MUGHAL EMPIRE

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MUGHAL EMPIRE BABUR HUMAYUN SHER SHAH SURI AKBAR JAHANGIR SHAH JAHAN AURANGZEB :

MUGHAL EMPIRE BABUR HUMAYUN SHER SHAH SURI AKBAR JAHANGIR SHAH JAHAN AURANGZEB

BABUR (1526-30 CE):

BABUR (1526-30 CE) Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur   was a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a claimed to be direct descendant of Timur, from the Barlas clan, through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother. Babur was also a poet and a writer. He wrote poetry both in Persian and "his Turkic mother tongue ."  His memoirs Baburnama have been translated into many languages of the world. Many of Babur's poems have become popular Uzbek folk songs, especially by Sherali Jo‘rayev.

Some sources claim that Babur was influenced by the Persian culture and gave rise to the expansion of the Persianate ethos in the India subcontinent. Other sources hold that he mostly contributed to the growth of the Turkic culture. Although all applications of modern Central Asian ethnonyms to people of Babur's time are anachronistic, Soviet and Uzbek sources regard Babur as an ethnic Babur wrote his memoirs which is now called BABURNAMA :

Some sources claim that Babur was influenced by the Persian culture and gave rise to the expansion of the Persianate ethos in the  India subcontinent.  Other sources hold that he mostly contributed to the growth of the Turkic culture.  Although all applications of modern Central Asian ethnonyms to people of Babur's time are anachronistic, Soviet and Uzbek  sources regard Babur as an ethnic Babur wrote his memoirs which is now called BABURNAMA

HUMAYUN (1530-40 CE):

HUMAYUN (1530-40 CE) Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun   was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled a large territory consisting of what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian  aid, he eventually regained an even larger one. On the eve of his death in 1556, the Mughal empire spanned almost one million square kilometers. He succeeded his father in India in 1530, while his half-brother Kamran Mirza, who was to become a rather bitter rival, obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father's empire. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 23 and was somewhat inexperienced when he came to power.

Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them 15 years later. Humayun’s return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India from the time of Humayun. . :

Humayun lost Mughal territories to the  Pashtun  noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them 15 years later. Humayun’s return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture,  language and  literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India from the time of Humayun. .

SHER SHAH SURI (1540-45 CE):

SHER SHAH SURI (1540-45 CE) Sher Shah Suri   was the founder of the Sur Empire in North India, with its capital at Delhi .  An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the  Mughal Empire in 1540. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor .  He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then as the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Khan overran the state of  Bengal  and established the Sur dynasty .  A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself a gifted administrator as well as an able general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar the Great, son of Humayun .

During his five year rule from 1540 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupee and reorganized the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dinapanah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra as Patna which had been in decline since the 7th century CE. He is also famously remembered for killing a fully grown tiger with his bare hands in a jungle of Bihar. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in Bangladesh to Kabul in Afghanistan. :

During his five year rule from 1540 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupee and reorganized the postal system of India .  He further developed Humayun's  Dinapanah  city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra as Patna which had been in decline since the 7th century CE .  He is also famously remembered for killing a fully grown tiger with his bare hands in a jungle of Bihar .  He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong  in Bangladesh  to Kabul in Afghanistan .

AKBAR (1556-1605 CE):

AKBAR (1556-1605 CE) Akbar , known as  Akbar the Great , was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third and greatest ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent , Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. In order to preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.

Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a great patron of art and culture. He was fond of literature, and created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Hindustani, Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, translators, artists, calligraphers, scribes, bookbinders and readers. Holy men of many faiths, poets, architects and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Jahangir.:

Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a great patron of art and culture. He was fond of literature, and created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Hindustani, Persian, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, translators, artists, calligraphers, scribes, bookbinders and readers. Holy men of many faiths, poets, architects and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Jahangir.

JAHANGIR (1605-27 CE):

JAHANGIR (1605-27 CE ) Jahangir was the eldest surviving son of Mughal Emperor Akbar and was declared successor to his father from an early age. Impatient for power, however, he revolted in 1599 while Akbar was engaged in the Deccan. Jahangir was defeated, but ultimately succeeded his father as Emperor in 1605 due to the immense support and efforts of his step-mothers, Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum and Salima Sultan Begum, both of whom wielded great influence over Akbar and favored Jahangir as his successor. The first year of Jahangir's reign saw a rebellion organized by his eldest son Khusraw. The rebellion was soon put down; Khusraw was brought before his father in chains. After subduing and executing nearly 2000 members of the rebellion, he blinded his renegade son of Khusrau.

Jahangir built on his father's foundations of excellent administration, and his reign was characterized by political stability, a strong economy and impressive cultural achievements. The imperial frontiers continued to move forward in Bengal, Mewar, Ahmadnagar and the Deccan. The only major reversal to the expansion came in 1622 when Shahanshah Abbas, the Safavid Emperor of Persia, captured Kandahar while Jahangir was battling his rebellious son, Khusraw in Hindustan. The rebellion of Khurram absorbed Jahangir's attention, so in the spring of 1623 he negotiated a diplomatic end to the conflict. :

Jahangir built on his father's foundations of excellent administration, and his reign was characterized by political stability, a strong economy and impressive cultural achievements. The imperial frontiers continued to move forward in Bengal, Mewar, Ahmadnagar and the Deccan. The only major reversal to the expansion came in 1622 when Shahanshah Abbas, the Safavid Emperor of Persia, captured Kandahar while Jahangir was battling his rebellious son, Khusraw in Hindustan. The rebellion of Khurram absorbed Jahangir's attention, so in the spring of 1623 he negotiated a diplomatic end to the conflict .

SHAH JAHAN (1628-58 CE):

SHAH JAHAN (1628-58 CE) A'la Azad Abul Muzaffar Shahab ud-Din Mohammad Khurram  better known by his imperial name  Shah Jahan , was the fifth Mughal Emperor who reigned from 1628 until 1658. While young, Khurram was the favourite of his legendary grandfather, the third Mughal emperor Akbar the Great. At a young age, he was chosen as successor to the Mughal throne after the death of his father, Emperor Jahangir, in 1627. He is considered one of the greatest Mughals. His reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son Emperor Aurangzeb in Agra Fort until his death in 1666.

Unlike his father and his grandfather, Shah Jahan was an orthodox and pious Muslim. Upon his accession, he adopted new policies which canonically reversed Akbar's generally liberal treatment of non-Muslims. In 1633, his sixth regnal year, Shah Jahan began to impose Sharia provisions against construction or repair of churches and temples and subsequently ordered the demolitions of newly built Hindu temples. He celebrated Islamic festivals with great pomp and grandeur and with an enthusiasm unfamiliar to his predecessors. Long-dormant royal interest in the Holy Cities also revived during his reign.:

Unlike his father and his grandfather, Shah Jahan was an orthodox and pious Muslim. Upon his accession, he adopted new policies which canonically reversed Akbar's generally liberal treatment of non-Muslims. In 1633, his sixth regnal year, Shah Jahan began to impose Sharia provisions against construction or repair of churches and temples and subsequently ordered the demolitions of newly built Hindu temples. He celebrated Islamic festivals with great pomp and grandeur and with an enthusiasm unfamiliar to his predecessors. Long-dormant royal interest in the Holy Cities also revived during his reign.

AURANGZEB (1658-1707 CE):

AURANGZEB (1658-1707 CE) Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb commonly known as  Aurangzeb   was the sixth Mughal Emperor and ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent.

He was among the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers with an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680 (in 1690). He was a pious Muslim, and his policies partly abandoned the legacy of Akbar's secularism, which remains a very controversial aspect of his reign. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometers and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the range of 100-150 million subjects. He was a strong and effective ruler, but with his death the great period of the Mughal dynasty came to an end, and central control of the sub-continent declined rapidly.:

He was among the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers with an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680 (in 1690). He was a pious Muslim, and his policies partly abandoned the legacy of Akbar's secularism, which remains a very controversial aspect of his reign. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometers and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the range of 100-150 million subjects. He was a strong and effective ruler, but with his death the great period of the Mughal dynasty came to an end, and central control of the sub-continent declined rapidly.

Mughal Administration:

Mughal Administration Central Administration- Under the Mughals, all the provinces in the vast empire were brought under a single administration. The administrative structure was highly centralized. The emperor- The emperor was a very important figure in the Mughal era, whose powers were absolute. All the officers and nobles owed their position to the emperor. System of Governance-The emperor established various departments to look after different aspects of governance. Each was placed under the responsibility of a separate official.

Finance-The wazir continued to be the head of the bureaucracy, but his financial powers were given to the diwan-i-kul. The chief diwan was responsible for all finance and revenue. His main duty was to check the treasury of the empire. The Military- The Military was placed under the charge of the Mir bakshi. He personally checked the branding of all the horses and the roll of soldiers. He was also the in charge of all the military matters including the gathering of intelligence reports.:

Finance-The wazir continued to be the head of the bureaucracy, but his financial powers were given to the diwan-i-kul. The chief diwan was responsible for all finance and revenue. His main duty was to check the treasury of the empire. The Military- The Military was placed under the charge of the Mir bakshi. He personally checked the branding of all the horses and the roll of soldiers. He was also the in charge of all the military matters including the gathering of intelligence reports.

The Royal Household-The Mir saman was made responsible for royal karkhanas. He had to supervise the purchase of all items for the royal house hold. He also oversaw the manufacture of items in workshops whether they were luxury items or battle field. The Judiciary- The head of the judiciary was the chief qazi. He looked into civil and criminal cases. He also appointed qazis on provincial and local level.:

The Royal Household-The Mir saman was made responsible for royal karkhanas. He had to supervise the purchase of all items for the royal house hold. He also oversaw the manufacture of items in workshops whether they were luxury items or battle field. The Judiciary- The head of the judiciary was the chief qazi. He looked into civil and criminal cases. He also appointed qazis on provincial and local level.

The Mansabdari System:

The Mansabdari System The Mansabdari system was anew form of administrative organization introduced by Akbar. The term mansab means office or rank. A mansabdar was the holder of a rank in the administration. Each official , military or civilian was assigned a mansab according to merit and status. The lowest rank in this system was 10 and the highest was 5,000

Decline of Mughals:

Decline of Mughals When Aurangzeb died in 1707 CE, the Mughal empire had weakened and was on the verge of collapse. However, it lasted till 1857 CE. Aurangzeb’s successors were weak and inefficient and became the puppets in the hands of the nobles. As a result, a number of provinces took an advantage of the weak government at the centre and broke away from the empire.

Made by- Manav Gidwani Class- VII-B Roll No.- 21:

Made by- Manav Gidwani Class- VII-B Roll No.- 21

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