Biological Warfare

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Slide 1: 

Prepared by : MKDah Supervised by : Dr. Abed Al-Raouf EL-Manaama

Slide 2: 

“Sadly the world has changed. The threat of bioterrorism is real and growing.” Margaret Hamburg MD – Oct 12, 1999 The nation is “woefully unprepared to deal with bioterrorism” Jerome M. Hauer

BW – CDC Category A : 

BW – CDC Category A High priority agent Pose national security risk Easily transmitted & disseminated High mortality Major public health impact

BW – CDC Category A : 

BW – CDC Category A Anthrax Botulism Plague Smallpox Tularemia Ebola Marburg hemorrhagic fever Lassa fever Argentinehemorrhagic fever

BW – CDC Category B : 

BW – CDC Category B Easy to disseminate Low mortality rates

BW – CDC Category B : 

BW – CDC Category B Q fever Brucellosis Glanders Venezuelan encephalomyelitis Eastern equine encephalomyelitis Western equine encephalomyelitis Ricin Clostridium perfringens Staph enterotoxin B SalmonellaShigella dysenteria E coli Vibrio cholerae Cryptosporidium parvum

BW – CDC Category C : 

BW – CDC Category C Emerging Pathogens Possibly engineerable

BW – CDC Category C : 

BW – CDC Category C Nipah virus Hantavirus Tickborne hemorrhagic fever Tickborne encephalitis virus Yellow fever Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

BW – Early History : 

BW – Early History Assyrians poisoned wells with Rye Ergot

BW – Early History : 

BW – Early History Romans Used dead animals to foul enemy’s water Lessened numbers Lowered morale Tartars Catapulted dead bubonic plague victims Caused medieval European plague epidemic

BW – Early History : 

BW – Early History British – French-Indian War “Gifts” of smallpox infected blankets Devastated # of Indians

BW – Modern British : 

BW – Modern British Feared a German-Japanese advantage in WW II Studied anthrax dispersion Gruinard Island off the coast of Scotland Too close to mainland infected coastal sheep Gruinard Island still contaminated with spores

BW – Modern US : 

BW – Modern US US Program – 1942 Acquired Japanese data 1956 – USSR accused US of using BW in Korea USSR threatened retaliatory Chemical & BW US shifted to “defensive” research Sprayed Serratia over populated areas San Francisco – 10 infected, 1 died 1966 B. subtilis dispersed in NY subways

BW – Modern Russian : 

BW – Modern Russian 1979 – Sverdlosk factory exploded followed by Anthrax outbreak – >66 dead All accusations of BW research were denied 1992 –Yeltsin confirmed Anthrax research vowed to stop all BW research Allegations of “super virus” research

BW – advantages : 

BW – advantages Great killing efficiency Biological toxins are among the most toxic agents known Botulinum 3 million x more potent than Sarin Large quantities can be produced in a short period. Conventional weapons explode once, BW like the energizer bunny – keeps on going. Easy and inexpensive to grow

BW cost to affect 1 km2 : 

BW cost to affect 1 km2

BW – disadvantages : 

BW – disadvantages Unpredictable Lifespan of material Poor storage survival Difficult to control once released Difficulty of protecting the workers at all stages of production, transportation, loading of delivery systems and final delivery

Biological Weapon Production : 

Biological Weapon Production A biological agent must first be chosen and acquired. Various selection and modification procedures alter characteristics of the microorganism. The agent is then prepared for delivery

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BW : 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BW Highly infectious Efficiently dispersible Readily grown and produced in large quantities. Stable in storage Resistant enough to environmental conditions Resistant to treatment

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A pathogen can be obtained from two major sources: Its natural environment A microbiology laboratory or bank (ATCC) Creating them

Modification : 

Modification Increasing pathogenicity Shorting incubation peroid <<< fast-acting disease. Acquisition of pathogenicity. Other changes could make treatments, vaccines, or the body's immune system useless.

Delivery preparation : 

Delivery preparation Exposure to environmental stresses reduce the agent's activity. Don’t need (Anthrax) Other processing Lyophilization

Delivery : 

Delivery Biological warfare agents can be disseminated in various ways: Through the air by aerosol sprays Used in explosives Put into food or water Absorbed through or injected into the skin.

Detection : 

Detection Disease (or strain) not endemic Unusual antibiotic resistance patterns Atypical clinical presentation Case distribution geographically and/or temporally inconsistent Other inconstant elements Large # of fatal cases Lower attack rate in people who were indoors. Deviations from disease occurrence baseline

Protective measures : 

Protective measures Generally not transmitted from person to person (except pneumonic plague & smallpox) Masks Clothing Medical protection: Health care providers should use latex gloves and wear gowns and masks Victims would be isolated in private rooms while receiving treatment.

Protective measures : 

Protective measures Antibiotics Vaccinations: Currently available Anthrax Botulinum toxin Tularemia, plague Q fever Smallpox. Immune protection against ricin and staphylococcal toxins may also be possible in the near future.

Slide 27: 

Thanks