about your research before trying to write about it. Develop a thesaurus habit. Search for the right word rather than settling for any old word. Respect your audience—try not to bore them! Stop waiting for “inspiration.” Accept that writing is hard for everyone. Revise. Nobody gets it perfect on the first try. Learn how to cut ruthlessly. Never become too attached to your words. Find a good editor!

Scientific Writing, Reading list:

Scientific Writing, Reading list ** Read, pay attention, and imitate. My favorite sources of good writing… The New Yorker The New York Times How many read the NY Times Tuesday Science section? Nature Science Expect to see examples from these sources throughout this course!

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Before you start writing, ask: “What am I trying to say?” When you finish writing, ask: “Have I said it?”

Scientific Writing,:

Scientific Writing, Once you know what you’re trying to say, then pay attention to your words! Today’s lesson: Strip your sentences to just the words that tell .

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Today’s introduction to writing well: Words: 1. Reduce dead weight words and phrases 2. Cut, cut, cut; learn to part with your words 3. Be specific Sentences: 4. Follow: subject + verb + object (SVO) 5. Use strong verbs and avoid turning verbs into nouns 6. Eliminate negatives; use positive constructions instead

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Words 1. Reduce dead weight words and phrases Get rid of jargon and repetition “ Verbose is not a synonym for literary .” -- (Sin and Syntax)

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Attempt try Referred to as called With the possible exception of except Due to the fact that because He totally lacked the ability to he couldn’t Until such time as until For the purpose of for Beware of Use instead

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Investigate study Optimum best Indicate show Initiate start Currently now Facilitate help Endeavor try Ascertain find out Beware of Use instead

Scientific Writing, :

Wordy To the point 3 am in the morning 3 am absolutely spectacular spectacular a person who is honest an honest person a total of 14 birds 14 birds biography of her life biography circle around circle close proximity proximity completely unanimous unanimous consensus of opinion consensus cooperate together cooperate each and every each end result result he is a man who he Scientific Writing,

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Wordy Pointed in spite of the fact that although in the event that if new innovations innovations one and the same the same period of four days four days personally, I think/feel I think/feel personal opinion opinion refer back refer repeat again repeat revert back revert shorter/longer in length shorter/longer had been previously found had been found

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Wordy Pointed small/large in size small/large square/round/rectangular in shape square/round/rectangular surrounded on all sides surrounded surrounding circumstances circumstances the future to come the future there is no doubt but that no doubt usual/habitual custom custom unexpected surprise surprise

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Not honest dishonest Not important trifling Does not have lacks Did not remember forgot Did not pay attention to ignored Did not have much confidence distrusted Did not succeed failed

Scientific Writing, :

Scientific Writing, Recap: 1. Reduce dead weight words and phrases 2. Cut, cut, cut; learn to part with your words 3. Be specific 4. Follow: subject + verb + object (active voice!) 5. Use strong verbs and avoid turning verbs into nouns 6. Eliminate negatives; use positive constructions instead

Is Science Publication?:

Is Science Publication? Science is Public Objective Predictive Reproducible Systematic Cumulative Publication makes this possible Final step in discovery

Why shouldn’t I read?:

Why shouldn’t I read? John W. Kirklin (pioneer heart surgeon and journal editor) 5%—no more than 10%—of articles published in cardiothoracic surgery contribute to new knowledge Those get lost in the 90% to 95% Few know how to sort them out I don’t want to be a patient right after a medical meeting

What should I read (or write)?:

What should I read (or write)? Today Report of a study Other types (sampling only!) Editorials Reviews Meta-analyses Guidelines Consensus statements CPCs

Writing Order:

Writing Order Preparation Review materials, methods, results Goals Establish paper’s message & audience Select purposes tied to message Sequence Finish methods & results Discussion, introduction, references Definitive title & authors Post-writing Out to co-authors & revise Revise (seriously) after journal review


Authors Why are authors important? Who should write the paper? Who should be on author list (if any)? How many? What order? What roles?


Authors Why important? Like it or not, it is an issue of authority or expertise or experience (sociology) Where was work done? Credibility Generalizability Assists evaluating apparent negative results


Authors Controversies Who should be an author? Number of authors Author order Conflicts of interest / disclosures Subject all its own…


References Not exhaustive 30 or less is sufficient Not just recent literature Contextual Place subject in context Represents all sides of controversy Truly relevant Cited accurately NLM has a problem!


Contents kinds of scientific written communication scientific writing in general IMRaD format paper organization paper writing paper submission the editing process proof-reading … and pointers to reading From an idea by way of rules to the published paper

Scientific written communication:

Scientific written communication Reports Theses or dissertations Journal articles Books and book chapters Technical manuals/users guides Research or grant proposals Slide presentations Posters

Where to submit the manuscript:

Where to submit the manuscript The prestige factor The circulation factor The frequency factor The audience factor What is the publisher’s practice w/libraries? Will they have access to the journal for reasonable price???

The final draft:

The final draft Front Matter Title (fewest possible words that describe the contents) Author’s (co-authors) name and address Abstract (miniversion of the paper, no citations) Keywords Article Body (IMRaD) Introduction Methods Results Discussion/Conclusion End Matter Acknowledgment (technical help and financial assistance) References (EndNote has style guides) Appendices


Abstracts Descriptive abstract or topical abstract, describes the contents but contains too little substance and detail Informative abstract self-explanatory report on a scientific investigation (research objectives for conducting the investigation, the basic method used, and the results and significant conclusions) - 200 to 250 words Extended abstract (conference proceedings) Don’t ignore those keywords!

Citations and references:

Citations and references For a better credibility you have to review the literature and show that your contribution extends from a solid foundation of research Quality and quantity of the sources you have consulted will enhance your work You have make it possible for readers to retrace your steps Your references can be as valuable as your research methods and findings Check Information for Authors section

Citations: Name-year system:

Citations: Name-year system Examples in the text: Salwasser (1992) developed a … …realism or humanism (Schmitt, 1986). Many other have surveyed (Schmitt, 1986; Teal, 1981) References Salwasser, K. Landscape Metrics, …… 1999. Schmitt, L. A. Symposium and concluding remarks,…1986. Teal, D.W. … 1981 Note: list of references in author alphabetical order

Ethics of scientific writing:

Ethics of scientific writing Avoid dual publication Don’t use the work of others without appropriate attribution List only those co-authors who contributed substantially to the work

Final submission:

Final submission In-house reviews required? Submit the paper to the journal’s editor (only to one journal) Hard-copy of manuscript (usually three or more copies) Disk of the same version Text: Word, Word Perfect, TeX/LaTeX, etc. Figures: tif, gif, postscript, etc. E-Journal submission

Types of Scientific Writings:

Types of Scientific Writings Research Articles or Research Papers Review Articles Research Reports Research Projects for Funding Patents Dissertation of Thesis

Types of Scientific Writings- Research Articles:

Types of Scientific Writings- Research Articles Ultimate Product of Intellectual Pursuit Report on research findings that are Sound (Valid) Previously unknown (Novel and original) Add new understanding, observation, proofs It has required structure and style IMRaD (Introduction, Material, Results and Discussion).


Impact factor of journal is the frequency of its citations. High impact factor journals are the ones which have high frequency of citations by others It is a superficial, but internationally accepted, measure of quality of journals A good high impact journal may publish a paper which have low to zero citations. What are High Impact Factor Journals?

What is an Impact Factor of a Journal:

What is an Impact Factor of a Journal Reflecting the average number of citations of an article in a journal Appears in Journal Citation Reports - Science Citation Index Journals with high impact factors considered to be more scientifically important and more prestigious. Impact Factor = Citations in 2012 to articles published in 2011 and 2010 Articles published in 2011 and 2010

Journal Impact Factor 2009:

Journal Impact Factor 2009 Journal Impact Factor Nature 34.480 Science 29.747 LANCET 30.758 Angewandte - 11.829 Chemie Tetrahedron 3.219 Acta Crys . E 0.453 5907 journals


It measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a researcher. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. H-Index or Hirsch Index or Hirsch Number


The h-index is based on a list of publications ranked in descending order by the Times Cited. The value of h is equal to the number of papers (N) in the list that have N or more citations. H-index or Hirsch index or Hirsch number

Publishing in High Impact Journals-It’s the idea which matters:

Publishing in High Impact Journals-It’s the idea which matters


Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries , Vol.3 • No.1 • 2009 Merits Demerits Easily accessible Non-availability of full text (Sometime) Online submission Subscription only for a fixed duration Online editing Poor quality of Portable Document File Time Savings No perpetual access On spot access Can not read at your leisure Can download any article with/without payment Continuity of content is disturbed Problems in downloading Merits Demerits Easily accessible Increased time spent in searching information Personified copy Non-availability of Indexes in some journals Legibility Expensive according to number of copies No dependency on computer/electricity Require more space Can read at your leisure No need of link/continuity Can keep all printed versions to eyesight at a glance E-Journals Print-Journals E-Journals Vs Print Journal


According to a survey conducted at H M Patel Centre for Medical Care and Education , India, following are the responses by professional about the usage of e- journal Vs Print journals Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries , Vol.3 • No.1 • 2009 E-Journals Vs Print Journal


Why it is Important to Publish in High Impact Factor Journals?


Publish or perish Greater visibility of research findings Increase chances of citations Greater recognition among peers Associated benefits such as promotions, productivity allowances, etc Why it is Important to Publish in High Impact Factor Journals


Which Manuscripts are Published in High Impact Factor Journals


Concise but powerful Story like To the point Free from grammatical and stylistic errors Recognizing contributions of others Technically correct Attributes of a Good Manuscript

Research Paradigm:

106 Research Paradigm Delivery Dream Design Discovery “Creativity is fundamental attribute of science, which is driven by curiosity.“ Prof. Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary, Dawn, Sunday December 6, 2009. Publication


How Important Citations are???

ACS Style References Citations:

ACS Style References Citations Abstract: Beharry, S.; Bragg, P.D. Properties of Bound Inorganic Phosphate on Bovine Mitochondrial F1F0-ATP Synthase. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 2001, 33, 35-42 Book: Beall, H.; Trimbur, J. A Short Guide to Writing about Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Longman: New York, 2001; pp 17-32.


Journals : Labaree, D.C.; Reynolds, T.Y.; Hochberg, R.B. Estradiol-16a-carboxylic Acid Esters as Locally Active Estrogens. J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 1802-1814. Encyclopedias : Diagnostic Reagents. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5th ed; VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 1985, p. 196 ACS Style References Citations


Modern electronic tools for writing manuscripts Use for references


Revision Effectiveness of the study Supporting information Order and flow of the article Must be leaving reader with a new question Revision and Proofreading


Proofreading All authors should participate Grammar and spelling errors Consistent verb tense Vocabulary Tighten the sentences spell-check Punctuation typos Technical terms Scientific symbols Reaction scheme Chemical structures/names references Revision and Proofreading


Process of Research and its Publication Completion of research Preparation of manuscript Submission of manuscript Assignment and peer review Decision Revision Resubmission Re-review Acceptance Publication Rejection Rejection

Do’s and Don’t in Scientific Writings:

Do’s and Don’t in Scientific Writings Be factual Be honourable Be legal Be truthful Be objectives Be accurate Don’t deceive Don’t falsify Don’t plagiarize


\ Ethics in Scientific Writings Falsification and Data alteration Plagiarism: Intentional use of another persons work with reference to your name without proper citation of the original source and Duplicate manuscripts Unnecessary self citation Redundant publication Author conflicts of interest Animal use concerns Human use concerns

Main Reasons Articles Rejected:

Main Reasons Articles Rejected PROBLEM SOLUTION Novelty not explained Show how your results are different from current knowledge Results not explained Make the meaning of results clear Too many results Focus on main results – remove others Communicates only to a specialist audience Communicate to an audience including students and journalists Misuse of abbreviations Do not use abbreviations Does not conform to journal requirements Follow the guide for authors to the letter Outside the scope of the journal Select the correct journal by reading Aims and Scope Poor scientific writing Follow guidelines for writing (Fahy, 2008 a & b) and this PowerPoint and/or my references Poor English Use a professional English editor Monday, 20 March 2017 Kathleen Fahy Editor Women and Birth 117

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