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Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 1: Unit 1 2. The main idea of this text is（ ）：The writer was interviewed by the headmaster of a school and was offered a job that was none too pleasant． Unit 1: Unit 1 4. Language Points ①．Being short of money and wanting to do something useful，… The—ing participle phrase is used as an adverbial to denote cause or reason．Being short of money and wanting to do something useful can be changed into an adverbial clause of cause or reason: As I was short of money and wanted to do something useful，… More examples： Being in poor health and lacking in teaching experience，he was dismissed． Not having his telephone number，I couldn't ring him back．Unit 1: Unit 1 ②．Description of a person 1）Forehead：A person's forehead can be large，high，low，broad，narrow，domed or re-treating/receding (going back)． 2）Moustache：A man may grow a moustache，which can be close-cropped，drooping (bending downward) or pointed. 3）Eyes：A person may have bloodshot eyes，bulging (curve outward) eyes，prominent eyes，close-set eyes, dark eyes，deep-set eyes，or sunken (to a lower level) eyes． Unit 1: Unit 1 4）Hair：Hair may be short，long，thin，thick，straight，curled，curly，wavy，sparse (thinly scattered)，unkempt (untidy) , disheveled (uncombed)，luxuriant (strong In growth), permed (short for permanent waves)． The color of hair can be：black，dark，red，grey，silver，chestnut，white，brown, fair, blond（e），golden，jet-black (dark-black)，dyed． Some men lose their hair and go bald．Unit 1: Unit 1 5) Figure：A person's figure may be：slender，stout（fat，plump），stooping (bending)，thin（lean）slim． 6）Height：A person may be：tall，short，of medium（average）height． Unit 1: Unit 1 ③．He was wearing a tweed suit—one felt somehow he had always worn fabric with a rough surface of two or more colors or shades（粗花呢） Some other materials which people use to make suits include： flannel（法兰绒），serge（哗叽），gabardine（华达呢，轧别丁） Unit 1: Unit 1 1．Awkward 2．Depressed 3． Dreary 4． Grunt 5． Vital 6． Appall 7． Diffidently 8． Ultimate 1. inconvenient and uncomfortable 2. sad；low in spirits 3. gloomy；cheerless 4. make a short，deep，rough sound（like a pig），showing dissatisfaction 5. very necessary 6. shock deeply；fill with fear 7. timidly 8. greatest；extreme Unit 1: Unit 1 Questions 1．What are big staring sash-windows? ①．They are very large windows，so large that they look like people's wide open eyes．Unit 1: Unit 1 2．What is the implied meaning of “they struggled to survive the dust and fumes from a busy main road”？ ②．They (the four evergreen shrubs）did their best to remain alive in spite of the dust and smoke from a main road with heavy traffic． Unit 1: Unit 1 3．Describe the appearance of the headmaster in your own words． ③．He was short and stout．He grew a moustache which was pale reddish yellow in color．His forehead was covered with freckles．And he was almost bald． Unit 1: Unit 1 4．What impression did the hall give the writer? ④．It was a narrow，dim（unlighted）hall which had an offensive odor of dried up cabbage．The walls，once painted in cream color，had darkened to the color of margarine and in a few places were marked with ink stains．Silence prevailed in the hall． Unit 1: Unit 1 5．Why do you think the headmaster had “bloodshot eyes”？ ⑤．Perhaps he liked to have a drop too much． Unit 1: Unit 1 6．What kind of class was the writer asked to teach? ⑥．It was a class of twenty-four boys who were from seven to thirteen years of age． Unit 1: Unit 1 7．Why was the writer diffident when asking about his salary? ⑦．Because he had little self-confidence as he was young and it was the first time he had an interview．Besides，perhaps he was not used to asking about money matters． Unit 1: Unit 1 8．What is meant by “This was the last straw”？ ⑧．The phrase “the last straw” comes from the saying “It is the last straw that breaks the camel's back"．What the saying means is that “straw is very light in weight，but if you increase the burden on the camel's back straw by straw，eventually you will put on his back one straw too many，and that last straw will break his back．When used figuratively, “the last straw” means “an addition to a set of troubles which makes them unbearable”．Here in the text，the writer regards his having to work under a woman as an additional source of annoyance which would make the job all the more intolerable． Unit 1: Unit 1 9．What was the young man’s impression of the headmaster? How did he arrive at this? ⑨．His impression was unfavorable．To the writer，the headmaster was a short，stout，freckle- fore-headed，bald man，with a big unpleasant paunch (belly)．As the headmaster was not as neatly dressed as a gentleman was supposed to be，he gave the impression of having always worn the same suit．Probably he was badly off．He received the young man with a look of surprised disapproval and during the whole interview he assumed an air of condescension (superiority)，which was quite annoying to the young man．Moreover，the headmaster made great demands on the young man，while he himself did not seem to know much about teaching． Unit 1: Unit 1 10．Tell what you know about the young man． ⑩．The writer was a young school leaver waiting to enter university．He was badly in need of money and he seemed to be a man of vitality and energy．He wanted to do something useful that could bring him some money．He did not have much experience in life，nor in teaching．He looked very bashful，having little self-confidence．Fearing that he might not get the job，he was careful about what he said．He had to do what he did not like to do. To make matters worse，he had to work under a woman，which was the most humiliating thing to a man of his age，but whether he liked it or not，he had to take the job． Unit 1: Unit 1 TEXT II The Interview Questions 1. For what purpose do you think Blakey went to the interview? 2. Why did Blakey feel uneasy when he was asked what had prompted him to want to change to medicine? 3. Why did one of the interviewers say that Blakey was capable of a change of heart? And how did Blakey take the question?Unit 1: Unit 1 4. What was the reason that Blakey gave for leaving University without taking a degree? What did the interviewers think of his reason? 5. Do you think Blakey was well-prepared to answer the question about his financial status? Give your reasons． Unit 1: Unit 1 6. Why did Blakey at first have a sense of guilt，and why was he then stung by a sense of inadequacy? 7. What do you think was the outcome of the interview? Why do you think so? Unit 1: Unit 1 Interaction Activities Making Preparations for an Interview Unit 1: Unit 1 2．Details that the interviewer is interested in： certificate of education／diploma／degrees／major field of study foreign languages work experience as an interpreter／a clerk／a secretary／a tourist guide likes and dislikes personal status（single or married）／childrenUnit 1: Unit 1 Paragraph Writing: The incidents in a narrative are usually told in the order in which they occurred．Therefore，the sentence I never met Aunt Helen until the day when Mother sent me over with a thermos flask of chicken soup serves as the topic sentence，and the following are the details： — the purpose of going there — the description of Aunt Helen — the pleasant atmosphere — the writer’s impression All these details adhere to (stick to) the topic sentence to make the paragraph complete．Unit 2: Unit 2 General Reading Skills –The Reading Environment ⑴ Where to read Lighting Ventilation Reading Position Focal Distance Distractions Unit 2: Unit 2 ⑵ How to Read an Academic Text How to skim read the title of the passage carefully Look carefully at the headings and other organizational clues 1. major headings and subheadings 2. italicized words and phrases 3．lists of points set off by numbers 4. redundancy or repetition Unit 2: Unit 2 TEXT I Unwillingly on Holiday 1. Pre-reading Questions 2. The Main Idea 3. Language Points 4. Vocabulary 5. Questions Answers Unit 2: Unit 2 The best choice is（2）：Tom Long was unhappy about being sent to his uncle's because his brother was down with the measles. Unit 2: Unit 2 Language Points: 1. Some people find this an exciting new experience；others face it with dread．-- Experience in this context is a countable noun．It refers to “some event that has happened to a person or an activity a person has taken part in．” Cf：…that without a degree and with no experience of teaching my chances of landing the job were slim.（Unit I，Text I） Unit 2: Unit 2 Here，experience is an uncountable noun referring to knowledge or skill which comes from practice rather than from books． More examples： Tell us about your unusual and exciting experiences in Beijing． He is a well-liked teacher with a lot of experience． Unit 2: Unit 2 2．I'd rather have had measles with Peter． Would rather is a set phrase to be followed by an infinitive without to．The structure is would rather…than． The sentence in its complete form is： I'd rather have had measles with Peter than go somewhere else on holiday． More examples： Unit 2: Unit 2 He would rather stay at home reading than go to the movie． I would rather walk all these stairs up than wait for the lift to go up． Would rather can also be followed by a clause introduced by that．Then the verb should be in the past，e．g．， He would rather（that）he didn't have to teach the children at three different levels． They would rather（that）I came tomorrow. Unit 2: Unit 2 3．If only he’d beat me．--How I wish he would beat me！If only is often used to introduce an exclamation expressing an unfulfilled condition at present，in the past or in the future．The verb is generally in the past or the past perfect． More examples： If only I had a chance to live my childhood once again. If only I had applied for the job． If only she had had a lot in common with me． Unit 2: Unit 2 1. bear 2.gaze 3.bitterly 4.spoil 5.strictly 6.hostile 7.cooped up 8.poky Unit 2: Unit 2 Questions 1．What is a “rough patch”？ 1. It is a very small piece of land with an uneven，irregular surface on which it is not easy to walk．Unit 2: Unit 2 2．What is the implied meaning of the sentence “Tom gazed，and then turned back into the house” ? 2. The literal meaning of the sentence is "Tom kept his look fixed on everything in the small garden…”or “Tom looked long and earnestly at everything in the small garden，and after that he went into the house．”The implied meaning is that Tom could hardly tear himself away from everything in the small garden，which had given him so much fun and joy in previous holidays． Unit 2: Unit 2 3．Why did Tom call up at the foot of the stairs instead of going upstairs to say good-bye to Pete？ 3. He didn't go upstairs to say good-bye to Peter，but shouted “Good-bye，Peter” instead，because Peter was down with the measles，which is a highly infectious disease．So Tom had to stay away from Peter． Unit 2: Unit 2 4 ．What is meant by “He put his hand out for it” ？ 4．It means “He held out his hand to take his suitcase．” Unit 2: Unit 2 5 ．What did Tom's mother mean by “it's not nice for you to be rushed away like this to avoid the measles.”? 5．Tom's mother admitted that it was not pleasant for Tom to be sent away in such haste so as not to contract the measles． Unit 2: Unit 2 6 ．Why did Tom‘s mother whisper something to Tom？ 6．Because she wanted Tom to be prepared for the new surroundings so that he could behave properly and get on well with everybody in his uncle's home. Besides，she did not want to be overheard by Uncle Alan，who was sitting in his car not far away． Unit 2: Unit 2 7 ．What did Mrs. Long mean by “There is、little room in the house when there is illness”？ 7．Most probably Tom and Peter shared the same room．But now Peter had to be separated from Tom because of the measles．When there was a patient with an infectious disease at home，Mrs. Long found that there wasn’t enough space in the house． Unit 2: Unit 2 8 ．Why did Mrs. Long raise her hands in a gesture of despair？ 8．Peter should have remained in bed but he got up and went up to the window to wave good-bye to Tom. Seeing this, Mrs. Long felt that she had to persuade Peter to stay in bed．She raised her hand to tell him so，but she knew it was no use．So she hurried indoors． Unit 2: Unit 2 9 ．What is meant by “Mother and Father would say I did right”？ 9. It means “Mother and Father would say I did the right thing．”In other words，his mother and father would think that it was right for Tom to run away home．Unit 2: Unit 2 TEXT II April Fools' Day Questions 1．Have you ever heard of April Fools' Day before? 2．From the notes written by various English children，what impression do you get of April Fools’ Day? 3．What do you think of playing jokes on people on the first of April？Do you think it interesting or meaningless or harmful or harmless? Give reasons for your answer． Unit 2: Unit 2 Interaction Activities An Unforgettable Experience Suggestions： The unforgettable experiences might be： 1．working as a carpenter and making a bookcase 2．swimming for 2 kilometers in a river without stopping to take a rest 3．working as a lifeguard in a swimming pool／at the seaside Unit 2: Unit 2 4．picnicking in the woods 5．having an outing with former middle school friends Sentence frames for supporting ideas： It was the first time I had ever… It taught me that… It made me realize that… Unit 2: Unit 2 Paragraph Writing The opening sentence tells about Jim's expectation on returning home．But things did not turn out as he had expected．He becomes angry and his anger is worked up step by step with a succession of unbearable events． The following words／phrases might be used to express anger：Unit 2: Unit 2 —of ail days…choose to… —rage swelled up —if…would have…but…too…to —…should have…at least… —…just too much —...tears of... welled up... fuming eyes —…the last straw… —to storm into… —to fling…with…and all Unit 2: Unit 2 Letter Writing In answering a letter from a friend，one may begin with an introductory sentence as follows： A．For a prompt answer： 1．I was very happy to receive your letter of 7th March. 2．Thank you for your letter of 4th July written from Beijing. 3．I had been looking forward to hearing from you and you can imagine my pleasure when I got your letter．Unit 2: Unit 2 5．I was so glad to get your letter of May 5th and to learn that all's well with you. 6．It was a great pleasure to get your long letter telling me about your recent experience. 9．After such a long wait，at last I got your message．Unit 2: Unit 2 B．For a delayed answer： 4．I hope you can forgive me for putting off writing you for so many days． 7．I'm sorry that I did not write you as soon as 1 got your letter but I've very busy. 8．I regret that it took me a long time to answer the questions in your last letter． 10．Please forgive me for having delayed my answer to your letter．Unit 2: Unit 2 Diamond-shaped poems with 5 lines War by Saud War Sad, destructive Killing, injuring, destroying A thing that kills life. Terminator Unit 2: Unit 2 River by Miki River Clear, wonderful Slapping, whirling, flowing The river is cold. Water Answer the question: What is the relationship between the first and last lines? Unit 3: Unit 3 General Reading Skills Reading critically Making observations Interpreting your observations How to look for ways of thinking Some Practical Tips Unit 3: Unit 3 When you read closely，scan the text to observe facts and details relevant to your purpose． Unit 3: Unit 3 You should approach critical reading like this： don’t read looking only or primarily for information do read looking for ways of thinking and arguing about the subject matter Unit 3: Unit 3 1.First determine the central claim (s）or purpose of the text （its thesis)． 2.Begin to make some judgments about the context of the text. 3.Think about the writers assumptions--who and what the author is, how the author is seeking to persuade，who is paying them． 4.Identify the kinds of reasoning the text employs． 5．Examine the evidence（the supporting facts，examples，etc．）the text employs． 6.Critical reading often involves evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of argument． Unit 3: Unit 3 1．Critical reading occurs after some preliminary processes of reading． 2.When highlighting a text or taking notes from it，teach yourself to highlight arguments：those places in a text where an author explains the analysis，the concepts and how they are used，and how the conclusions are arrived at． Unit 3: Unit 3 TEXT I Three Sundays in a Week 1. Pre-reading Questions 2. The Main Idea 3. Backgrounds 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 3: Unit 3 Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849), American poet, a master of the horror tale, credited with practically inventing the detective story. Unit 3: Unit 3 Cape Horn was first rounded by the Dutch expedition on January 26, 1616, They named it Kaap Hoorn after the city of Hoorn. Located off the southern tip of mainland South America. The Cape lies within Chilean territorial waters, and the Chilean Navy supports a lighthouse keeper and his family. Unit 3: Unit 3 Cape of Good Hope: also called Cape Province, former province of South Africa, occupying the southern extremity of the African continent. Cape Province comprised all of southern and western South Africa. It was the largest of the four traditional provinces and contained more than half the country's total area. Unit 3: Unit 3 Language Points 1．He had been looking at the others as though they were mad． And here Kate ended the quarrel by jumping up，as if she had a new thought． As though／as if--as it would be if（something were true）． The phrases are used to introduce adverbial clauses of manner． More examples： He acts as if he knew nothing about it． They talked as though they had traveled round the Cape of Good Hope． It looks as if it is going to rain at once．Unit 3: Unit 3 2．…my uncle roared，purple with anger． More examples： green with envy，ash-white with terror Unit 3: Unit 3 1. steer 2. queer 3. extraordinary 4. concurrence 5. Voyage 6. Positive 7. feebly 8. particular Unit 3: Unit 3 Questions I．What is meant by “They had circled it in a year and come back to England?” 1．It means that they had traveled around the world for a year and now had just come back to England．Unit 3: Unit 3 2．What is the meaning of “…tried to gain our point indirectly"？ 2．The phrase means“…tried to get what we aimed at”-- i．e．，to talk Uncle Rumgudgeon into believing that three Sundays could occur in a week，-- in a roundabout way． Unit 3: Unit 3 3．Why does the writer use “up“ in the sentence“…we invited the pair up to meet my uncle"？Can the word up be omitted? 3．Here the sentence means “we invited Kate’s two sailor friends to the place where we were，that is，to the old man‘s home．”If up is omitted，the meaning of the sentence will not be very clear．Unit 3: Unit 3 4．How do you explain the sentence “Here I am just a year after leaving England"？ 4．The explanation is “It is just a year since I left England and I am back again．”Unit 3: Unit 3 5．When does a person become “purple with anger”？ 5．Purple is a dark color which is a blend of red and blue．Usually when a person is extremely angry，his face will turn purple．Here it shows that the writer's uncle was so angry and agitated that his face turned deep crimson．Unit 3: Unit 3 6．What is meant by “a bit of mock thought”？Why did Smitherton act as if he had a moment of mock thought？ 6．Captain Smitherton was pretending to be thinking for a while．This way he would appear to be more convincing than otherwise，that is，he looked as if he had thought out the truth after some serious thinking． Unit 3: Unit 3 TEXT II The Bermuda Triangle One of the legends of the sea that has persisted even to today is the story of the Bermuda Triangle. Here ships and airplanes seem to disappear more often than in other parts of the ocean. Usually the craft are never seen again, which is not too surprising in an area noted for hurricanes and high waves. The Bermuda Triangle covers an area from the southern Virginia coast to Bermuda to the Bahaman Islands. Unit 3: Unit 3 The Bermuda Triangle Unit 3: Unit 3 Role-play A Discussion on the Bermuda Triangle Interaction Activities A Lucky Survivor Unit 3: Unit 3 About the Bermuda Triangle : The "Bermuda or Devil's Triangle” is an imaginary area located off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States, which is noted for a high incidence of unexplained losses of ships, small boats, and aircraft. Unit 3: Unit 3 Countless theories attempting to explain the many disappearances have been offered throughout the history of the area. The most practical seem to be environmental and those citing human error. The majority of disappearances can be attributed to the area's unique environmental features. First, the "Devil's Triangle" is one of the two places on earth that a magnetic compass does point towards true north. Normally it points toward magnetic north. The difference between the two is known as compass variation. The amount of variation changes by as much as 20 degrees as one circumnavigates the earth. If this compass variation or error is not compensated (make a suitable payment) for, a navigator could find himself far off course and in deep trouble. Unit 3: Unit 3 Another environmental factor is the character of the Gulf Stream. It is extremely swift and turbulent and can quickly erase any evidence of a disaster. The unpredictable Caribbean-Atlantic weather pattern also plays its role. Unit 3: Unit 3 Gulf Stream Warm current of the North Atlantic Ocean, flowing in a generally northeastern direction from the Straits of Florida to the Grand Banks, east and south of Newfoundland. Unit 3: Unit 3 CaribbeanUnit 3: Unit 3 The absence of bodies might be explained by the fact that the waters are infested (full of) with sharks (鲨鱼) and barracuda (梭鱼). Unit 3: Unit 3 The Liferaft Unit 3: Unit 3 Diamond-shaped poems with 7 lines Winter Rainy, cold Skiing, skating, sledding Mountains, wind, breeze, ocean Swimming, surfing, scuba (水中呼吸器) diving Sunny, hot Summer Unit 3: Unit 3 Diamond-shaped poems with 7 lines Man Brilliant, perfect Working, learning, earning Beer, car, mirror, make-up Speaking, speaking, speaking Furious, exhausted Woman Unit 3: Unit 3 Diamond-shaped poems with 7 line Studies Unhappy, difficult Boring, succeeding, sleeping Library, pencil, card, outside Interesting, exciting, failing Happy, easy Play Unit 3: Unit 3 The structural form Line 1: Winter = 1 NOUN Line 2: Rainy, cold = 2 ADJECTIVES Line 3: Skiing, skating, sledding = 3 GERUNDS (verb + -ing) Line 4: Mountains, wind, breeze, ocean = 2 NOUNS+ 2 NOUNS Line 5: Swimming, surfing, scuba diving = 3 GERUNDS (verb + -ing) Line 6: Sunny, hot = 2 ADJECTIVES Line 7: Summer = 1 NOUN Unit 3: Unit 3 Précis Writing The suitable opening sentence is（3）： “It was Sunday and Kate and I convinced my uncle that there could be three Sundays in a week”.Unit 3: Unit 3 Paragraph Writing The first sentence，actually sums up the theme：“The creation of the world by Jehovah”．The following details carry on the legend chronologically up to the end of the Creation． Letter Writing The Purpose of a letter Unit 4: Unit 4 General Reading Skills How to begin 1. Read with a pencil in hand, and annotate (note and comment) the text. 2. Be guided by signal Unit 4 Unit 4: Unit 4 Unit 4 Recall and review Recall Review Unit 4: Unit 4 1. forces you to check your understanding. 2. shapes the material into a logical form. 3. highlights what you do not understand. 4. forces you to think. Unit 4: Unit 4 TEXT I A Man from Stratford--William Shakespeare 1. Pre-reading Questions 2. The Main Idea 3. Backgrounds 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 4: Unit 4 About Stratford Stratford-upon-avon is situated in the heart of the English midlands. A market town dating back to medieval times, Stratford is today most famous as the birthplace of the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare. Unit 4: Unit 4 About Stratford Stratford-upon-avon is situated in the heart of the English midlands. A market town dating back to medieval times, Stratford is today most famous as the birthplace of the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare. Slide96: The River Avon Alms Houses Unit 4Unit 4: Unit 4 William Shakespeare Born (1564) and died (1616) on the same date - 23rd April England's greatest poet and playwright was born at Stratford-upon-Avon, the son of a tradesman of Stratford, John Shakespeare in 1564. William, the eldest son, and third child (of eight) was educated at Stratford Grammar School. He did not go to University. Shakespeare's Birthplace Unit 4: Unit 4 The Royal Shakespeare Theatre : Perhaps the most famous resident of Stratford today is the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). The RSC, founded in 1960 by Peter Hall, boasts the finest actors and directors working on great plays in some of the best theatre spaces in the world. Unit 4: Unit 4 In 1616 Shakespeare was buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity the same Church where he was baptized in 1564. Tradition has it that he died after an evening's drinking with some of his theatre friends. Holy Trinity Church Unit 4: Unit 4 Language Points 1. ...of his "second best bed and furniture"... Before an adjective of the superlative degree, we can often use second or third or by far to modify it, e. g. , Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. The Amazon is by far the longest river in the world.Unit 4: Unit 4 2. It was the will of a comfortably off man... It is more common to say: well off, badly off It is also possible to use the comparative form of the adjective, e. g., be better off - be in better circumstances be worse off - be in worse circumstances. But well-to-do, which is equal to "rich and wealthy", means the possession of more than enough money or property.Unit 4: Unit 4 3. ... the income from the estate probably amounted to about... 1) amount to - add up to, reach, e. g. , Our monthly expenditure on food usually amounts to 150 yuan. 2) amount to - be equal in meaning, be the same as, e.g. , Failure to prepare a lesson well before class on the part of the teacher amounts to negligence of duty; whereas failure to attend the class on time on the part of the student amounts to a breach (disobey) of discipline.Unit 4: Unit 4 4. ... Almost every detail of his personal life is supposition rather than fact rather than here has the meaning of "instead of", e. g. , Young people should be an asset to society rather than a menace (danger) or a curse. It was such a low doorway that I had to bend my head to go into the room rather than walk into the room upright. Unit 4: Unit 4 I . legacy 2. estate 3. genius 4. awe 5. thriving 6. (to) plot 7. become involved 8. clue 9. apparently 10. conviction 11. sufficiently 12. influential 1．money or property left to someone by a will 2．privately owned piece of land with a large house on it 3．talented man 4．a mixed feeling of respect，fear and wonder 5．prosperous，successful 6．work out an outline for 7. become engaged 8. something that helps to find an answer to a question 9. clearly, obviously 10. very firm belief 11. enough 12. powerful and wealthy Unit 4: Unit 4 Questions 1. Why was Shakespeare's will the will of a comfortably off man? 2. How would you define a literary genius? (A comfortably off man is a man who is well-off or wealthy. ) When Shakespeare died, he left in his will quite a large sum of money to his daughter and handsome furniture to his wife, which showed that he was quite well to-do. So we can say that his will was the will of a comfortably off man. 2. He is one who has an exceptionally great creative and inventive capacity in writing. Unit 4: Unit 4 3. Why did the writer say "Historically speaking, Shakespeare lived only yesterday"? 3. From the historical point of view, four hundred years is only a short period of time. Besides, historians set the date 1453 as the beginning of modern history. Shakespeare was born in 1564 and died in 1616. So to the historians, Shakespeare lived only yesterday.Unit 4: Unit 4 4. What is meant by the sentence: "To plot Shakespeare's life is to become involved in a kind of detective story where there are plenty of clues but very little else"? 4. Anyone who wants to make an outline of Shakespeare's life finds himself in a difficult situation. He is like a detective trying to find out about a case. He has only a lot of clues but hardly any facts or evidence.Unit 4: Unit 4 5. What is meant by "... (he) realized in a flash that this was the life for him and talked one of the managers into giving him a job"? 5. It means "After Shakespeare had seen some of the performances put on by some of the theatrical companies, he came to see instantly that he ought to take up theatre as his career, and he persuaded one of the managers to give him a job.Unit 4: Unit 4 6. What is the implied meaning of the sentence "We know that as well as working on old plays he rapidly made a name for himself as an author of entirely new ones and also performed as an actor at court"? 6. The sentence means: "He soon became famous by not only improving or revising the old plays but also writing completely new plays and acting in the plays for the queen. " The implied meaning of this sentence is that Shakespeare was gifted both in creative writing and in acting in the theatre.Unit 4: Unit 4 TEXT II William Shakespeare Questions 1. What was known about Shakespeare's early schooling? 2. What are the two legends about Shakespeare's life between the time he left school and his departure for London? Unit 4: Unit 4 Role-play Theatre and Cinema The Twelfth Night It is an amusing triangle love story with a merry end. Unit 4: Unit 4 Interaction activities The Best Play/ Film I’ve Seen Plot：Intricate yet convincing，showing the struggle between the good and the evil，indicating that good will finally defeat evil Acting：Superb．No exaggeration on the part of the actors and actresses Music：Fantastic，especially the music depicting the changing scenery on the river in spring，characterized by its gentle and free flowing quality Costumes：Brilliant，true to the social and historical background Unit 4: Unit 4 Game19.exeUnit 4: Unit 4 GUIDED WRITING Précis Writing Paragraph Writing Letter WritingUnit 4: Unit 4 If you had a million dollars If you had a million dollars, what would you do? What would you do? If you had a million dollars, what would you do? What would you do? I'd buy the biggest boat I'd drive the fastest car I'd watch the biggest TV I'd see the greatest movies Unit 4: Unit 4 I'd eat nicest food I'd listen to the coolest songs I'd party at the hippest night clubs I'd dance with the hottest girls I'd buy, I'd drive, I'd watch, I'd eat, I'd listen and I'd party all day. I'd buy, I'd drive, I'd watch, I'd eat, I'd listen and I'd dance all night. Unit 4: Unit 4 I'd learn to play guitar I'd drink the finest wine I'd wear the brightest diamonds. I'd speak fluent English I'd swim the longest river I'd climb the tallest mountain. I'd travel around the world I'd give it all away I'd learn, I'd drink, I'd speak, I'd swim, I'd climb, I'd give it all away I'd learn, I'd drink, I'd speak, I'd swim, I'd climb, I'd give it all away. Unit 4: Unit 4 Dream Holiday Next week is my dream holiday. My dream holiday. Next week is my dream holiday. My dream holiday. No work for a week, No worries for a week, No problems for a week. Just paradise (x 2) Unit 4: Unit 4 I'm leaving next Monday. I'll take the plane for Hawaii. Then on Tuesday, I'll spend all day at the beach. On Wednesday, I'll go shopping I'll spend all day at the duty free. On Thursday I'll go clubbing. Just dance, dance, dance, all night long Unit 4: Unit 4 (Chorus) I'll relax, until Friday I'll hire a car and go for a drive On Saturday, I'll spend all day in the sea. On Sunday I don't know, Maybe I'll relax a little more. And every day, I'll have great food and fun, fun, fun, fun, fun Unit 5: Unit 5 TEXT I The Light at the End of the Chunnel 1. Backgrounds 2. Pre-reading Questions 3. The Main Idea 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 5: Unit 5 Unit 5: Unit 5 The English Channel, also for some time known as the British Sea (French: La Manche, "the sleeve") is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 563 km (350 mi) long and at its widest is 240 km (150 mi). The Strait of Dover ("Pas de Calais" to the French) is the narrowest part of the channel, being only 34 km (21 mi) from Dover to Cap Gris-Nez, and is located at the eastern end of the English Channel, where it meets the North Sea.Unit 5: Unit 5 Opening of the Channel Tunnel by Queen Elizabeth II and French President François Mitterrand Interior of Eurotunnel shuttle (vehicle train) Unit 5: Unit 5 The Channel Tunnel, (French: le tunnel sous la Manche; popularly nicknamed the Chunnel in English) is a 50-km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover, connecting Cheriton in Kent, United Kingdom, and Coquelles near Calais in northern France. A long-standing and hugely expensive project that saw several false starts, it was finally completed in 1994. It is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world, surpassed only by the Seikan Tunnel in Japan. Unit 5: Unit 5 The Channel Tunnel, also called the Euro Tunnel or Chunnel, actually consists of three tunnels. Two of the tubes are full sized and accommodate rail traffic. In between the two train tunnels is a smaller service tunnel that serves as an emergency escape route. There are also several "cross-over" passages that allow trains to switch from one track to another.Unit 5: Unit 5 It took just three years for tunnel boring machines from France and England to chew through the chalky earth and meet hundreds of feet below the surface of the English Channel. Today, trains roar through the tunnel at speeds up to 100 miles per hour and it's possible to get from one end to the other in only 20 minutes! Unit 5: Unit 5 Fast Facts: At the time it was being built, the Chunnel was the most expensive construction project ever conceived. It took $21 billion to complete the tunnel. That's 700 times more expensive than the cost to build the Golden Gate Bridge! Many of the tunnel boring machines used on the Chunnel were as long as two football fields and capable of boring 250 feet a day. Unit 5: Unit 5 When construction began in 1988, British and French tunnel workers raced to reach the middle of the tunnel first. The British won. In the first five years of operation, trains carried 28 million passengers and 12 million tons of freight through the tunnel. Unit 5: Unit 5 Locate data and determine the main idea or essential message Explain how the English Channel affects cultural, economic, and political activities of the United Kingdom and other European nations. Explain how people of the world are linked by transportation and technology. See the Chunnel as an example of human activity which affects the environment. Unit 5: Unit 5 Language Points 1. compound adjectives : soon-to-be-opened the gull-wing eyebrows cross-Channel-link schemes the 31-mile-long Channel tungsten-tipped teeth Unit 5: Unit 5 2. stiff upper lip stiff upper lip noun [C usually singular] Someone who has a stiff upper lip does not show their feelings when they are upset: He was taught at school to keep a stiff upper lip, whatever happens. Unit 5: Unit 5 3. Foreboding foreboding noun [C or U] LITERARY a feeling that something very bad is going to happen soon: There's a sense of foreboding in the capital, as if fighting might at any minute break out. Her forebodings about the future were to prove justified. [+ (that)] He had a strange foreboding (that) something would go wrong. Unit 5: Unit 5 4. Shudder to shake suddenly with very small movements because of a very unpleasant thought or feeling: The sight of so much blood made him shudder. She shuddered at the thought of kissing him. Unit 5: Unit 5 5. Shoot up shoot up (INCREASE) phrasal verb INFORMAL to grow in size, or increase in number or level, very quickly: David has really shot up since I saw him last. Prices shot up by 25%. Unit 5: Unit 5 6. Tunnel boring machines (TBM) are used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of geologies. They can be used to bore through hard rock or sand or almost anything in between. Unit 5: Unit 5 Tunnel boring machineUnit 5: Unit 5 7. color verb [often passive] If something colors your opinion of something, it influences your opinion in a negative way: I'm sure my views on marriage are colored by my parents' divorce. I'm trying not to let my judgment be colored by that one incident. Unit 5: Unit 5 Vocabulary 1. shudder 2. ketchup 3. feat 4. hitched 5. scheme 6. parallel 7. psyche 8. moat 9. installation 10. communication lines 11. quirk 12. chic 1. uncontrollable shaking 2. / 'ketʃэp / sauce made from tomato juice 3. an impressive and difficult achievement 4. fastened to a hook 5. / ski:m / plan or design for work 6. going at the same distance from one another 7. /'saiki / human mind; mentality 8. deep, wide water ditch round a castle as a defense 9. fixing (apparatus) in position for use 10. telephone or telegraph lines connecting places 11. peculiar behavior 12. / ʃi:k, ʃik / stylish, fashionable in style Unit 5: Unit 5 Answer the questions orally. 1. What did an English couple say about the French people, and what did a Frenchman say about the English people? Why do you think they showed a mutual feeling of dislike? 1. An English retired civil servant said that he'd rather have England become the 51st state of the U. S. A. than have his country linked to France. He added that the French didn't care for anybody. His wife said that France was an awful place and that the French people drank wine all the time. She disliked French food and preferred to have English sauce with her food. In the meantime, a French farmer complained about English ketchup and about their not having any good wine. The British and the French people disliked each other because there had been long years of conflict between the two countries.Unit 5: Unit 5 2. With the help of the information given in the Notes, explain the following: 1) 200 years of failed cross-Channel-link schemes, and 2) 1,000 years of historical rift. 2. 1) The Channel Tunnel Project had been discussed between Britain and France on governmental levels for almost two hundred years. It was in 1802 that the first proposal for a Channel Tunnel was put forward by a French engineer. Since then the question was taken up again and again throughout the nineteenth century and for the most part of the twentieth century. It did not come to fruition until the last decade of the twentieth century. 2) Beginning with the Norman Conquest in 1066 until the early nineteenth century, there had been incessant conflicts between Great Britain and France. All in all there was a rift between the two countries for about one thousand years. (See the details in the notes.) Unit 5: Unit 5 3. How Swill the Chunnel facilitate the transport between Great Britain and France, or rather, between Great Britain and other European countries? 3. It will greatly facilitate the transport between Great Britain and France. For example, for a motorist to cross the English Channel, he can use the Chunnel Shuttle Service and cross the Channel in only 35 minutes, as against 90 minutes by ferry before. The through service provided by Eurostar passenger trains takes only 3 hours to travel from London to Paris, and 3 hours 10 minutes from London to Brussels, Belgium.Unit 5: Unit 5 4. How do you understand the sentence "The Chunnel rewrites geography, at least in the English psyche"? 4. The English Channel had served as a barrier to invasion of Britain for centuries, and invasion by tunnel was at one time "the ultimate British nightmare" As a matter of fact, whenever the idea of a link between the two countries emerged, there also appeared visions of invasion, and proposals for a link simply foundered. But the completion of the Chunnel has now joined Britain to the European continent. In other words, Britain is no longer an island. Thus the geographical condition is completely changed, especially to the British people.Unit 5: Unit 5 5. How did the author of the article get the opportunity of witnessing the breakthrough ceremony for the south running tunnel? 5. The author, Cathy Newman, is a senior staff member of the National Geographic magazine. Being a journalist, she was presumably invited to attend and to cover the breakthrough ceremony, as there were also several dozen other journalists going with her.Unit 5: Unit 5 6. Why did one of the visitors say "Makes you appreciate British Rail"? 6. It is because the construction workers' train which took them down the tunnel screeched in a dreadful way, whereas the British Rail passenger trains would not make such a noise.Unit 5: Unit 5 7. What did the author refer to when she spoke of "those vine la difference quirks"? 7. She referred to two distinctive differences between the British and the French ways of doing things. One is that the French gave women's names to the tunnel boring machines (TBM), for example, "Catherine", whereas the British only gave the machines numbers, e. g. , TBM No 6. The other difference is that the French workers wore colorful work clothes while their British counterparts wore something grungy.Unit 5: Unit 5 8. How deep is the Chunnel under the ocean at the breakthrough site? 8. It is about 180 feet or 54.9 meters deep.Unit 5: Unit 5 9. Describe the breakthrough scene in your own words. 9. There were many people present, the Eurotunnel officials, construction workers, and journalists. There was loud music as well as dazzling lights, when the cutterhead of the tunnel boring machine bit into the last piece of rock separating England from France. A number of Frenchmen were seen coming from the other side, and thunderous applause was heard. The French and British people drank champagne and hugged each other. It was truly a moving sight.Unit 5: Unit 5 10. Did the mutual feeling of dislike still exist when the tunnel was completed? 10. No. Both the French and British celebrated the breakthrough, and an Englishman said, "I might have opposed it 30 years ago, but now it's my tunnel."Unit 5: Unit 5 TEXT II Traveling Questions 1. What kept Aunt Augusta from traveling as constantly as before? 2. What were the advantages of going to Istanbul by plane? 3. Why did Aunt Augusta not take the plane? 4. What do you think their surname was? 5. Compare Aunt Augusta and Henry.Unit 5: Unit 5 nightfall noun [U] the time in the evening when it becomes dark Unit 5: Unit 5 Victoria StationUnit 5: Unit 5 Weymouth is a town in Dorset, England, situated on a sheltered bay – Weymouth Bay – at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. Unit 5: Unit 5 Weymouth is acknowledged as being amongst the first ever tourist destinations, after King George III made Weymouth his summer holiday residence on fourteen occasions between1789 and 1805, sparking a trend of sea bathing and health tourism. The PromenadeUnit 5: Unit 5 George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. Slide156: The junction of St. Mary Street and St. Thomas Street with the statue in the centre Unit 5Slide157: Gloucester Lodge, Weymouth Seafront Unit 5Unit 5: Unit 5 Istanbul stands between Europe and Asia and is a once in a life-time ‘must visit’. Istanbul, was formerly known as Constantinople(君士坦丁堡), and before that Byzantium(拜占庭）. The design of Mosques（清真寺） actually comes from this building which was originally a church built in 535AD. You should not miss this city.Slide159: Blue Mosque Unit 5Unit 5: Unit 5 Contraption noun [C] a device or machine that looks awkward or old-fashioned, especially one that you do not know how to use: Whatever's that strange contraption you've got in the garage? Unit 5: Unit 5 Badger verb [T] to persuade someone by telling them repeatedly to do something, or to question someone repeatedly: Stop badgering me - I'll do it when I'm ready. [+ into + ing form of verb] She's been badgering me into doing some exercise. [+ to infinitive] Every time we go into a shop, the kids badger me to buy them sweets. Unit 5: Unit 5 Interaction Activities The New Construction Project in Our City / Town Suggestions: Pros（正方） 1. A new construction project, such as the Metro subway, will improve urban infrastructure and consequently better the life of the city residents. 2. New construction projects will bring the city / town a new skyline and beautify the contour of the city / town.Unit 5: Unit 5 3. People will enjoy the comfort of easy and fast transportation, and spacious and modern conditions of new apartment buildings. 4. With the improved urban infrastructure （下部机构）, more international cultural events are likely to take place. Unit 5: Unit 5 Cons 1. There will be less land for plantation and wild life. 2. Skyscrapers, especially those with glass walls, create visual pollution and send back the much hated heat into the sky during the summer season. 3. People have to leave their familiar neighborhood and move to other places in order to make room for the development projects.Unit 5: Unit 5 4. The city / town is growing both in height and size at the cost of the traditional good neighborly relations enjoyed by the local residents. It is disheartening to see that people in a fast growing city tend to treat one another as strangers and behave in a way that is more business like. Unit 5: Unit 5 GUIDED WRITING Précis Writing Paragraph Writing Letter WritingUnit 6: Unit 6 TEXT I Atomic Cars 1. Backgrounds 2. Pre-reading Questions 3. The Main Idea 4. Find the key words in each paragraph 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 6: Unit 6 Atomic CarsUnit 6: Unit 6 Simplest model of an atom Unit 6: Unit 6 Nuclear Reactors Most commercial nuclear reactors use ordinary water to remove the heat created by the fission process. These are called light water reactors. The water also serves to slow down, or "moderate" the neutrons. In this type of reactor, the chain reaction will not occur without the water to serve as a moderator. In the United States, two different light-water reactor designs are currently in use, the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Unit 6: Unit 6 Diagram of a PWR Unit 6: Unit 6 Diagram of a BWR Unit 6: Unit 6 1. T (The technical term for the splitting of the atom is called "atomic fission".) 2. T (The rays are radioactive and may also be called "radiation".) 3. T 4. F (Atomic energy has been used in power stations, in ships and rockets, but not in cars.) 5. F (It would be both convenient to use and cheap to keep, because a small piece of uranium can keep the car running for many, many years.) Unit 6: Unit 6 Language Points outlay noun [C] an amount of money spent for a particular purpose, especially as a first investment in something: For an initial outlay of £2000 to buy the equipment, you should be earning up to £500 a month if the product sells well. outlay verb [T] outlaid, outlaid MAINLY US At the start we outlaid thousands of dollars on computers. Unit 6: Unit 6 optimism noun [U] the tendency to be hopeful and to emphasize the good part of a situation rather than the bad part; the belief that good things will happen in the future: There was a note of optimism in his voice as he spoke about the company's future. Judging from your examination results, I think you have cause/grounds/reason for cautious optimism about getting a university place. Unit 6: Unit 6 optimist noun [C] someone who always believes that good things will happen: She's a born optimist (= someone who has always been optimistic). Unit 6: Unit 6 optimistic adjective She is optimistic about her chances of winning a gold medal. NOTE: The opposite is pessimistic. Unit 6: Unit 6 bonnet (METAL COVER) UK noun [C] (US hood) the metal cover over the part of a car where the engine is: I looked under the bonnet and clouds of smoke poured out. Unit 6: Unit 6 submarine noun [C] (INFORMAL sub) a ship which can travel under water: a nuclear submarine a submarine base/commander Unit 6: Unit 6 H.M. Submarine 'E.2' started her first patrol on 13 August 1915. Unit 6: Unit 6 1.refuel 2.optimistic 3.harness 4.penetrate 5.fatal 6.impractical 7.ease 8.basic 1. fill up again with fuel 2. taking the hopeful view of things and expecting the best outcome 3. use a natural force to produce useful power 4. force a way into 5. causing death, disastrous 6. that cannot be put into practice 7. being free from pain, worry or trouble; comfort 8. elementary, fundamental Unit 6: Unit 6 Questions Answer the questions orally 1. Explain the following in your own words. 1) ... because there is no outlay on petrol. 1. 1) ... because there is no need to spend money on petrol. Unit 6: Unit 6 2) ... depending upon how much you spend on petrol. 2) ... the amount of money you would save by using atomic power is determined by how much you spend on petrol. Unit 6: Unit 6 3) ... with fatal results for anybody in its path. 3) If anyone happens to be in an area where there is radiation, it will cost him his life.Unit 6: Unit 6 4) ... a metal that will be strong enough to hold in the rays, but at the same time light enough for a vehicle to carry with ease and economy. 4) ... the metal will be strong enough to prevent the rays from escaping but at the same time it will be so light in weight that any vehicle can carry it without too much difficulty and without costing too much money.Unit 6: Unit 6 5) But it seems safe to say that eventually, as techniques and mass production come in atom engine, the price will go down. 5) We have every reason to say that when new techniques and methods are introduced and when atomic engines can be produced on a large scale, the price, as a result, will be lowered.Unit 6: Unit 6 6) ... in every circumstance. 6) under all conditionsUnit 6: Unit 6 2. What kind of structure is the sentence "Harness atomic power in a car, and you'll have no more worries about petrol" ? Can you give an example using this structure? 2. The sentence may be reworded as "If you can harness atomic power in a car, you'll have no more worries about petrol". The structure Imperative sentence + and you'll is equivalent to a conditional sentence structure formed by If..., you'll...Unit 6: Unit 6 3. What is the function of the word say in the sentence "But say the experts, there are many problems still to be conquered before such an engine can in fact be fixed into a car“. 3. Say is the predicate verb of the subject experts. The clause say the experts is in inverted order. The statement following the clause is a kind of direct speech. This loose journalistic style makes the article colloquial and informal. Unit 6: Unit 6 TEXT II Energy or Extinction ? Questions 1. Why is Sir Fred Hoyle's book Energy and Extinction riveting? In what respects is it different from other books on the same subject? 2. What did Sir Fred Hoyle say was the only hope for the future? Do you agree with him? 3. For what purpose did Sir Fred Hoyle write the book Energy or Extinction?Unit 6: Unit 6 4. What do you think is the reason for so much opposition to the development of nuclear reactors? 5. After you have read the whole passage, do you have a better understanding of the title Energy or Extinction? Explain it in your own words. Unit 6: Unit 6 Sir Fred Hoyle (June 24, 1915 in Yorkshire – August 20in Bournemouth, England, 2001) was a British astronomer, notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of science fiction, including a number of books co-authored by his son Geoffrey Hoyle. Unit 6: Unit 6 Language points: 1. riveting rivet noun [C] a metal pin used to fasten flat pieces of metal or other thick materials such as leather Unit 6: Unit 6 rivet verb [T] 1 to fasten together with a rivet: Many parts of an aircraft are riveted together. 2 be riveted to not be able to stop looking at something because it is so interesting or frightening: It was an amazing film - I was absolutely riveted. His eyes were riveted on the television. He pulled out a gun and I was riveted to the spot (= so frightened that I could not move). Unit 6: Unit 6 riveting adjective extremely interesting: It was a riveting story. Unit 6: Unit 6 2. mean verb [T] meant, meant to have an important emotional effect on someone: It wasn't a valuable picture but it meant a lot to me. Possessions mean nothing to him. Unit 6: Unit 6 mean (INTEND) verb [I or T] meant, meant to intend: I'm sorry if I offended you - I didn't mean any harm. The books with large print are meant for our partially sighted readers. [+ to infinitive] I've been meaning to phone you all week. Do you think she meant to say 9 a.m. instead of 9 p.m.? [+ object + to infinitive] This exercise isn't meant to be difficult. They didn't mean for her to read the letter. Unit 6: Unit 6 2. sloppy sloppy (TOO WET) adjective INFORMAL DISAPPROVING (of a substance) more liquid than it should be, often in a way that is unpleasant: The batter was a bit sloppy so I added some more flour. Unit 6: Unit 6 adjective 1 DISAPPROVING lacking care or effort: Spelling mistakes always look sloppy in a formal letter. Another sloppy pass like that might lose them the whole match. 2 describes clothes which are large, loose and often untidy: At home I tend to wear big sloppy jumpers and jeans. Unit 6: Unit 6 Cumbria was formed from the old counties of Cumberland, Westmorland, and part of North Lancashire, and is now England's second largest county in size. Inside is the Lake District National Park, an area some 30 miles across, containing England's highest mountains (four over 3000 ft), and some of England's biggest lakes. Unit 6: Unit 6 CumbriaUnit 6: Unit 6 Nuclear power complex at Windscale In 1957, the graphite moderator (石墨减速剂）of one of the air-cooled plutonium （镮）production reactors at Windscale (now Sellafield), had a fire which resulted in the first significant release of radioactive material from a reactor. Unit 6: Unit 6 Windscale /Sellafield Unit 6: Unit 6 Windscale is situated on the Sellafield site, Cumbria, although it has its own site licence. The site includes Windscale Piles I and II, and the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor. The Windscale site occupies 35 acres. Unit 6: Unit 6 Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled ReactorUnit 6: Unit 6 The Windscale AGR was shut down in 1981 . Future use of the land at Windscale is still to be decided. However, Sellafield/Windscale is an industrial complex, so it is possible that new commercial Development will take place at the site. Unit 6: Unit 6 3. scrap (THROW AWAY) verb [T] -pp- 1 to not continue with a system or plan: They're considering scrapping the tax and raising the money in other ways. We scrapped our plans for a trip to France. 2 to get rid of something which is no longer useful or wanted, often using its parts in new ways: Hundreds of nuclear weapons have been scrapped. Unit 6: Unit 6 scrap (ARGUMENT) noun [C] a fight or argument, especially a quick noisy one about something unimportant: A couple of kids were having a scrap in the street. Unit 6: Unit 6 4. arsenal noun [C] 1 a building where weapons and military equipment are stored: The army planned to attack enemy arsenals. 2 a collection of weapons: The country has agreed to reduce its nuclear arsenal. Unit 6: Unit 6 5. evacuate verb [I or T] to move people from a dangerous place to somewhere safe: The police evacuated the village shortly before the explosion. A thousand people were evacuated from their homes following the floods. When toxic fumes began to drift toward our homes, we were told to evacuate. Unit 6: Unit 6 evacuation noun [C or U] The evacuation of civilians remains out of the question while the fighting continues. The first evacuations came ten days after the disaster. Unit 6: Unit 6 Cornwall is a county of England's south-west peninsula, lying west of the River Tamar.Unit 6: Unit 6 Keswick is the North Lakes' most popular holiday and day trip destination. Nestling between the Skiddaw Mountains and Derwentwater Lake, Keswick is in an idyllic (wonderful) location in the Lake District National Park. Unit 6: Unit 6 Derwentwater in early Autumn Keswick’s moot hallUnit 6: Unit 6 Oral Work Role-play A Discussion on the Nuclear Power Station Interaction Activities A Discussion on the Nuclear Energy Unit 6: Unit 6 GUIDED WRITING Précis Writing Paragraph Writing Letter Writing Unit 6: Unit 6 Gettysburg Address.doc 林肯演说Unit 7: Unit 7 TEXT I On Not Answering the Telephone 1. Backgrounds 2. Pre-reading Questions 3. The Main Idea 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 7: Unit 7 William Plomer (1903-1973), Writer South African born writer gained international acclaim with his first novel Turbolt Wolfe (1926), which dealt with inter-racial love and marriage. He settled in England in 1929. Through his friendship with his publishers, Leonard and Virginia Woolf he rapidly moved to the heart of the English literary establishment. After the publication of The Invaders (1934) He produced little fiction but continued to publish short stories, essays, collections of poetry. Unit 7: Unit 7 Language Points 1. take sth for granted to believe something to be the truth without even thinking about it: I didn't realize that Melanie hadn't been to college - I suppose I just took it for granted. Unit 7: Unit 7 pose (CAUSE) verb [T] to cause something, especially a problem or difficulty: Nuclear weapons pose a threat to everyone. Unit 7: Unit 7 pose (ASK) verb [T] to ask a question, especially in a formal situation such as a meeting: Can we go back to the question that Helena posed earlier? poser noun [C] INFORMAL a problem or question that is difficult to solve or answer: Who was the last woman to win three Olympic gold medals? That's quite a poser. Unit 7: Unit 7 pose (POSITION) verb [I] to move into and stay in a particular position, in order to be photographed, painted, etc: We all posed for our photographs next to the Statue of Liberty. pose noun [C] a particular position in which a person stands, sits, etc. in order to be photographed, painted, etc: He adopted/assumed/struck (= moved into) an elegant pose. Unit 7: Unit 7 pose (PRETEND) verb [I] to pretend to be something that you are not or to have qualities that you do not possess, in order to be admired or attract interest: He doesn't really know a thing about the theatre - he's just posing! pose noun [C usually singular] when someone pretends to have qualities that they do not possess: She likes to appear as if she knows all about the latest films and art exhibitions, but it's all a pose (= she's pretending and it's not true). Unit 7: Unit 7 pose as sb phrasal verb If you pose as a particular person, you pretend to be that person in order to deceive people: He's posing as her date, but he's really her bodyguard. Unit 7: Unit 7 pest noun [C] 1 an insect or small animal which is harmful or which damages crops: common pests such as rats, mice or cockroaches (蟑螂) 2 INFORMAL an annoying person, especially a child: Put that back, you little pest! Unit 7: Unit 7 asphyxiate [sfiksieit ]vi.窒息 vt.使窒息 verb [T often passive] FORMAL to cause someone to be unable to breathe, usually resulting in death: The murder inquiry found that the children had been asphyxiated. asphyxiation noun [U] Unit 7: Unit 7 fidget verb [I] to make continuous small movements which annoy other people: Children can't sit still for long without fidgeting. Stop fidgeting about! fidget noun [C] a person who often fidgets: Tim's a terrible fidget. Unit 7: Unit 7 the fidgets plural noun UK INFORMAL when you keep fidgeting: I got the fidgets halfway through the lecture. fidgety adjective a fidgety child/audience Unit 7: Unit 7 indiscreet [indis kri:t ]adj.不慎重的, 轻率的 adjective saying or doing things which let people know things that should be secret or which embarrass people: In an indiscreet moment, the president let his genuine opinions be known. They have been rather indiscreet about their affair. Unit 7: Unit 7 indiscretion noun 1 [U] when a person or their behavior is indiscreet: Jones was censured [ sen] (责难) for indiscretion in leaking a secret report to the press. 2 [C] something, especially a sexual relationship, that is considered embarrassing or morally wrong: We should forgive him a few youthful indiscretions. Unit 7: Unit 7 elope verb [I] to leave home secretly in order to get married without the permission of parents: She eloped with an Army officer. elopement Unit 7: Unit 7 obstinate adj.倔强的, 顽固的 adjective 1 unreasonably determined, especially to act in a particular way and not to change at all, despite argument or persuasion: He can be very obstinate at times. her obstinate refusal to compromise n.妥协, 折衷 2 [before noun] describes a problem, situation or thing that is difficult to deal with, remove or defeat: obstinate weeds Invading troops met with obstinate resistance by guerilla forces. obstinacy noun [U] Unit 7: Unit 7 wilful, US USUALLY willful adj.任性的, 故意的 adjective DISAPPROVING (of something bad) done intentionally or (of a person) determined to do exactly as you want, even if you know it is wrong: The present crisis is the result of years of wilful neglect by the council. They eat huge quantities of sweet and fried foods, in wilful disregard of their health. She developed into a wilful, difficult child. Unit 7: Unit 7 wilfully, US USUALLY willfully adverb Some basic safety rules were wilfully ignored. wilfulness, US USUALLY willfulness noun [U] Unit 7: Unit 7 tycoon [ tai ku:n ] n. 企业界大亨, 将军 noun [C] a person who has succeeded in business or industry and has become very wealthy and powerful: a business/property/shipping tycoon Unit 7: Unit 7 aptitude n.恰当, 智能, 聪明, 自然倾向 noun [C or U] a natural ability or skill: My son has no/little aptitude for sport. We will take your personal aptitudes and abilities into account. Unit 7: Unit 7 aptitude test noun [C] a test to find out whether someone has a natural ability for a particular type of work: I had to take an aptitude test before I began training as a nurse. Unit 7: Unit 7 1.asphyxiate 2.unventilated 3.flavored 4.indisreet 5.a large circulation 6.eloped 7.wilfulness 8.tycoon 1. feeling ill because there is too little air; choked 2. (air) rot (腐烂) moving in and out freely 3. having the smell of 4. not careful 5. a large number of copies read 6. ran away secretly with a lover 7. stubbornness 8. rich and powerful businessman Vocabulary Unit 7: Unit 7 Questions Answers 1. what does the writer mean by saying that “he is taking too much for granted?” 1. "To take something for granted" means "to regard something as true or as certain to happen" or "never to question something". Here the author means "He is too sure of himself".Unit 7: Unit 7 2. What does "the impossible" here refer to? 2. "The impossible" here refers to "giving the writer a ring.”Unit 7: Unit 7 3. Can you guess the meaning of "I'm not on the telephone" from the context? 3. "I am not on the telephone" means "I cannot be reached by telephone". Unit 7: Unit 7 4. What does the writer mean by "unnecessary suspense and anxiety"? 4. "Suspense" means "uncertainty about something, e. g., news, events and decision". "Anxiety" means "worry and uneasiness". The writer means "When you are waiting for an expected call, but for some reason it does not come, then you are bound to be nervous and restless, which is really not necessary".Unit 7: Unit 7 5. What is meant by "irritating delay"? 5. When you keep ringing a number that is always engaged, you feel enraged by the delay.Unit 7: Unit 7 6. What does it in "Ah, it will all be the same ..." refer to? 6. Here it refers to "things in general" or "the general situation". From the context, we can see the meaning of the sentence in quotation marks as "Well, everything will remain the same whether I answer the phone or not.”Unit 7: Unit 7 7. What can be categorized as "dreadful necessity"? 7. A traffic accident, a sudden fire or violent death from a severe heart attack can be regarded as creating a dreadful necessity to make a phone call.Unit 7: Unit 7 8. What does the writer really mean by "escapism"? 8. Here the writer really means "avoiding answering the telephone".Unit 7: Unit 7 9. What does the end of the text suggest to you? 9. The end of the text is really something unexpected. Here the writer seems to wish to achieve a humorous effect.Unit 7: Unit 7 10. what kind of person do you think the writer is? 10. The writer seems to be a bit eccentric (古怪）. In the modern world, people usually prefer to have a telephone, but he loathes （厌恶）/ dislikes it. He doesn‘t seem to like to associate himself with others, but he likes to live in peace and quiet away from the hectic （兴奋） life. Unit 7: Unit 7 TEXT Ⅱ How to Cope with Your Telephone Questions 1. When will one feel that one's telephone is not a nice number? 2. Why do some people make early calls? 3. Who are most disturbed by persistent callers? 4. What information can a phone directory provide? 5. How does the Post Office monitor a person's call? What must the telephone subscriber do to get this service? 6. Is it convenient for a telephone subscriber to go ex-directory? Would you like to go ex-directory if you had a phone at home?Unit 7: Unit 7 New Words: 1. stumble (FALL) verb [I] to step awkwardly while walking or running and fall or begin to fall: Running along the beach, she stumbled on a log and fell on the sand. In the final straight Meyers stumbled, and although he didn't fall it was enough to lose him first place. Unit 7: Unit 7 stumble (NOT CONTROLLED) verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] to walk in a way which does not seem controlled: We could hear her stumbling about/around the bedroom in the dark. He pulled on his clothes and stumbled into the kitchen. Unit 7: Unit 7 stumble (PAUSE) verb [I] to make a mistake, such as repeating something or pausing for too long, while speaking or playing a piece of music: When the poet stumbled over a line in the middle of a poem, someone in the audience corrected him. Unit 7: Unit 7 stumble across/on/upon sth/sb phrasal verb to discover something by chance, or to meet someone by chance: Workmen stumbled upon the mosaic (镶嵌图案） while digging foundations for a new building. Unit 7: Unit 7 2.obscene adjective 1 offensive, rude or shocking, usually because too obviously related to sex or showing sex: In the raid, police found several boxes of obscene videotapes. He was jailed for making obscene phone calls (= ones in which unwanted sexual suggestions were made to the listener). Unit 7: Unit 7 2 morally wrong, often describing something that is morally wrong because it is too large: to make obscene profits The salaries some company directors earn are obscene. obscenely adverb He's obscenely rich/fat/cruel. Unit 7: Unit 7 obscenity noun [C or U] when someone or something is obscene: The people who made that film could be prosecuted for obscenity. Such deliberate destruction of the environment is an obscenity (= an offensive and shocking situation or event). Unit 7: Unit 7 3. scot-free adverb without receiving the deserved or expected punishment or without being harmed: The court let her off scot-free. Unit 7: Unit 7 4. plague (CAUSE PAIN/TROUBLE) verb [T] 1 to cause worry, pain or difficulty to someone or something over a period of time: Financial problems have been plaguing their new business partners. My shoulder's been plaguing me all week. 2 to annoy someone, especially by asking continual questions: The children plagued him with questions all through lunch. He's been plaguing me for a loan of the book. Unit 7: Unit 7 plague (Epidemic DISEASE) noun [C or U] a plague of sth a large number of things which are unpleasant or likely to cause damage: a plague of insects Unit 7: Unit 7 avoid sth like the plague to be determined to avoid something completely: I'm not a fan of parties - in fact I avoid them like the plague. Unit 7: Unit 7 5. initial (FIRST LETTER) noun [C usually plural] the first letter of a name, especially when used to represent a name: He wrote his initials, P.M.R., at the bottom of the page. Paul M. Reynolds refused to say what the initial "M" stood for. They carved their initials into a tree. initial verb [T] -ll- or US USUALLY -l- to write your initials on something: I initialled the documents and returned them to personnel. Unit 7: Unit 7 Oral Work Role-play A Wrong-numbered Call Interaction Activities Advantages and Disadvantages of Having a Phone at Home Unit 7: Unit 7 Suggestions: Advantages 1. It's convenient. 2. It's comparatively easy and quick to get in touch with someone. 3. It saves time. 4. You can keep informed about anything or get an important message at any time. 5. It is necessary to have a telephone at least for out-going calls in case of emergency. 6. You can talk to your friend, have a meeting and order anything you like make business calls to anywhere or even settle an account. Disadvantages 1. You're often disturbed in the middle of doing something. 2. You may get calls from people you've never met. 3. It wastes a lot of your time. 4. You will be plagued by some idle chatter- box or some reporter and you will get obscene or early morning calls. 5. You tend to spend more money when: (a) your telephone goes wrong. (b) You get the Post Office to monitor your calls. 6. You will be threatened by some idle joker or be fooled on 1st April.Unit 7: Unit 7 I Have A Dream 马丁Unit 7: Unit 7 GDIUED WRITING Précis Writing Paragraph Writing Letter WritingUnit 8: Unit 8 TEXT I On Buying Books 1. Pre-reading Questions 2. The Main Idea 3. Language Points 4. Vocabulary 5. Questions Answers (on p.94) Unit 8: Unit 8 1. find/take shelter to protect yourself from bad weather, danger or attack: We took shelter for the night in an abandoned house. Unit 8: Unit 8 2. A dust jacket is a sheet of stiff paper, often in color, wrapped around the cover of a book to protect and advertise it. Unit 8: Unit 8 3. engross vt absorb the attention of to be ~ed in sth Unit 8: Unit 8 4. to your heart's content if you do something enjoyable to your heart's content, you do it as much as you want to The pool is open all day so you can swim to your heart's content. Unit 8: Unit 8 5. inevitable adjective certain to happen and unable to be avoided or prevented: The accident was the inevitable consequence/result/outcome of carelessness. inevitably adverb in a way that cannot be avoided: Their arguments inevitably end in tears. inevitability noun [U] the inevitability of change Unit 8: Unit 8 6.discreet adjective careful not to cause embarrassment or attract too much attention, especially by keeping something secret Can I trust you to be discreet? Opposite indiscreet discreetly adverb Unit 8: Unit 8 7. brass-rubbing rubbing n.摹拓, 摹拓品 noun [C or U] the activity of putting a sheet of paper on top of a brass in a church, and rubbing it with a special pencil to make a picture, or a picture that is made in this way Unit 8: Unit 8 8.long-suffering adjective A long-suffering person is patient despite being annoyed or insulted regularly over a period of time: Bill and his long-suffering wife Unit 8: Unit 8 9. indulge verb 1 [I or T] to allow yourself or another person to have something enjoyable, especially more than is good for you: The soccer fans indulged their patriotism, waving flags and singing songs. [R] I love champagne but I don't often indulge myself. We took a deliberate decision to indulge in a little nostalgia. Nostalgia n.思家病, 乡愁, 向往过去, 怀旧之情 Unit 8: Unit 8 2 [T] to give someone anything they want and not to mind if they behave badly: My aunt indulges the children dreadfully. indulgence noun 1 [C or U] when you indulge someone or yourself: Chocolate is my only indulgence. All the pleasures and indulgences of the weekend are over, and I must get down to some serious hard work. His health suffered from over-indulgence in (= too much) rich food and drink. Unit 8: Unit 8 10.tell sb off phrasal verb to speak angrily at someone because they have done something wrong: The teacher told me off for swearing. telling-off noun [C usually singular] plural tellings-off He gave me a good telling-off for forgetting the meeting. Unit 8: Unit 8 11.dismay n.沮丧, 惊慌 noun [U] a feeling of unhappiness and disappointment: Aid workers were said to have been filled with dismay by the appalling conditions that the refugees were living in. dismay verb [T] v.使沮丧, 使惊慌 dismayed adjective I was dismayed to discover that he'd lied. Unit 8: Unit 8 12.beckon verb 1 [I or T] to move your hand or head in a way that tells someone to come nearer: The customs official beckoned the woman to his counter. 2 [I] If an event or achievement beckons, it is likely to happen: She's an excellent student, for whom a wonderful future beckons. Unit 8: Unit 8 13. tuck sth away phrasal verb to put something in a private, safe place: Grandma always kept a bit of money tucked away in case there was an emergency. Unit 8: Unit 8 Vocabulary 1. irresistible 2. approach 3. inevitable 4. retire 5. illustrated 6. indulgent 7. beckon to 8. tuck away 1. too strong or too good to keep oneself back from 2. come near or nearer to 3. which cannot be prevented from happening 4. go away to a quiet place 5. provided with pictures to explain 6. very kind to other people 7. call somebody's attention by a movement of the hand 8. to put in a safe place Unit 8: Unit 8 TEXT II Hallo, Good Buy Questions 1. Why do people usually buy second-hand goods? 2. What is meant by "Buying second-hand demands a new attitude to shopping"? 3. What does an absence of price tags in a second-hand shop show? Unit 8: Unit 8 4. What two categories of books, magazines, comics and annuals are there in a second-hand bookshop? What books belong to each category? 5. What sort of sci-fi magazines and old comics are worth ? Unit 8: Unit 8 Language points: 1. mean (NOT GENEROUS) adjective MAINLY UK not willing to give or share things, especially money: He's too mean to buy her a ring. My landlord's very mean with the heating - it's only on for two hours each day. Unit 8: Unit 8 jumble noun 1 [S] an untidy and confused mixture of things, feelings or ideas: He rummaged through the jumble of papers on his desk. a jumble of thoughts/ideas 2 [U] UK things you no longer want that are sold at a jumble sale jumble verb [T] to mix things together untidily: Her clothes were all jumbled up/together in the suitcase. Unit 8: Unit 8 jumble sale UK noun [C] (US rummage sale) a sale of a mixed collection of things that people no longer want, especially in order to make money for an organization Unit 8: Unit 8 wardrobe noun [C or U] a tall cupboard in which you hang your clothes, or all of the clothes that a person owns: She was showing me her new built-in/UK fitted wardrobes. I sometimes feel that my summer wardrobe is rather lacking (= I don't have many clothes for summer). Unit 8: Unit 8 outlet (SHOP) noun [C] a shop that is one of many owned by a particular company and that sells the goods which the company has produced: a fast-food outlet a retail outlet Unit 8: Unit 8 outlet (WAY OUT) noun [C] a way, especially a pipe or hole, for liquid or gas to go out: a waste water outlet an outlet pipe Unit 8: Unit 8 posh adjective 1 INFORMAL (of places and things) expensive and of high quality: He takes her to some really posh restaurants. 2 UK INFORMAL (of people and their voices) from a high social class: A woman with a very posh accent telephoned for him earlier. Unit 8: Unit 8 Clearance noun 1 [S or U] when waste or things you do not want are removed from a place: house/slum clearance 2 [U] when goods are offered for sale cheaply so that people will be encouraged to buy them and there will be space for new goods: We bought our new carpet at a clearance sale. Unit 8: Unit 8 negotiate (EXCHANGE) verb [T] SPECIALIZED to obtain or give a sum of money in exchange for a financial document of the same value Unit 8 : Unit 8 retail noun [U] the activity of selling goods to the public, usually in small quantities: The clothing company has six retail outlets (= shops) in south-eastern Australia. Compare wholesale (SELLING). Unit 8: Unit 8 comic (MAGAZINE) noun [C] (US ALSO comic book) a magazine, especially for children, which contains a set of stories told in pictures with a small amount of writing Unit 8 : Unit 8 sleeve (PROTECTIVE COVER) noun [C] 1 (US jacket) UK a protective cover: Can you put the record back in its sleeve, please? Unit 8: Unit 8 MARTIN AMIS (1949-) The son of Kingsley Amis, a writer who began his literary life - with John Osborne and John Wain - as one of the Angry Young Men, Martin Amis outstripped his father's reputation for offending the literary niceties of his day with his first novel, The Rachel Papers (1973). Amis was twenty four when the book appeared to admiring reviews. Unit 8: Unit 8 (Henry) Graham Greene (1904-1991) English novelist, short-story writer, playwright and journalist, whose novels treat moral issues in the context of political settings. Greene is one of the most widely read novelist of the 20th-century, a superb storyteller. Adventure and suspense are constant elements in his novels and many of his books have been made into successful films. Although Greene was a candidate for the Nobel Prize for Literature several times, he never received the award. Unit 8: Unit 8 Ian Fleming (1909-1964) created the character of James Bond, who debuted [debju:] n.v.初次登场, 开张in the 1952 novel Casino Royale Born in 1908 as the son of Valentine Fleming, and the grandson of the wealthy Scottish banker Robert Fleming, Ian Lancaster Fleming grew up the member of a rare class of Englishmen for whom all options are open. The privilege of class and respect came not merely from his grandfather's money, as wealth alone in England does not guarantee open doors. Unit 8: Unit 8 Together with Ruth Rendell, P.D. James is one of the most famous British mystery writers. Born in 1920, she worked in the North West Regional Hospital Board in London from 1949 to 1968 and then as home office principal in the police department until 1972 when she moved to the criminal policy department. She retired in 1979. Her first novel, Cover her face published in 1962, featured Scotland Yard man Adam Dalgliesh. Unit 8: Unit 8 Angela (Olive) Carter (1940-1992) English short story writer, novelist, journalist, dramatist and critic. Unit 8: Unit 8 paperback noun [C] a book with a cover made of thin card: a best-selling paperback I'll buy some paperbacks at the airport. Compare hardbackUnit 8: Unit 8 hardback noun [C or U] (US ALSO hardcover) a book which has a stiff cover: His latest novel will be published in hardback later this month. Unit 8: Unit 8 flick through sth phrasal verb to look quickly at the pages of a magazine, book, etc. flick verb [I + adverb or preposition; T] to move or hit something with a short sudden movement: He carefully flicked the loose hairs from the shoulders of his jacket. flick noun [C] a sudden, quick movement: With a flick of its tail, the cat was gone. A flick of a switch turns the machine on. Unit 8: Unit 8 ORAL WORK Role-play Are Second-hand Bookshops Worth Visiting? Interaction Activities On Bookshop ServiceUnit 8: Unit 8 Suggestions: The questions might include: 1. How often do you go to a bookshop? 2. What kind of books attracts you most? 3. What do you think of the assistants' attitude towards the customers? Unit 8: Unit 8 4. Have you had any unpleasant experience in a bookshop? 5. How would you like the shop assistants to help the customer? 6. Should the bookshelves be open or closed to customers? Why? 7. When are the best times for a bookshop to open and close? 8. How much do you agree with the author of "On Buying Books" concerning the service a bookshop may offer? Unit 8: Unit 8 Translation 1. 只学习不实践是没用的。 2. 所有人都意识到吸烟的危害。 3. 由于食物不好，我生病了。 4. 他们有把握获胜。 5. 本文的目的是讨论电脑设计的新趋势。 Unit 8: Unit 8 GUIDED WRITING Précis Writing A. The most suitable topic sentence is (1): "Time can be spent most enjoyably in a bookshop.” Paragraph Writing Letter Writing Unit 8: Unit 8 A flower show carnation Anemone 海葵 Daffodil水仙 Cockscomb Hyacinth风信子 BirdOfParadise Cherry Blossom Sunflower StandardMum Tulip郁金香 Unit 8: Unit 8 An Episode: Tim strikes it rich (episode14.rm) Tim: Can I help you madam? Customer: I’m looking for a man’s watch. Tim: Well we have a sumptuous (华丽的)selection here: sports, evening, everyday watches. Do you see anything you like? Customer: Oh, I rather like that one. Tim: Impeccable(没有缺点的) taste, madam. Now, just take it over to the cash till there and they’ll wrap it up for you. Customer: Thank you, goodbye. Tim: Goodbye…..Oh, you’ve dropped something madam. Madam! Oh she's gone. Let’s see 50, 100, 150 pounds! Well you know what they say Tim, a fool and her money…… Unit 8: Unit 8 to strike it rich (informal): to get a lot of money suddenly or unexpectedly sumptuous (adj): very expensive and impressive to have impeccable taste: to be able to choose the best things the till (n): the place where you pay for things you buy in a shop Unit 9: Unit 9 TEXT I Who Killed Benny Paret? 1. About the Author 2. Pre-reading Questions 3. The Main Idea 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary 6. Questions Answers Unit 9: Unit 9 NORMAN COUSINS: EDITOR AND WRITER(1915-1990) The lifelong concerns of Norman Cousins—writer, editor, citizen diplomat, promoter of holistic healing, and unflagging optimist—were large indeed: world peace, world governance, justice, human freedom, the human impact on the environment, and health and wholeness. His primary platform for promoting his views was as editor of Saturday Review for the better part of forty years. He was also the author of a dozen books and hundreds of essays and editorials. Unit 9: Unit 9 1. promoter noun [C] 1 someone who tries to encourage something to happen or develop: a promoter of peace/sexual equality 2 a person who organizes and arranges finance for sports and musical events: a boxing/rock concert promoter Unit 9: Unit 9 2. fledgling (NEW), fledgeling adjective [before noun] new and lacking experience: The current economic climate is particularly difficult for fledgling businesses. Unit 9: Unit 9 3. beat (AREA) noun [C usually singular] an area for which someone, such as a police officer, has responsibility as part of their job: Bob has worked as an officer on this particular beat for 20 years. Unit 9: Unit 9 4. bland adjective USUALLY DISAPPROVING lacking a strong taste or character or lacking in interest or energy: I find chicken a little bland. Pop music these days is so bland. Unit 9: Unit 9 5. colossus noun [C] plural colossuses or colossi 1 a person or thing of great size, influence or ability: She has been described as the creative colossus of the literary world. 2 a very large statue or building: the Colossus of Rhodes Location At the entrance of the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece.罗德斯巨型雕塑像（世界七大奇迹之一， 高150英尺以上）Unit 9: Unit 9 Seven Wonders of the World (1). The Great Pyramid of Giza Location At the city of Giza, a necropolis (大墓地) of ancient Memphis, and today part of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Unit 9: Unit 9 (2). The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Location On the east bank of the River Euphrates, about 50 km south of Baghdad, Iraq. Unit 9: Unit 9 (3). The Statue of Zeus at Olympia An enormous statue of the Greek father of gods. Location At the ancient town of Olympia, on the west coast of modern Greece, about 150 km west of Athens. Unit 9: Unit 9 (4). The Temple of Artemis (阿耳特弥斯(月神与狩猎女神) at Ephesus Location The ancient city of Ephesus 以弗所(古希腊小亚细亚 西岸的一重要贸易城市) Unit 9: Unit 9 (5). The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus A fascinating tomb constructed for King Maussollos. Location In the city of Bodrum on the Aegean Sea, in south-west Turkey. Unit 9: Unit 9 (6). The Colossus of Rhodes A colossus (巨人） of Helios the sun-god, erected by the Greeks near the harbor of a Mediterranean Island Location At the entrance of the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece. Unit 9: Unit 9 (7). The Lighthouse of Alexandria A lighthouse built on the island of Pharos off the coast of their capital city Location On the ancient island of Pharos, now a promontory （海角） within the city of Alexandria in Egypt.Unit 9: Unit 9 6. arena noun [C] 1 a large flat enclosed area used for sports or entertainment: an Olympic/a sports arena 2 an activity that involves argument and discussion: After 30 years in the political arena, our local member of parliament is retiring next year. Unit 9: Unit 9 7. adroit adjective very skilful and quick in the way you think or move: an adroit reaction/answer/movement of the hand She became adroit at dealing with difficult questions. Unit 9: Unit 9 8. coma noun [C] a state of unconsciousness from which a person cannot be woken, which is caused by damage to the brain after an accident or illness: He's been in a coma for the past six weeks She went into a deep coma after taking an overdose of sleeping pills. Unit 9: Unit 9 9. A. flurry (SNOW) a sudden light fall of snow, blown in different directions by the wind: There may be the odd flurry of snow over the hills tonight. Unit 9: Unit 9 9. B. flurry (ACTIVITY) noun [C usually singular] a sudden, short period of activity, excitement or interest: The prince's words on marriage have prompted a flurry of speculation in the press this week. a flurry of activity Unit 9: Unit 9 10. assess verb [T] to judge or decide the amount, value, quality or importance of something: It's too early to assess the long-term consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union. [+ question word] We need to assess whether the project is worth doing. Unit 9: Unit 9 11. probe noun [C] 1 an attempt to discover information by asking a lot of questions: a Justice Department probe into the Democrats' fund raising Unit 9: Unit 9 12. recuperate verb [I] SLIGHTLY FORMAL to become well again after an illness; to get back your strength, health, etc: She spent a month in the country recuperating from/after the operation. Unit 9: Unit 9 13. haemorrhage UK, US hemorrhage noun [C] 1 a large flow of blood from a damaged blood vessel (= tube carrying blood around the body): a brain haemorrhage 2 a sudden or serious loss: The higher salaries paid overseas have caused a haemorrhage of talent from this country. Unit 9: Unit 9 14. exquisite (BEAUTIFUL) adjective very beautiful; delicate: an exquisite piece of china Look at this exquisite painting She has exquisite taste. exquisitely adverb Their house is exquisitely (= beautifully) furnished. Unit 9: Unit 9 15. intricate adjective having a lot of small parts or details that are arranged in a complicated way and are therefore sometimes difficult to understand, solve or produce: The watch mechanism is extremely intricate and very difficult to repair. Police officers uncovered an intricate web of deceit. Unit 9: Unit 9 16. concussion noun [U] temporary damage to the brain caused by a fall or hit on the head or by violent shaking: He's been a bit dizzy and confused since the accident. Do you think it's mild concussion? concuss verb [T often passive] to give someone concussion Unit 9: Unit 9 17. futile adjective (of actions) having no effect or achieving nothing; unsuccessful: It's quite futile trying to reason with him - he just won't listen. All my attempts to cheer her up proved futile. Unit 9: Unit 9 18. boo (DISAPPROVAL) verb [I or T] booing, booed, booed to make an expression of strong disapproval or disagreement: People at the back started booing loudly. Her singing was so bad that she was booed off the stage. Unit 9: Unit 9 19. canvas noun 1 [U] strong, rough cloth used for making tents, sails, bags, strong clothes, etc. 2 [C] a piece of canvas used by artists for painting on, usually with oil paints, or the painting itself: These two canvases by Hockney would sell for £500 000. Unit 9: Unit 9 20. A. jab verb -bb- 1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] to push or hit something forcefully and quickly, often with a thin or sharp object: The doctor jabbed the needle into the dog's leg. Watch out! You nearly jabbed me in the eye with your umbrella! He was jabbing a finger at (= towards) them and shouting angrily. 2 [I] to make quick forceful hits with your fist when boxing Unit 9: Unit 9 20. B. jab noun [C] a quick hard push or hit: She gave me a sharp jab in the ribs with her elbow to stop me from saying any more. The boxer was floored by a punishing left jab. Unit 9: Unit 9 21. squirt verb 1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] (to force a liquid) to flow out through a narrow opening in a fast stream: He squirted some tomato sauce on his burger (碎肉夹饼). There was a leak in one of the pipes and water was squirting out all over the kitchen floor. 2 [T] to hit someone or something with a liquid or gas: She was squirting the neighbors with a water pistol. Unit 9: Unit 9 22. Poleax verb [T] 1 to hit someone so hard that they fall down: Blake was poleaxed by a missile (发射物） thrown from the crowd. 2 INFORMAL to give someone such a great shock that they do not know what to do: He was completely poleaxed when his wife left him. Unit 9: Unit 9 23. mores plural noun FORMAL the traditional customs and ways of behaving that are typical of a particular (part of) society: middle-class mores the mores and culture of the Japanese Unit 9: Unit 9 1. Colossus 2. adequate 3. lacework 4. exquisitely 5. intricate 6. encase 1. a person or thing of very great size, importance or ability 2. just enough (for the purpose) 3. a netlike ornamental cloth made of delicate threads 4. almost perfectly 5. complicated 6. put into a case Unit 9: Unit 9 7.withstand 8. futile 9.intervene 10. boo 11. squirt 12. wobble 7. remain unharmed 8. useless 9. take action (in order to) prevent something from happening 10. express disapproval or strong disagreement by saying boo 11. gush out in a thin fast stream 12. move unsteadily from side to sideUnit 9: Unit 9 Answers to the translation: 1. 只学习不实践是没用的。 2. 所有人都意识到吸烟的危害。 3. 由于食物不好，我生病了。 4. 他们有把握获胜。 5. 本文的目的是讨论电脑设计的新趋势。 It is no use learning without practice. Everyone should be aware of the dangers of cigarette smoking. My illness was due to bad food. They are confident of victory. The article aims at discussing recent trends in computer design.Unit 9: Unit 9 Word Level Test 1 1. He has a successful car___as a lawyer. 2. The thieves threw ac____ in his face and made him blind. 3. To improve the country's economy, the government decided on economic ref___. 4. She wore a beautiful green go___ to the ball. Unit 9: Unit 9 5. The government tried to protect the country's industry by reducing the imp____of cheap goods. 6. The children's games were amusing at first, but finally got on the parents' ner___. 7. The lawyer gave some wise coun___ to his client. 8. Many people in England mow the la___ of their houses on Sunday morning. Unit 9: Unit 9 9. The farmer sells the eggs that his he ___lays. 10. Sudden noises at night sca___ me a lot. 11. France was proc___ a republic in the 18th century. 12. Many people are inj___ in road accidents every year. Unit 9: Unit 9 13. Suddenly he was thru___ into the dark room. 14. He perc___ a light at the end of the tunnel. 15. Children are not independent. They are att___ to their parents. Unit 9: Unit 9 16. She showed off her sle___ figure in a long narrow dress. 17. She has been changing partners often because she cannot have a sta___ relationship with one person. 18. You must wear a bathing suit on a public beach. You're not allowed to bath na___.Unit 9: Unit 9 About TCM英语专业四级考试大纲.docUnit 9: Unit 9 TEXT II A Piece of Steak Questions 1. Where did the story take place? 2. What feature or features of Tom King tell people that he was a prizefighter? 3. Describe Tom King's personality. 4. Why did tradesmen no longer agree to let Tom King buy anything on credit? 5. What did Tom King do to support his family between fights? 6. What do you think were the causes of Tom King's defeat?" Unit 9: Unit 9 About the phrases and collocations 1. sort out the phrases and collocations from the text. 2. classified them. 3. share them. 4. put them back to the text. 5. make a comparison.Unit 9: Unit 9 Vocabulary 1. morsel: noun [C] 1 a very small piece of food: a morsel of cheese The prisoners ate every last morsel. 2 a very small piece or amount: a morsel of good news Unit 9: Unit 9 2. gravy: noun [U] a sauce made from meat juices, liquid and flour, and served with meat and vegetables Unit 9: Unit 9 3. resulting: adjective [before noun] (FORMAL resultant) caused by the event or situation which you have just mentioned: The tape was left near a magnetic source, and the resulting damage was considerable. Unit 9: Unit 9 4. oppress (MAKE UNCOMFORTABLE) verb [T] to make a person feel uncomfortable or anxious, and sometimes ill: Strange dreams and nightmares oppressed him. Unit 9: Unit 9 5. wear (WEAKEN) verb [I] wore, worn to become weaker, damaged or thinner because of continuous use: I'm very fond of this shirt but it's starting to wear at the collar. The wheel bearings have worn over the years, which is what's causing the noise. Unit 9: Unit 9 6. rickety adjective in bad condition and therefore weak and likely to break: Careful! That chair's a bit rickety. She slowly climbed the rickety wooden steps. FIGURATIVE The recession put a lot of strain on an already rickety economic system. Unit 9: Unit 9 7. protest noun 1 [C or U] a strong complaint expressing disagreement, disapproval or opposition: Protests have been made/registered by many people who would be affected by the proposed changes. A formal protest was made by the German team about their disqualification from the relay final. Conservation groups have united in protest against the planned new road. Unit 9: Unit 9 8. dip (PUT INTO) verb [T] -pp- 1 to put something briefly into a liquid: Dip the fish in the batter, then drop it into the hot oil. She dipped her toe into the pool to see how cold it was. Unit 9: Unit 9 9. sole noun 1 FOOT [C] the bottom part of your foot that you walk on 2 SHOE [C] the part of a shoe that is under your foot Unit 9: Unit 9 10. fray verb 1 CLOTH [I,T] If material or clothing frays, or if it is frayed, the threads at the edge break and become loose. 2 ANNOYED [I] If your temper (= mood) frays or your nerves fray, you gradually become annoyed or upset. After hours of waiting, tempers were beginning to fray. Unit 9: Unit 9 11. ineradicable adjective FORMAL not able to be removed: Some experiences in early life have ineradicable effects. ineradicable adj form (impression) indéracinable; (disease) incurable Unit 9: Unit 9 12. stain (MARK) verb 1 [I or T] to leave a mark on something which is difficult to remove: Tomato sauce stains terribly - it's really difficult to get it out of clothes. While she was changing the wheel on her car, her coat had become stained with oil. Unit 9: Unit 9 shaggy adjective having or covered with long, rough and untidy hair, or (of hair) long, rough and untidy: a shaggy dog/pony the shaggy coat of a sheep a shaggy rug Unit 9: Unit 9 sheer (COMPLETE) adjective [before noun] used to emphasize how very great, important or powerful a quality or feeling is; nothing except: The suggestion is sheer nonsense. His success was due to sheer willpower/determination. It was sheer coincidence that we met. Unit 9: Unit 9 slant verb 1 [I or T] to (cause to) lean in a diagonal position; to (cause to) slope: Italic writing slants to the right. The evening sun slanted (= shone with the light moving in a slope) through the narrow window. Unit 9: Unit 9 cauliflower noun [C or U] (UK INFORMAL cauli) a large round white vegetable which is eaten cooked or raw Unit 9: Unit 9 distort verb [T] to change something from its usual, original, natural or intended meaning, condition or shape: My original statement has been completely distorted by the media. Unit 9: Unit 9 adorn verb [T] LITERARY to add something decorative to a person or thing: The bride's hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers. Unit 9: Unit 9 alley noun [C] (ALSO alleyway) a narrow road or path between buildings, or a path in a park or garden, especially bordered by trees or bushes Unit 9: Unit 9 brawl noun [C] a noisy, rough, uncontrolled fight: a drunken brawl brawl verb [I] The young men had nothing better to do than brawl (= fight) in the streets. Unit 9: Unit 9 grudge noun [C] a strong feeling of anger and dislike for a person who you feel has treated you badly, which often lasts for a long time: I don't bear any grudge against you. Philippa still has/holds a grudge against me for refusing to lend her that money. Unit 9: Unit 9 maim verb [I or T] to injure a person so severely that a part of their body will no longer work as it should: Many children have been maimed for life by these bombs. Unit 9: Unit 9 blimey exclamation UK OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL an expression of surprise: Blimey, what a lot of food! Unit 9: Unit 9 clench verb [T] to close or hold something very tightly, often in a determined or angry way: The old man clenched his fist and waved it angrily at us. With a knife clenched in/between his teeth, he climbed up the tree to cut some coconuts. "Get out of here, " she said through clenched teeth. Unit 9: Unit 9 falter verb [I] 1 to lose strength or purpose and stop, or almost stop: The dinner party conversation faltered for a moment. Her friends never faltered in their belief in her. Nigel's voice faltered and he stopped speaking. 2 to move awkwardly as if you might fall: The nurse saw him falter and made him lean on her. Unit 9: Unit 9 bull terrier noun [C] a strong-looking type of dog with short hair Unit 9: Unit 9 navvy noun [C] UK OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL a man who is employed to do unskilled physical work, usually building or making roads Unit 9: Unit 9 spar (FIGHT) verb [I] -rr- 1 to practise boxing, without hitting hard 2 to argue: Frank and Jill always spar with each other at meetings, but they're good friends really. spar (FIGHT) verb [I] -rr- 1 to practise boxing, without hitting hard 2 to argue: Frank and Jill always spar with each other at meetings, but they're good friends really. Unit 9: Unit 9 Cub noun [C] a young lion, bear, wolf, etc. Unit 9: Unit 9 grind (MAKE SMALLER) verb [T] ground, ground to make something into small pieces or a powder by pressing between hard surfaces: to grind coffee Shall I grind a little black pepper over your pizza? They grind the grain into flour (= make flour by crushing grain) between two large stones. Unit 9: Unit 9 quid noun [C] plural quid UK INFORMAL a pound; £1: Could you lend me twenty quid (= £20), mate? Unit 9: Unit 9 tram UK noun [C] (US USUALLY streetcar, US ALSO trolley) an electric vehicle that transports people, usually in cities, and goes along metal tracks in the road Unit 9: Unit 9 taxi (VEHICLE) noun [C] (ALSO taxicab or cab) a car with a driver whom you pay to take you somewhere: I took a taxi from the station to the hotel. a taxi driver Unit 9: Unit 9 flatter verb [T] 1 to praise someone in order to make them feel attractive or important, sometimes in a way that is not sincere: I knew he was only flattering me because he wanted to borrow some money. Unit 9: Unit 9 toff noun [C] UK OLD-FASHIONED a rich person from a high social class: Gone are the days when champagne-drinking was just for toffs. Unit 9: Unit 9 vein (TUBE) noun [C] 1 a tube that carries blood to the heart from the other parts of the body 2 the frame of a leaf or an insect's wing Unit 9: Unit 9 knuckle noun [C] one of the joints in the hand where your fingers bend, especially where your fingers join on to the main part of your hand See picture . Unit 9: Unit 9 weary adjective 1 very tired, especially after working hard for a long time: I think he's a little weary after his long journey. Here, sit down and rest your weary legs. 2 weary of bored with something because you have experienced too much of it: I've been going out with the same people to the same clubs for years and I've just grown weary of it. Unit 9: Unit 9 bloke noun [C] UK INFORMAL a man, often one who is considered to be ordinary: Paul's a really good bloke (= I like him a lot). He's a funny (sort of) bloke (= slightly strange). Unit 9: Unit 9 ruminate (THINK) verb [I] FORMAL to think carefully and for a long period about something: She ruminated for weeks about whether to tell him or not. Unit 9: Unit 9 stolid adjective SLIGHTLY DISAPPROVING (of a person) calm and not showing emotion or excitement, or (of a thing) not interesting or attractive: He's a very stolid, serious man. The college is a stolid-looking building with no lawn. Unit 9: Unit 9 exultant adjective FORMAL very happy, especially at someone else's defeat or failure: an exultant cheer an exultant crowd Unit 9: Unit 9 invincible adjective impossible to defeat or prevent from doing what is intended: Last year the company seemed/looked invincible but in recent weeks has begun to have problems. Unit 9: Unit 9 supple (BENDING) bending or able to be bent easily; not stiff: I'm not supple enough (= My body doesn't bend easily enough) to be able to touch the floor with my hands while I'm standing up. The gloves were made of very supple leather. Unit 9: Unit 9 palpitate verb [I] (of the heart) to beat very fast and irregularly: My heart was palpitating with fear. palpitations plural noun 1 when your heart beats too quickly or irregularly: He ended up in hospital with heart palpitations. Unit 9: Unit 9 wrench (PULL) verb 1 [T + adverb or preposition] to pull and twist something suddenly or violently away from a fixed position: The photographer tripped over a lead, wrenching a microphone from its stand. The phone had been wrenched from/off the wall. The ball was wrenched out of his grasp by another player. His hands were tied but he managed to wrench himself free. Unit 9: Unit 9 Word Level Test 2Word Level Test 2.docUnit 9: Unit 9 ORAL WORK Role-play What Do People Come Out to See in a Boxing Match? Interaction Activities On SportsUnit 9: Unit 9 Suggestions: 1. For - Yes. Nearly all sports practiced today are competitive. You play to win, and a game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. Often you represent your class, your school, the locality where you are from, or even your country, in athletic contests; and you do the best you can in order to win. Against - Not always. Often people are engaged in sports activities for amusement or exercise. Take golf, tennis, or basketball, for example. Lots of people play these not to win a game but to keep fit. 2. give your own opinions on this question.Unit 9: Unit 9 3. a. Similarity: Both boxing and wushu enable one to defend oneself and attack others. b. Differences: i. Boxing only consists of free combat while wushu combines free combat with routine performances. ii. Boxing involves two people, but wushu does not. iii. Boxing is almost always competitive, but wushu is not. iv. People learn to do wushu in order to keep fit, but this is not so with boxing. 4. a. physical exercise b. amusement c. competition Unit 9: Unit 9 GUIDED WRITING Précis Writing Paragraph Writing Letter Writing Unit 10: Unit 10 1. word level test 3 5000 Level Word Test 1.doc 2. Sort out phrases in the text. 3. Language Points 4. Vocabulary Unit 10: Unit 10 under sb's thumb to be under someone's control: He's got the committee firmly under his thumb - they agree to whatever he asks. Unit 10: Unit 10 cudgel noun [C] a short heavy stick used for hitting people cudgel verb [T] -ll- or US USUALLY -l- to hit someone with a cudgel Unit 10: Unit 10 duck (MOVE) verb 1 [I or T] to move your head or the top part of your body quickly down, especially to avoid being hit: I saw the ball hurtling towards me and ducked (down). Duck your head or you'll bang it on the doorframe. 2 [T] to push someone underwater for a short time: The boys were splashing about and ducking each other in the pool. 3 [I + adverb or preposition] to move quickly to a place, especially in order not to be seen: When he saw them coming, he ducked into a doorway. Unit 10: Unit 10 wince verb [I] to tighten the muscles of the face briefly and suddenly in a show of pain, worry, or embarrassment She cut her finger, but didn't even wince. wince noun [C usually sing] "These pictures are disgusting," Jones said with a wince. Unit 10 : Unit 10 flee verb [I or T; never passive] fleeing, fled, fled to escape by running away, especially because of danger or fear: She fled (from) the room in tears. In order to escape capture, he fled to the mountains. Unit 10: Unit 10 not get/go anywhere INFORMAL If you are not getting/going anywhere, you are not improving or advancing a particular situation: I've been sorting out my study all day, but it's such a mess I don't feel I'm getting anywhere. Unit 10: Unit 10 tell sb off phrasal verb [M] to speak angrily at someone because they have done something wrong: The teacher told me off for swearing. telling-off noun [C usually singular] plural tellings-off He gave me a good telling-off for forgetting the meeting. Unit 10: Unit 10 placate verb [T] to stop someone from feeling angry: Outraged minority groups will not be placated by promises of future improvements. placatory adjective FORMAL trying to avoid making someone angry: The tone of the letter was placatory. Unit 10: Unit 10 white flag noun [C] a flag that is waved to show the acceptance of defeat or a lack of intention to attack: The soldiers lay down their guns and walked towards the enemy camp, carrying a white flag. Unit 10: Unit 10 studious adjective describes someone who enjoys studying or spends a lot of time studying: She was a studious child, happiest when reading. Unit 10: Unit 10 enormous adjective extremely large: an enormous car/house He earns an enormous salary. I was absolutely enormous when I was pregnant. You've been an enormous help. Unit 10: Unit 10 indefensible adjective 1 too bad to be protected from criticism: The war is morally indefensible. His opinions/attitudes are completely indefensible. 2 not able to be protected against attack: indefensible borders Unit 10: Unit 10 improper (DISHONEST) adjective FORMAL dishonest and against a law or a rule: The governor has denied making improper use of state money. improperly adverb FORMAL impropriety noun [C or U] FORMAL financial/legal impropriety Unit 10: Unit 10 nail sb down phrasal verb INFORMAL to make someone give you exact details or a firm decision about something: They nailed him down to a specific time and place. nail sth down (UNDERSTAND) phrasal verb [M] US INFORMAL to understand something completely, or to describe something correctly: We haven't been able to nail down the cause of the fire yet. Unit 10: Unit 10 make sth/sb out (UNDERSTAND) phrasal verb [M] to see, hear or understand something or someone with difficulty: The numbers are too small - I can't make them out at all. I can't make out your writing. She's a strange person - I can't make her out at all. [+ question word] Nobody can make out why you should have been attacked. Unit 10: Unit 10 mix sb/sth up (CONFUSE) phrasal verb [M] to fail to identify two people or things correctly by thinking that one person or thing is the other person or thing: People often mix us up because we look so similar. I think you're mixing me up with my sister. Unit 10: Unit 10 mix sth up (UNTIDY) phrasal verb [M] to make a group of things untidy or badly organized, or to move them into the wrong order: Don't mix up the bottles - you'll have to repeat the experiment if you do. Your jigsaw puzzles and games are all mixed up together in that box. Shall we sort them out? Unit 10 : Unit 10 sway (MOVE) verb 1 [I] to move slowly from side to side: The trees were swaying in the wind. The movement of the ship caused the mast to sway from side to side/backwards and forwards. A drunk was standing in the middle of the street, swaying uncertainly and trying hard to stay upright. 2 [T] to cause something to move or change: Recent developments have swayed the balance of power in the region. Unit 10: Unit 10 malice noun [U] the wish to harm or upset other people: There certainly wasn't any malice in her comments. FORMAL I bear him no malice (= do not want to harm or upset him). malicious adjective intended to harm or upset other people: malicious gossip a malicious look in his eyes He complained that he'd been receiving malicious telephone calls. LEGAL He was charged with malicious wounding. Unit 10: Unit 10 crash (FAIL) verb [I] 1 If something such as a business crashes, it suddenly fails or becomes unsuccessful: Investors were seriously worried when the stock market began to crash. 2 If a computer or system crashes, it suddenly stops operating: My laptop's crashed again. Unit 10: Unit 10 indignant adjective angry because of something which is wrong or not fair: She wrote an indignant letter to the paper complaining about the council's action. He became very indignant when it was suggested he had made a mistake. indignantly adverb "I said no such thing!" she cried indignantly. indignation noun [U] Unit 10: Unit 10 puny adjective small; weak; not effective: a puny little man My car only has a puny little engine. The party's share of the vote rose from a puny 11% in the last election to 21% this time. Unit 10: Unit 10 trail away/off phrasal verb When a person's voice or a similar sound trails away/off, it becomes quieter and less confident and then stops completely: His voice trailed off as he saw the look on her face. Unit 10: Unit 10 toy with sth (CONSIDER) phrasal verb to consider something or doing something, but not in a very serious way, and without making a decision: We're toying with the idea of going to Peru next year. Unit 10: Unit 10 thunderbolt noun 1 [C] a flash of lightning and the sound of thunder together 2 [S] an announcement, event or idea that is completely unexpected or shocking: He dropped a thunderbolt on us this morning, when he told us that we were closing down. Unit 10: Unit 10 execute (KILL) verb [T] to kill someone as a legal punishment: He was executed for murder. execution noun [C or U] when someone is killed as a legal punishment: Execution is still the penalty in some states for murder. The executions will be carried out by a firing squad. Unit 10: Unit 10 indolent adjective LITERARY lazy; showing no real interest or effort: an indolent wave of the hand an indolent reply indolently adverb LITERARY Unit 10: Unit 10 to the core 1 in every part: He's a Conservative to the core. 2 to an extreme degree: I was shocked to the core. Unit 10: Unit 10 wry adjective [before noun] showing that you find a bad or difficult situation slightly amusing: a wry smile/comment Unit 10: Unit 10 shrug sth off (NOT WORRY) phrasal verb [M] to treat something as if it is not important or not a problem: The stock market shrugged off the economic gloom and rose by 1.5%. You're a father and you can't simply shrug off your responsibility for your children. Unit 10: Unit 10 impostor, imposter noun [C] a person who pretends to be someone else in order to deceive others: He felt like an impostor among all those intelligent people, as if he had no right to be there. imposture noun [C or U] FORMAL the act of pretending to be someone else in order to deceive others Unit 10: Unit 10 blush verb [I] to become pink in the face, usually from embarrassment: I always blush when I speak in public. I blush to think of what a fool I made of myself. Unit 10: Unit 10 bawl verb [I or T] to shout in a very loud rough voice, or to cry loudly: She bawled at me to sit down. The two girls were now bawling (= crying loudly) in unison. Unit 10: Unit 10 pandemonium noun [U] a situation in which there is a lot of noise and confusion because people are excited, angry or frightened: Pandemonium reigned in the hall as the unbelievable election results were read out. the pandemonium of the school playground Unit 10: Unit 10 gramophone noun [C] OLD-FASHIONED FOR record player Unit 10: Unit 10 strike (CAUSE TO THINK) verb [T] struck, struck If a thought or idea strikes you, you suddenly think of it: [+ that] It's just struck me that I still owe you for the concert tickets. Sitting at her desk, she was struck by the thought that there must be something more to life. Unit 10: Unit 10 briefcase noun [C] a rectangular case, used especially for carrying business documents Unit 10: Unit 10 Geoffrey Chaucer（1340-1400） led a busy official life, as an esquire(骑士） of the royal court, as the comptroller （审计员）of the customs for the port of London, as a participant in Important diplomatic missions, and in a variety of other official duties. Unit 10: Unit 10 The Canterbury Tales Above is a pilgrimage scene from a stained glass window in Canterbury Cathedral. Unit 10: Unit 10 alas adverb OLD-FASHIONED OR FORMAL used to express sadness or regret: I love football but, alas, I have no talent as a player. "Will you be able to come tomorrow?" "Alas, no." Unit 10: Unit 10 cor (EXPRESSING INTEREST) exclamation UK SLANG an expression of interest and admiration or surprise: Cor! Did you see him in the blue swimming trunks? (swimming trunks plural noun MAINLY UK a piece of men's clothing that is worn when swimming ) Unit 10: Unit 10 falsetto noun [C] plural falsettos a form of singing or speaking by men using an extremely high voice: For his role as a young boy, he had to speak in a high falsetto. falsetto adjective, adverb The lead singer has a falsetto voice. to sing falsetto Unit 10: Unit 10 fairy tale noun [C] (ALSO fairy story) a traditional story written for children which usually involves imaginary creatures and magic fairy-tale, fairytale adjective [before noun] APPROVING having a special and charming or beautiful quality, like something in a fairy tale: They had a fairy-tale wedding. Sadly, there was no fairytale happy ending to the story. Unit 10: Unit 10 1. wince 2. illegally 3. creep 4. indefensible 5. maliciously 6. puny 7. mass execution 8. indolently 9. impostor 10. appropriate 1. move back suddenly, often showing a painful expression 2. against the rules and regulations of the school 3. move slowly and quietly 4. which cannot be excused, inexcusable 5. wishing to do harm 6. small and weak 7. putting a lot of people to death 8. lazily 9. person who pretends to be somebody he is not 10. in keeping with (the condition in the classroom)Unit 10: Unit 10 1. Vocabulary Test abroad.doc 2. Text Ⅱ An Exeter School Boy A. Pick Out the Phrases B. background C. Language points Unit 10: Unit 10 Exeter is one of busy ports and cathedral cities on the River Exe in Devon. Exeter is filled with ancient houses, winding streets, Roman artefacts (人工品) and buildings dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. Unit 10: Unit 10 Exeter Cathedral An old cobbled street Exeter Unit 10: Unit 10 aggravate to make worse, more serious, or more severe : <problems have been aggravated by neglect> Unit 10: Unit 10 warden 1 : one having care or charge of something : GUARDIAN, KEEPER 3 a : an official charged with special supervisory duties or with the enforcement of specified laws or regulations <game warden> <air raid warden>Unit 10: Unit 10 sewage: n.下水道, 污水 v.用污水灌溉, 装下水道于 refuse liquids or waste matter carried off by sewers (n.下水道, 缝具, 缝纫者)Unit 10: Unit 10 Pavilion n.大帐蓬, 亭, 阁 vt.搭帐蓬, 笼罩 1 : a large often sumptuous tent 2 : a part of a building projecting from the rest 3 : a light sometimes ornamental structure in a garden, park, or place of recreation that is used for entertainment or shelterUnit 10: Unit 10 Bonus n.奖金, 红利 something in addition to what is expected or strictly due: as a : money or an equivalent given in addition to an employee‘s usual compensationUnit 10 : Unit 10 grin: to draw back the lips so as to show the teeth especially in amusement or laughter; broadly : SMILE Unit 10: Unit 10 Hiss v.嘶嘶作声, 用嘘声表示 1 : to express disapproval of by hissing <hissed the performers off the stage> 2 : to utter or whisper angrily or threateningly and with a hiss Unit 11: Unit 11 1. word level test 4 5000 level test 2.doc 2. Sort out phrases in the text. 3. backgrounds 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary Unit 11: Unit 11 Shaka Zulu (1787-1828) Zulu King Shaka, king of the Zulus, devised innovative tactics and weapons to establish nineteenth-century Zulu dominance of Africa and increase his control over a population that began at 1,500 and grew to more than 250,000. Shaka still managed to develop a military system that reined supreme for more than fifty years after his death. Unit 11: Unit 11 Zulu Location: Natal Province in South Africa Population: 3 million Language: Kwazulu (Nguni) Neighboring Peoples: Sotho, Tswana, San Types of Art: The Zulu are best known for their beadwork and basketry. There have also been some figural sculpture questionably attributed to them. Zulu architecture is quite complex, and the dress or fashion of the Zulu has been carefully studied. Unit 11: Unit 11 Map of South Africa Unit 11: Unit 11 Napoleon I Emperor of the French 1769 – 1821 Through his military exploits and his ruthless efficiency, Napoleon rose from obscurity (身份低微)to become Napoleon I, Empereur des Francais (Emperor of the French). He is both a historical figure and a legend—and it is sometimes difficult to separate the two. The events of his life fired the imaginations of great writers, film makers, and playwrights whose works have done much to create the Napoleonic legend. Unit 11: Unit 11 Battle of Waterloo, final and decisive action of the Napoleonic Wars, that effectively ended French domination of the European continent and brought about drastic changes in the political boundaries and the power balance of Europe. Fought on June 18, 1815, near Waterloo, in what is now Belgium, the battle ranks as a great turning point in modern history.Unit 11: Unit 11 On June 18, 1815, French emperor Napoleon I and his armies met a force of primarily Austrian, Prussian, and British troops near the town of Waterloo, in modern Belgium. The Battle of Waterloo was one of the bloodiest in modern history, and it ended in Napoleon’s crushing defeat. Unit 11: Unit 11 Shown here, Prussian troops storm the village of Plancenoit, southeast of Waterloo, during the battle. Unit 11: Unit 11 Language points: chieftain noun [C] the leader of a tribe Unit 11: Unit 11 escort (GO WITH) [ isk:t ] v.护卫, 护送, 陪同verb [T] 1 to go with someone or a vehicle especially to make certain that they arrive safely or that they leave a place: The police escorted her to the airport, and made sure that she left the country. 2 to go with someone and show them a place: People on the tour will be escorted by an expert on archaeology. (n.考古学) Unit 11: Unit 11 escort noun 1 [C] a person who goes somewhere with another person as a helper or a guard: The members of the jury left the court with a police escort. 2 [U] the state of having someone with you who gives you protection or guards you: The prisoners were transported under military escort. Unit 11: Unit 11 slay verb [T] slew or slayed, slain 1 UK OLD USE OR LITERARY to kill in a violent way: St George slew the dragon. 2 (used especially in newspapers) to murder someone: He was found slain in an alley two blocks from his apartment. slaying noun [C] MAINLY US a murder Unit 11: Unit 11 jungle (PLACE) noun 1 [C or U] a tropical forest in which trees and plants grow very closely together: Either side of the river is dense, impenetrable jungle. 2 [S] an uncontrolled or confusing mass of things: Our garden is a real jungle. a jungle of regulations/laws Unit 11: Unit 11 thorn noun [C] a small sharp pointed growth on the stem of a plant thorny adjective having thorns Unit 11: Unit 11 formidable adj.强大的, 令人敬畏的, 可怕的, 艰难的 causing you to have fear or respect for something or someone because they are impressive, powerful or difficult: a formidable obstacle/task a formidable adversary/enemy/opponent a formidable intellect Unit 11: Unit 11 snap (BREAK) verb -pp- 1 [I or T] to cause something which is thin to break suddenly and quickly with a cracking sound: You'll snap that ruler if you bend it too far. 2 [I] to suddenly become unable to control a strong feeling, especially anger: When she asked me to postpone my trip to help her move house, I just snapped (= got angry). Unit 11: Unit 11 regiment noun [group] a large group of soldiers regimental adjective relating to a regiment Unit 11: Unit 11 scour [ skau] verb [T] vt.冲洗, 擦亮, (搜索或追捕时)急速走遍 1 SEARCH to search for something very carefully, often over a large area The police scoured the surrounding countryside for possible clues. 2 CLEAN to clean something by rubbing it with something rough Unit 11: Unit 11 mourn verb [I,T] to feel very sad because someone has died He mourned for his dead son every day. Unit 11: Unit 11 Staple n.钉书钉, 钉, 主要产品(或商品) adj.主要的, 常用的, 大宗生产的 adjective [always before noun] A staple food, product, etc is basic and very important. a staple diet of rice and fish Unit 11: Unit 11 sentence1 noun 1 WORDS [C] a group of words, usually containing a verb, that expresses a complete idea 2 PUNISHMENT [C,U] a punishment that a judge gives to someone who has committed a crime a 30-year sentence Unit 11: Unit 11 sentence2 verb [T] to give a punishment to someone who has committed a crime [often passive] She was sentenced to six months in prison. Unit 11: Unit 11 brood1 noun [C] a family of young birds or animals, all born at the same time brood2 verb [I] to think for a long time about things that make you sad or angry I wish he'd stop brooding about the past. Unit 11: Unit 11 desperate adjective 1 WITHOUT HOPE feeling that you have no hope and are ready to do anything to change the situation you are in He was absolutely desperate and would have tried anything to get her back. 2 NEEDING SOMETHING needing or wanting something very much By two o'clock I was desperate for something to eat. 3 BAD A desperate situation is very bad or serious. The economy is in a really desperate situation. Unit 11: Unit 11 tyranny [ tir ]noun [U] 1 government by a ruler or small group of people who have unlimited power over the people in their country or state and use it unfairly and cruelly: This, the president promised us, was a war against tyranny. 2 when a situation or person controls how you are able to live, in an unfair way: Women, the play seems to suggest, must resist the tyranny of domesticity. (Domesticity [dmestisiti ]n.家庭生活, 专心于家务, 对家庭的挚爱, 家庭生活)Unit 11: Unit 11 instant noun [S] an extremely short period of time; a moment: In an instant her mood had changed. "Stop that noise this instant (= now)!" I'll call you the instant (= as soon as) I get home. instant adjective 1 happening immediately, without any delay: This type of account offers you instant access to your money. Unit 11: Unit 11 2 Instant food or drink is dried, usually in the form of a powder, and can be prepared very quickly by adding hot water: instant coffee/soup Unit 11: Unit 11 enclose (SURROUND) verb [T] to surround: The park that encloses the monument has recently been enlarged. enclosed adjective surrounded by walls, objects or structures: He doesn't like enclosed spaces. enclosure noun [C] an enclosed area: the members enclosure Unit 11: Unit 11 pull yourself together (CALM) phrasal verb [R] to become calm and behave normally again after being angry or upset: Just pull yourself together. There's no point crying about it. Unit 11: Unit 11 Gasp verb [I] 1 to take a short quick breath through the mouth, especially because of surprise, pain or shock: When she saw the money hidden in the box she gasped in surprise. 2 UK INFORMAL be gasping to be very thirsty gasp noun [C] when you gasp: He gave a gasp of amazement. Unit 11: Unit 11 grip (HOLD) verb [I or T] -pp- to hold very tightly: The baby gripped my finger with her tiny hand. Old tyres won't grip (= stay on the surface of the road) in the rain very well. grip noun [C usually singular] She tightened her grip (= tight hold) on my arm. She would not loosen her grip on my arm. Unit 11: Unit 11 club (WEAPON) noun [C] a heavy stick used as a weapon club verb [T] -bb- to beat a person or an animal, usually repeatedly, with a heavy stick or object: He was clubbed over the head. The alligators are then clubbed to death. Unit 11: Unit 11 Vocabulary 1.ruthless 2. slayer 3. formidable 4.scour 5.staple diet 6. brooding 7. intensive 8. tyranny 9.royal enclosure 10.councillor 1. very cruel 2. killer, murder 3. difficult to defeat 4.go through(an area thoroughly in search of sth. 5.the most important food 6.sad 7.deep and thorough 8.cruel or unjust use of power to rule a country 9.the closed area that belongs to the king 10. member of a group of people chosen to make laws, rules or decisions for a countryUnit 11: Unit 11 1. collocation exercise.doc 2. Pick out phrases in textⅡ. 3. Language Points Unit 11: Unit 11 stamp (LETTER) noun [C] 1 (FORMAL postage stamp) a small piece of paper with a picture or pattern on it which is stuck onto a letter or parcel before it is posted to show that postage has been paid for: I stuck a 50p stamp on the envelope. Unit 11: Unit 11 stamp (FOOT) verb [I or T] (US ALSO stomp) to put a foot down on the ground hard and quickly, making a loud noise, often to show anger: The little boy was stamping his foot and refusing to take his medicine. She stood by the road, stamping her feet to stay warm. I wish those people upstairs would stop stamping (about/around). Why did you stamp on that insect? Unit 11: Unit 11 virtue (ADVANTAGE) noun [C or U] (an) advantage or benefit: It always looks odd to see an actress on TV extolling (= praising) the virtues of washing-up liquid. Would there be any virtue in taking an earlier train? Unit 11: Unit 11 stab verb -bb- 1 [T] to injure someone with a sharp pointed object such as a knife: She was stabbed several times in the chest. He was jailed for fifteen years for stabbing his wife to death. 2 [I or T] to make a short forceful pushing movement with a finger or a long thin object: As she spoke she stabbed the air with her finger. He stabbed at the meat with his fork. Unit 11: Unit 11 spear noun [C] a weapon consisting of a pole with a sharp, usually metal, point at one end, which is either thrown or held in the hand spear verb [T] 1 to push or throw a spear into an animal: They catch the fish by spearing them. 2 to catch something on the end of a pointed tool or object: He speared a meatball with his fork. Unit 11: Unit 11 sandal noun [C] a light shoe, especially worn in warm weather, consisting of a bottom part held onto the foot by straps: a pair of sandals open-toed sandals Unit 11: Unit 11 Grumble verb [I] 1 to complain about someone or something in an annoyed way: She spent the evening grumbling to me about her job. 2 If your stomach grumbles, it makes a low continuous noise, usually because you are hungry. Unit 11: Unit 11 spike (POINT) noun [C] a narrow thin shape with a sharp point at one end, or something, especially a piece of metal, with this shape: There were large spikes on top of the railings to stop people climbing over them. Unit 11: Unit 11 parade ground noun [C usually singular] a large flat area where soldiers march and practice military movements Unit 11: Unit 11 parade verb 1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] (of a group) to walk or march somewhere, usually as part of a public celebration:. In ancient Rome, captured generals were paraded through the streets in chairs. 2 [I or T] to show something in an obvious way in order to be admired: It's sickening the way he parades his wealth, his car and his expensive clothes. The children paraded about/around in their new clothes. Unit 11: Unit 11 address (SPEAK TO) verb [T] FORMAL to speak or write to someone: He addressed a few introductory remarks to the audience. He likes to be addressed as 'Sir' or 'Mr Partridge'. Unit 11: Unit 11 grit noun [U] very small pieces of stone or sand: The road had been covered with grit. grit verb [T] -tt- to put small stones on a surface so that it is less smooth and therefore safer: Council lorries had been out gritting the icy roads the night before. Unit 11: Unit 11 horn (ANIMAL) noun [C or U] a hard, pointed, often curved part that grows from the top of the head of some animals, or the hard substance of which a horn is made horny adjective 1 made of a hard substance, like horn: Birds have horny beaks. 2 (especially of skin) hard and rough Unit 11 : Unit 11 impervious (SUBSTANCE) adjective not allowing liquid to go through: How does glue bond with impervious substances like glass and metal? impervious (PERSON) adjective describes a person who is not influenced or affected by something: He is impervious to criticism and rational argument. Unit 11: Unit 11 eagle eye noun [C usually singular] If someone has an eagle eye, they notice everything, even very small details: We sat down and started the exam under the eagle eye of the teacher. eagle-eyed adjective My eagle-eyed mother noticed that some cakes had gone missing. Unit 11: Unit 11 pick sb/sth out (RECOGNIZE) phrasal verb [M] to recognize, find or make a choice among different people or items in a group: Can you pick out the three deliberate mistakes in this paragraph? The critics picked him out as the outstanding male dancer of the decade. Unit 11: Unit 11 out of sight 1 INFORMAL extremely expensive and more than you are able to spend: The price of the house we like is out of sight. 2 SLANG excellent: The group's new record is out of sight! Out of sight, out of mind. SAYING said to emphasize that when something or someone cannot be seen, it is easy to forget them Unit 11: Unit 11 grit one’s teeth 1 to press one’s top and bottom teeth together, often in anger: He gritted his teeth in silent fury. 2 to accept a difficult situation and deal with it in a determined way: We had to grit our teeth and agree with their conditions because we wanted the contract. Unit 11: Unit 11 D:\Downloads\episode18.rm Episode 18.doc Unit 11: Unit 11 wo051128.rm wo051128w.rm Learning English.doc Highly skilled on the football pitchUnit 12: Unit 12 1. University Word Level Test 1.doc 2. Pick out phrases and collocations in the text. 3. Language Points 4. Vocabulary Unit 12: Unit 12 thrill noun [C] a feeling of extreme excitement, usually caused by something pleasant: the thrill of winning a competition It gave me a real thrill to see her again after so many years. thrilled adjective extremely pleased: [+ that] I was thrilled that so many people turned up to the party. Unit 12: Unit 12 relent verb [I] SLIGHTLY FORMAL to act in a less severe way towards someone and allow something that you had refused to allow before: Her parents eventually relented and let her go to the party. relentless adjective continuing in a severe or extreme way: relentless criticism/pressure relentlessly adverb She has campaigned relentlessly for her husband's release from prison. Unit 12: Unit 12 flake (SMALL PIECE) a small thin piece of something, especially if it has come from a layered surface: flakes of snow soap flakes Unit 12: Unit 12 ramble (SPREAD) verb [I] (especially of a plant) to go in many different directions: An old clematis (铁线莲 ) rambles over the garden wall. rambling adjective large and spreading out in many different directions: a rambling rose a rambling old house Unit 12: Unit 12 smooth sth over phrasal verb to make problems, difficulties or disagreements less serious or easier to solve, usually by talking to the people involved: Would you like me to try to smooth things over between you and your parents? Unit 12: Unit 12 canopy noun [C] 1 a cover fixed over a seat or bed, etc. for shelter or decoration Unit 12: Unit 12 scrap (SMALL PIECE) noun [C] a small irregular piece of something or a small amount of information: Have you got a scrap of paper I could write on? I've read every scrap of information I can find on the subject. There's not a scrap of (= no) evidence to suggest that he committed the crime. scraps plural noun small bits of food which have not been eaten and which are usually thrown away: We give all our scraps to our cat. Unit 12: Unit 12 delicate (EASILY DAMAGED) adjective needing careful treatment, especially because easily damaged: Peaches have delicate skins which are easily bruised. Delicate plants need to be kept in a greenhouse during the winter. delicate china Molly's health has always been delicate (= She becomes ill easily). Unit 12: Unit 12 delicate (SOFT) adjective pleasantly soft or light; not strong: a rose with a delicate scent We chose a delicate floral pattern for our bedroom curtains. Unit 12: Unit 12 churn (MOVE/MIX) verb 1 [T] (ALSO churn up) to mix something, especially a liquid, with great force: The sea was churned up by heavy winds. 2 [T] to mix milk until it becomes butter 3 [I] If your stomach is churning, you feel ill, usually because you are nervous: I had my driving test that morning and my stomach was churning. Unit 12 : Unit 12 grime noun [U] a layer of dirt on skin or on a building: The walls were covered in grime. grimy adjective The child's face was grimy (= dirty) and streaked ([ stri:kt ]有条斑纹的) with tears. Unit 12: Unit 12 be in the grip of sth to be experiencing something unpleasant that you have no control over: The country is currently in the grip of the worst recession for twenty years. Unit 12: Unit 12 tame (NOT FIERCE) adjective (especially of animals) not wild or fierce, either naturally or because of training or long involvement with humans: After a few months' contact the monkeys become very tame. Unit 12: Unit 12 chop (CUT) verb [T] -pp- to cut something into pieces with an axe, knife or other sharp instrument: He was chopping wood in the yard. Add some fresh parsley, finely chopped. Chop (up) the onions and carrots roughly. INFORMAL Laura had her hair chopped (= cut) yesterday. Unit 12: Unit 12 bowl (DISH) noun [C] a round container that is open at the top and is deep enough to hold fruit, sugar, etc., or the rounded inside part of something: a soup/cereal/salad/sugar bowl a bowl of soup/rice/porridge She eats a bowl (= the contents of a bowl) of cereal every morning. UK Just put the dirty dishes in the washing-up bowl, and I'll do them later. Unit 12: Unit 12 overhaul verb [T] to repair or improve something so that every part of it works properly: I got the engine overhauled. overhaul noun [C] I took my motorbike in for an overhaul. Unit 12: Unit 12 whistle verb [I or T] to make a high sound by forcing air through a small hole or passage, especially through the lips, or through a special device held to the lips: On the days when she wore a skirt the men on the building site would whistle at her. The referee whistled and the game was over. whistle noun [C] a device which you hold to your lips and blow through in order to make a loud, high sound: The referee blew his whistle for half-time. Unit 12: Unit 12 pipe (TUBE) noun [C] a tube inside which liquid or gas flows from one place to another: a water/gas/sewer pipe. pipe verb [T usually passive + adverb or preposition] Hot water is piped to all apartments from the central boiler room. Unit 12: Unit 12 bucket noun [C] a container with an open top and a handle, often used for carrying liquids: Armed with a bucket and a mop, I started washing the floor. I took my two-year old nephew down to the beach with his bucket and spade. Unit 12: Unit 12 stove noun [C] 1 a piece of equipment which burns fuel or uses electricity in order to heat a place 2 MAINLY US a cooker Unit 12: Unit 12 tramp (WALK) verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T] to walk, especially long distances or with heavy steps: to tramp through the forest/undergrowth We spent a week tramping the streets of Rome, looking for movie locations. [C] a long walk: The girls went for a tramp through the countryside. Unit 12: Unit 12 lug (CARRY) verb [T usually + adverb or preposition] -gg- INFORMAL to carry or pull something with effort or difficulty because it is heavy: I'm exhausted after lugging these suitcases all the way across London. I don't want to lug these shopping bags around with me all day. Unit 12: Unit 12 prompt (QUICK) adjective (of an action) done quickly and without delay, or (of a person) acting quickly or arriving at the arranged time: They've written back already - that was a very prompt reply. Try to be prompt because we'll be very short of time. promptly adverb We'll have to leave fairly promptly (= on time) if we want to catch that train. We try to answer readers' letters as promptly (= quickly) as we can. She promised she'd keep it secret and promptly (= immediately after) went and told Ben! Unit 12: Unit 12 thaw (BECOME NOT FROZEN) verb [I or T] to (cause to) change from a solid, frozen state to a liquid or soft one, because of an increase in temperature: Allow the meat to thaw properly before cooking it. The sun came out and thawed the ice. It's beginning to thaw (= The weather is warm enough for snow and ice to melt). the thaw noun [S] a period of warmer weather when snow and ice begin to melt: The thaw has set in early this year. Unit 12: Unit 12 squirt verb 1 [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] (to force a liquid) to flow out through a narrow opening in a fast stream: He squirted some tomato sauce on his burger. There was a leak in one of the pipes and water was squirting out all over the kitchen floor. 2 [T] to hit someone or something with a liquid or gas: She was squirting the neighbors with a water pistol. Unit 12: Unit 12 cart (VEHICLE) 1 a vehicle with either two or four wheels which is pulled by a horse, and which is used for carrying goods: a horse and cart. 2 US FOR trolley (FOR CARRYING) Unit 12: Unit 12 cart (TAKE) verb [T + adverb or preposition] to take something or someone somewhere, especially using a lot of effort: We carted all the rubbish to the bottom of the garden and burned it. Unit 12: Unit 12 plumb (WATER) verb [T] to supply a building or a device with water pipes, or to connect a building or a device to a water pipe: We've discovered that our house isn't plumbed properly. I think we can plumb the new bath into the existing pipes. Have you plumbed the dishwasher in yet? plumber noun [C] a person whose job is to supply and connect, or repair water pipes, baths, toilets, etc: When is the plumber coming to mend the burst pipe? Unit 12: Unit 12 drown (DIE) verb [I or T] to (cause to) die by being unable to breathe under water: He drowned in a boating accident. Many animals were drowned by the tidal wave. Unit 12: Unit 12 devote sth to sth/sb phrasal verb 1 to give all of something, especially your time, effort or love, or yourself, to something you believe in or to a person: He left government to devote more time to his family. [R] At the age of 25, he decided to devote himself to God. devoted adjective extremely loving and loyal: a devoted fan/husband Lucy is devoted to her cats. Unit 12: Unit 12 Vocabulary 1.approximately 2.relentlessly 3.rambling garden 4.canopy 5.impression 6.grimy 1. nearly 2. mercilessly, hard 3. a garden with plants that spread out in all directions 4. a cover (usually of cloth) fixed above a bed or seat; here, a covering 5. a mark left by pressure 6. covered with dark dirt Unit 12: Unit 12 7.leftovers 8.overhauling 9.lug 10.messy remains 11.thaw 12. cart 7. food remaining uneaten after a meal 8. a thorough examination and repair if necessary 9. pull or carry with great effort and difficulty 10. here, dirty egg whites and yolks 11. (of the weather) to become warm enough for snow and ice to melt 12. carry by handUnit 12: Unit 12 1. joke.doc 2. Pick out phrases and collocations in textⅡ. 3. Language Points 4. compare with 秋声赋 Unit 12: Unit 12 lullaby [bai] noun [C] a quiet song which is sung to children to help them go to sleep Unit 12: Unit 12 oak noun [C or U] a large tree that is common especially in northern countries, or the hard wood of this tree: a mighty oak The timbers (wood) of those old sailing ships were mainly oak. an oak table/cupboard Unit 12: Unit 12 pine (tree) noun [C or U] an evergreen tree that grows in cooler areas of the world: a plantation of pines a pine forest Unit 12: Unit 12 granite noun [U] a very hard, grey, pink and black rock, which is used for building ledge noun [C] a narrow shelf which sticks out from a vertical surface Unit 12: Unit 12 lichen [laikn]青苔, 地衣, 苔藓 a grey, green or yellow plant-like organism that grows especially on rocks, walls and trees Unit 12: Unit 12 hieroglyphics plural noun a system of writing which uses pictures instead of words, especially as used in ancient Egypt Unit 12: Unit 12 hearth noun [C] 1 the area around a fireplace or the area of floor in front of it: A bright fire was burning in the hearth. Unit 12: Unit 12 flame (FIRE) noun [C or U] burning gas (from something on fire) which produces usually yellow light: The flames grew larger as the fire spread. When the fire engine arrived the house was already in flames (= burning). Unit 12: Unit 12 violet (COLOUR) noun [U], adjective (having) a bluish purple color violet (PLANT) noun [C] a small plant with pleasant-smelling purple, blue or white flowers Unit 12: Unit 12 rattle (SOUND) noun 1 [S] a sound similar to a series of quickly repeated knocks: From across the town came the rattle of machine-gun fire. 2 [C] a toy which makes a noise like a series of knocks: The baby was waving around a plastic rattle. Unit 12: Unit 12 sash (WINDOW) noun [C] a frame with a piece of glass in it which is used to make windows and doors Unit 12: Unit 12 mutter verb [I or T] to speak quietly and in a low voice that is not easy to hear, often when you are anxious or complaining about something: Stop muttering and speak up! He was muttering (away) to himself. Laurence muttered something about his wife and left. He muttered something under his breath to the person next to him. Unit 12: Unit 12 quiver (SHAKE) verb [I] to shake slightly, often because of strong emotion: Lennie's bottom lip quivered and tears started in his eyes. quiver (CONTAINER) noun [C] a long thin container for carrying arrows Unit 12: Unit 12 intimate (PERSONAL) adjective having, or being likely to cause, a very close friendship or personal or sexual relationship: intimate relationships The restaurant has a very intimate atmosphere. He's become very intimate with an actress. intimacy noun 1 [U] when you have a close friendship with someone: Intimacy between teachers and students is not recommended. Unit 12: Unit 12 puff (BREATHE) verb [I] to breathe fast and with difficulty, usually because you have been doing exercise: He came puffing up the stairs. puff noun INFORMAL be out of puff to be breathing with difficulty because you have been doing physical exercise puffed (out) UK adjective [after verb] (US pooped) INFORMAL breathing with difficulty because you have been doing physical exercise: I can't walk any further - I'm puffed! Unit 12: Unit 12 pucker verb [I or T] (ALSO pucker up) to tighten skin or cloth until small folds appear or (of skin or cloth) to form small folds: He puckered his lips and kissed her. Her mouth puckered and I thought she was going to cry. Unit 12: Unit 12 cedar noun 1 [C] a tall wide evergreen tree 2 [U] (ALSO cedarwood) the wood of this tree Unit 12: Unit 12 shadow-box verb [I] 1 to fight an imaginary enemy by hitting the air with your hands 2 to pretend to argue about or deal with a problem, often to avoid dealing with the most important problem: The main political parties are merely shadow-boxing, instead of tackling the real economic problems facing this country. Unit 12: Unit 12 weather vane noun [C] a pointer with a flat blade at one end which is put on top of a high building and turns round in the wind to show which way it is blowing from Unit 12: Unit 12 tweak verb [T] 1 to pull and twist with a small sudden movement: Standing in front of the mirror she tweaked a strand (一股）of hair into place. 2 to change slightly, especially in order to make more correct, effective, or suitable: The software is pretty much there - it just needs a little tweaking. You just need to tweak the last paragraph and then it's done. Unit 12: Unit 12 crocus 番红花属, 番红花 noun [C] a small yellow, white or purple spring flower Unit 12: Unit 12 daffodil noun [C] a yellow bell-shaped flower with a long stem which is commonly seen in the spring Unit 12: Unit 12 nip (PRESS QUICKLY) verb [I or T] -pp- to press something quickly and quite hard between two objects, especially sharp objects such as your teeth or nails: When he dropped the crate （板条箱, 柳条箱）he nipped his hand. Unit 12: Unit 12 欧阳修（1007-1072），字永叔，号醉翁，晚年号六一居士。庐陵（今江西吉安）人。北宋文学家、史学家，且在政治上负有盛名，唐宋八大家之一。 秋声赋 见《欧阳文忠公文集》，为辞赋，约作于宋仁宗嘉祐四年（1059），作者时年五十三岁。本文通过描写秋声对自然万物的摧败，抒写了因人事忧劳，形神日渐衰老之悲感。Unit 12: Unit 12 【原文】 欧阳子方夜读书，闻有声自西南来者，悚然而听之，曰：“异哉！”初淅沥以萧飒，忽奔腾而砰湃，如波涛夜惊，风雨骤至。其触于物也，鏦鏦铮铮，金铁皆鸣；又如赴敌之兵，衔枚疾走，不闻号令，但闻人马之行声。Unit 12: Unit 12 予谓童子：“此何声也？汝出视之！”童子曰：“星月皎洁，明河在天，四无人声，声在树间。”予曰：“噫嘻，悲哉！此秋声也，胡为乎来哉？盖夫秋之为状也：其色惨淡，烟霏云敛；其容清明，天高日晶；其气栗冽，砭人肌骨；其意萧条，山川寂寥。故其为声也，凄凄切切，呼号奋发。丰草绿缛而争茂，佳木葱茏而可悦；Unit 12: Unit 12 草拂之而色变，木遭之而叶脱；其所以摧败零落者，乃一气之余烈。未秋，刑官也，于时为阴；又兵象也，于行为金；是谓天地之义气，常以萧杀而为心。天之于物，春生秋实；故其在乐也，商声主西方之意，夷则为七月之律。商，伤也，物既老而悲伤；夷，戮也，物过盛而当杀。 Unit 12: Unit 12 嗟乎！草木无情，有时飘零。人为动物，惟物之灵。百忧感其心，万事劳其形，有动乎中，必摇其精；而况思其力之所不及，忧其智之所不能，宜其渥然舟者为槁木，黟yi然墨者为星星。奈何以非金石之质，欲与草木而争荣？念谁为之戕贼，亦何恨乎秋声！” 童子莫对，垂头而睡。但闻四壁虫声唧唧，如助予之叹息。 Unit 12: Unit 12 bbc_advent_online_reading.mp3 Advent.docUnit 12: Unit 12 Advent (耶稣)降临节 Preparations for Christmas 圣诞筹备 Christmas shopping is exciting for children “Christmas is coming, the goose is getting fat.” Christmas shopping is exciting for children Unit 12: Unit 12 Christmas is the biggest festival in Britain and is celebrated on 25th December. The four weeks before Christmas are called Advent, and are traditionally celebrated in churches by lighting a candle each Sunday during Advent. Unit 12: Unit 12 Nowadays, many people in Britain are not very religious, but they still celebrate Christmas. But watch out - the preparations begin long before Advent. In fact as early as September or October, you start to see signs that Christmas is on the way. Unit 12: Unit 12 The first places to tell us that we should be thinking about Christmas are the shops. People in Britain spend on average over £600 (around $1000) per person on Christmas every year, and the shops encourage people to spend more and more. Unit 12: Unit 12 Shops put up Christmas decorations and play cheesy Christmas songs or carols; and some shop workers wear Christmas hats. Some big shops on Regent Street and Oxford Street in London create wonderful displays in their windows with moving characters, falling snow, colourful lights and music. Unit 12: Unit 12 So what do people buy in preparation for Christmas? Well, Christmas decorations; Christmas cards to send to your friends and relatives; presents for your loved ones and wrapping paper to wrap them up with. Unit 12: Unit 12 And of course food! Apart from the special Christmas dinner of roast turkey or goose, people buy lots of chocolates, nuts and snacks for everyone to enjoy. But the children are the most excited that Christmas is coming. They start making lists of presents they would like, and give them to their parents, or send them to Santa Claus. In December, they can also open their Advent calendars.Unit 12: Unit 12 Advent calendars are a way of counting down to Christmas. They have a window to open for every day from 1st – 24th December (Christmas Eve). A basic Advent calendar has a Christmassy picture behind each window, but the children’s favourite is usually a chocolate Advent calendar, with a chocolate for every day of the month. It’s a great build up to the overeating that goes on at Christmas! Unit 12: Unit 12 traditionally 传统上的 on the way 即将来临 on average 平均 per person 每一个人 encourage 鼓励 cheesy 俗套的 carols 圣诞颂歌 Christmas decorations 圣诞装饰 loved ones 亲人 Unit 12: Unit 12 wrapping paper （礼品）包装纸 apart from 除…之外 snacks 小吃 Santa Claus 圣诞老人 calendars 日历 Christmassy 圣诞的 favourite 最喜欢的 build up 累积 Unit 13: Unit 13 1. Pick out phrases and collocations in the text. 2.about the author 3. Language Points 4. Vocabulary Unit 13: Unit 13 Floyd Dell was born on 28th June, 1887 in Pike County, Missouri. His father, Anthony Dell, found it difficult to find regular work and the family experienced a great deal of poverty. At school Dell developed a love of reading. At sixteen, he joined the Socialist Party and gave speeches on street-corners about his political beliefs. He also produced material for a small Socialist monthly, Tri-City Workers' Magazine. Unit 13: Unit 13 sole (BOTTOM PART) noun [C] plural soles the bottom part of a foot which touches the ground when you stand or walk, or the bottom part of a shoe which touches the ground, usually not including the heel: a cut on the sole of her foot shoes with rubber soles insole noun [C] (ALSO inner sole) a piece of material inside a shoe on which your foot rests, or a piece of material that you put in a shoe to make it warmer or more comfortable Unit 13: Unit 13 superintend verb [T] FORMAL to be in charge of something: Her job is to superintend the production process. superintendent noun [C] 1 a person who is in charge of work done in a particular department, office, etc., or who is responsible for keeping a building or place in good condition: In the US, a school superintendent is in charge of the schools in a particular area. We asked the superintendent (ALSO US INFORMAL super) to fix the broken window in our apartment. Slide595: Quincy Unit 13: Unit 13 dime noun [C] an American or Canadian coin which has the value of ten cents Unit 13: Unit 13 penny (plural pence or p or pennies) noun [C] 1 (ABBREVIATION p) the smallest unit of money in Britain of which there are 100 in a pound, or a small coin worth this much. Could you lend me 50 pence/50p please? 2 in the US and Canada, a cent or a coin of this value Unit 13: Unit 13 gutter (CHANNEL) noun [C] 1 the edge of a road where rain flows away 2 an open pipe at the lower edge of a roof which collects and carries away rain the gutter noun [S] the lowest level, especially of society: Born to a poverty-stricken family, she dragged herself out of the gutter to become one of the wealthiest people in Britain today. Unit 13: Unit 13 coop noun [C] a cage where small animals are kept, especially chickens cooped up adjective If you are cooped up somewhere, you are in a small enclosed space from which you cannot escape, or you feel as if you are: Cooped up in a small dark cell, the prisoner hadn't seen daylight for five years. It's such a tiny office - don't you ever feel cooped up here? Unit 13: Unit 13 coop sb/sth up phrasal verb [M] to keep someone or something in an enclosed space: I feel like I've been cooped up in this flat for days. Unit 13: Unit 13 wreath noun [C] plural wreaths an arrangement of flowers and leaves in a circular shape, which is used as a decoration or as a sign of respect and remembrance for a person who has died: a holly/laurel wreath The bride wore a veil with a wreath of silk flowers. There were two large wreaths on the coffin. The President ended his visit by laying a wreath at the war memorial. Unit 13: Unit 13 arrogant adjective unpleasantly proud and behaving as if you are more important than, or know more than, other people: I found him arrogant and rude. arrogantly adverb The authorities had behaved arrogantly, she said. arrogance noun [U] He has a self-confidence that is sometimes seen as arrogance. Unit 13: Unit 13 numb adjective 1 If a part of your body is numb, you are unable to feel it, usually for a short time: I had been lying awkwardly and my leg had gone numb. My fingers were numb with cold. 2 not able to feel any emotions properly or to think clearly, because you are so shocked or frightened, etc: When she first heard the news, she was numb with disbelief. Ever since his girlfriend left him he has felt numb. Unit 13: Unit 13 ebb (WATER) verb [I] When the sea or tide ebbs, it moves away from the coast and falls to a lower level. ebb noun the ebb the tide when it is moving away from the coast: We'll sail on the ebb. Unit 13: Unit 13 fit (SUIT) verb [T] -tt- to be suitable for something: With her qualifications, she should fit the job perfectly. Let the punishment fit the crime. I'm sure we'll have something to fit your requirements, Madam. fit adjective fitter, fittest suitable for a particular purpose or activity: She's not fit for the level of responsibility she's been given. NOTE: The opposite is unfit. Unit 13: Unit 13 mean (INTEND) verb [I or T] meant, meant to intend: I'm sorry if I offended you - I didn't mean any harm. The books with large print are meant for our partially sighted readers. [+ to infinitive] I've been meaning to phone you all week. Do you think she meant to say 9 a.m. instead of 9 p.m.? [+ object + to infinitive] This exercise isn't meant to be difficult. They didn't mean for her to read the letter. Unit 13: Unit 13 know better (than to do sth) to be wise or moral enough not to do something: Sure, she's only six, but she's old enough to know better than to run off without us. I'm surprised at you behaving so badly - you ought to/should know better. Unit 13: Unit 13 renounce v.断绝关系 放弃, 弃权verb [T] FORMAL to say formally or publicly that you no longer own, support, believe in or have a connection with something: Her ex-husband renounced his claim to the family house. Gandhi renounced the use of violence. renunciation noun [S or U] the renunciation of violence Unit 13: Unit 13 tendril noun [C] a thin, stem-like part of a climbing plant which holds on to walls or other plants for support Unit 13: Unit 13 clasp verb [T] to hold someone or something firmly in your hands or arms: He was clasping the vase tightly, terrified of dropping it. Lie on your back, clasp your knees and pull them down towards your chest. She clasped her son in her arms. Unit 13: Unit 13 shrivel verb -ll- or US USUALLY -l- 1 [I or T] to become dry, smaller and covered with lines as if by crushing or folding, or to make something do this: The lack of rain has shriveled the crops. You ought to pick those lettuces before they shrivel (up) and die. 2 [I] to become much smaller than is desired: Profits are shriveling as the recession gets worse. Unit 13: Unit 13 stretch (yourself) out phrasal verb to lie with your legs and arms spread out in a relaxed way: I just want to get home and stretch out on the sofa. Unit 13: Unit 13 hang (FIX AT TOP) verb hung, hung 1 [I or T; + adverb or preposition] to fasten or support something at the top leaving the other parts free to move, or to be held in this way: A heavy gold necklace hung around her neck. The curtains hung in thick folds. Hang your coat and hat (up) on the rack over there. 2 [T] If you hang wallpaper, you fix it to the wall. Unit 13: Unit 13 popcorn noun [U] seeds of maize that are heated until they burst open and become soft and light, usually flavored with salt, butter or sugar: a tub of popcorn Unit 13: Unit 13 Vocabulary 1.confess 2.wreath 3.embarrassed 4.bewilderment 5.stony 6.numb 7.stunned 8.renunciation 9.tendril 10.withdraw 1. Admit (something wrong) 2. an arrangement of flowers or leaves in a circle / ring 3. upsetting 4. puzzlement, confusion 5. showing no feeling, cold 6. unable to feel anything 7. shocked, confused 8. the act of giving up everything 9. a thin leafless curling stem by which a climbing plant fastens itself to a support 10. move away or backUnit 13: Unit 13 地道英语 Real English Penny Pinching 小气，不愿花钱 Do you like spending money or saving it? Are you a penny pincher? ‘ Gobsmacked 瞠目结舌 I was gobsmacked when he told me. ' Was this person hit in the face or very surprised? ’Unit 13: Unit 13 Jet Lag 飞机时差 Himbo 肤浅的帅哥 Video diary 录像日记 Motor 汽车 Bloke 男人 Rip off 宰客 Shades 墨镜 Unit 13: Unit 13 Bottom line 最低价格 Grub 食物 Pashmina 披肩 Cab 出租车 Face the music 等着挨训 Uptight 紧绷弦 Globalisation 全球化 Unit 13: Unit 13 bbc_harry_potter_mania_reading.mp3 Harry Potter has been a global publishing phenomenon. All around the world millions of people are eagerly waiting for the 16th of July. That’s because it is the day when the sixth Harry Potter novel will be published worldwide.Unit 13: Unit 13 If you are one of the few people who have never read any of the Harry Potter novels, they can be summarized as the magical adventures of a boy wizard who attends a wonderful school for wizards.Unit 13: Unit 13 The first Harry Potter novel was published in 1997. Since then the Harry Potter series has become a publishing phenomenon, selling over 250 million copies worldwide. The Harry Potter books are sold in more than 200 countries and have been translated into 60 different languages from Hindi to Ancient Greek.Unit 13: Unit 13 The novels have also been successfully adapted for the big screen. The first three films have all been smash hits at the box office. The most recent film ‘Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban’ broke records in the UK, taking £11.5 million in its first three days on release. It went on to take more than $750 million worldwide!Unit 13: Unit 13 It has been an incredible journey for the author of the books, JK Rowling. Just seven years ago she was a single mother writing her books in a café. Now she is a multi-millionaire, Britain’s richest woman and ranked as the world’s best-paid author. Unit 13: Unit 13 It is difficult to pinpoint the secret to the Harry Potter series’ success. For whatever reason, the books have captured the imagination of millions of readers from around the world. Fans are passionate about the books and films, and there are many websites devoted to Harry and his friends and enemies.Unit 13: Unit 13 Indeed, there has been a great deal of gossip and speculation surrounding the new book. However, for the moment the story remains a well-guarded secret. If you want to know what happens in the sixth Harry Potter book, you’ll just have to read it! Unit 13: Unit 13 GLOSSARY 词汇表 novel 小说 wizard （男）魔法师；男巫 the big screen 荧屏 box office 票房 single mother 单身母亲 captured the imagination 捕获…的想像力；使…极度着迷 speculation 猜测Unit 13: Unit 13 published worldwide 全球出版发行 publishing phenomenon 出版业的奇迹 smash hits 巨大成功 on release 出版；发行 to pinpoint 精确查明 gossip 闲话；流言蜚语 Unit 13: Unit 13 1. Pick out phrases and collocations in the text. 2.about the author 3. Language Points Unit 13: Unit 13 Charles Dickens (1812-1870) English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens's works are characterized by attacks on social evils, injustice, and hypocrisy. He had also experienced in his youth oppression, when he was forced to end school in early teens and work in a factory. Dickens's good, bad, and comic characters, such as the cruel miser Scrooge, the aspiring novelist David Copperfield, or the trusting and innocent Mr. Pickwick, have fascinated generations of readers. Unit 13: Unit 13 Dickens's birthplace at No.1 Mile End Terrace, Landport, a district on the outskirts of Portsmouth. Unit 13: Unit 13 ribbon noun 1 [C or U] a long narrow strip of material used to tie things together or as a decoration: Sandra often wears a ribbon in her hair. He tied up the present with ribbon. 2 LITERARY a ribbon of sth a long narrow piece of something: A ribbon of road stretched ahead of us across the desert. Unit 13: Unit 13 monstrous adjective very bad or cruel: a monstrous crime monstrous cruelty But that's monstrous - he can't be allowed to get away with it! monstrously adverb monstrously unfair Unit 13: Unit 13 confer (GIVE) verb [T] -rr- to give an official title, honour, or advantage to someone: An honorary doctorate was conferred on him by Edinburgh University. Unit 13: Unit 13 gallant (BRAVE) adjective FORMAL APPROVING showing no fear of dangerous or difficult things: Despite fierce competition she made a gallant effort to win the first medal of the championships. gallant (POLITE) adjective FORMAL (of a man) polite and kind towards women, especially when in public: That wasn't very gallant of you, Paul, pushing a young lady out of the way like that! Unit 13: Unit 13 attire noun [U] FORMAL clothes, especially of a particular or formal type: I hardly think jeans are appropriate attire for a wedding. attired adjective [after verb] FORMAL She was attired from head to foot in black. Unit 13: Unit 13 yearn verb [I] to desire very strongly, especially something that you cannot have or something that is very difficult to have: Despite his great commercial success he still yearns for critical approval. [+ to infinitive] Sometimes I just yearn to be alone. Unit 13: Unit 13 linen noun [U] 1 strong cloth that is woven from the fibres of the flax plant: a linen jacket the crumpled charm of linen 2 sheets, tablecloths, etc. which are made from linen or a similar material: bed linen table linen Unit 13: Unit 13 bask verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] to lie or sit enjoying the warmth especially of the sun: We could see seals on the rocks, basking in the sun. Unit 13: Unit 13 bask in sth phrasal verb to take pleasure from something that makes you feel good: He basked in his moment of glory, holding the trophy up to the crowd. Unit 13: Unit 13 sage (PLANT) noun [U] a plant whose greyish green leaves are used as a herb to give flavour to some foods: sage-and-onion stuffing Unit 13: Unit 13 exalt verb [T] 1 FORMAL to raise someone to a higher rank or more powerful position 2 OLD USE to praise someone a lot Unit 13: Unit 13 choke (STOP BREATHING) verb 1 [I or T] If you choke, or if something chokes you, you stop breathing because something is blocking your throat: She choked to death on a fish bone. Children can choke on peanuts. Peanuts can choke a small child. 2 [T] to make someone stop breathing by pressing their throat with the hands Unit 13: Unit 13 bubble noun 1 [C] a ball of air in a liquid, or a delicate hollow sphere floating on top of a liquid or in the air: As water begins to boil, bubbles rise ever faster to the surface. I love champagne - I think it's the bubbles that make it so nice. 2 [C usually singular] a temporary period of very successful economic performance by a country, which is often followed by sudden economic failure: Japan's economic bubble Unit 13: Unit 13 shawl noun [C] a large piece of cloth worn especially by women or girls over their shoulders and/or head Unit 13: Unit 13 bonnet (HAT) noun [C] a type of hat that covers the ears and is tied under the chin, worn by babies or, especially in the past, by women Unit 13: Unit 13 officious adjective DISAPPROVING too eager to tell people what to do and having too high an opinion of your own importance: He's an officious little man and widely disliked in the company. Unit 13: Unit 13 zeal noun [S or U] great enthusiasm or eagerness: reforming/missionary/religious zeal a zeal for money-making zealot noun [C] a person who has very strong opinions about something, and tries to make other people have them too: a religious zealot Unit 13: Unit 13 comforter US noun [C] (UK duvet) a large soft flat bag filled with feathers or artificial material used on a bed Unit 13: Unit 13 fringe (EDGE) noun [C] the outer or less important part of an area, group or activity: the southern fringe of the city fringe verb be fringed with sth If a place is fringed with something, that thing forms a border along the edge: The river is fringed with wild flowers. Unit 13: Unit 13 threadbare (THIN) adjective describes material or clothes that have become thin or damaged because they have been used a lot: a threadbare coat Unit 13: Unit 13 darn (REPAIR) verb [T] to repair a hole or a piece of clothing with long stitches across the hole and other stitches woven across them: She still darns the holes in her socks. Unit 13: Unit 13 crutch noun 1 [C usually plural] a stick with a piece that fits under the arm, which you lean on for support if you have difficulty in walking because of a foot or leg injury: Martin broke his leg playing football and has been on crutches for the past six weeks. 2 [S] OFTEN DISAPPROVING something that provides help and support and which you depend on, often too much: As an atheist, he believes that religion is just an emotional crutch for the insecure. Unit 13: Unit 13 limb noun [C] an arm or leg of a person or animal, or a large branch of a tree: The accident victims mostly had injuries to their lower limbs (= legs). an artificial limb Unit 13: Unit 13 rampant (INCREASING) adjective (of something bad) getting worse quickly and in an uncontrolled way: rampant corruption Rampant inflation means that our wage increases soon become worth nothing. Unit 13: Unit 13 premature adjective happening or done too soon, especially before the natural or desired time: premature birth/death a premature baby Their criticisms seem premature considering that the results aren't yet known. Unit 13: Unit 13 closet (CUPBOARD) noun [C] MAINLY US a cupboard or a small room with a door, used for storing things, especially clothes: a bedroom/linen/storage closet Unit 13: Unit 13 hustle (PUSH) verb [T usually + adverb or preposition] to make someone move quickly by pushing or pulling them along: After giving his speech, Johnson was hustled out of the hall by bodyguards. Unit 13: Unit 13 credulous adjective SLIGHTLY FORMAL too willing to believe what you are told; easily deceived credulously adverb SLIGHTLY FORMAL credulity noun [U] (ALSO credulousness) SLIGHTLY FORMAL willingness to believe that something is real or true Unit 13: Unit 13 cripple noun [C] 1 OFFENSIVE OLD-FASHIONED a person who cannot use their arms or legs in a normal way 2 INFORMAL emotional cripple someone who finds it difficult to have or express feelings Unit 13: Unit 13 lame (UNABLE TO WALK) adjective (especially of animals) not able to walk correctly because of physical injury to or weakness in the legs or feet Unit 13: Unit 13 tremor noun [C] 1 a slight shaking movement in a person's body, especially because of nervousness or excitement:. There was a slight tremor in her voice. tremulous adjective LITERARY If a person's voice or a part of their body is tremulous, it is shaking slightly: He watched her tremulous hand reach for the teacup. In a tremulous voice she whispered: " Who are you people?" Unit 13: Unit 13 escort (GO WITH) verb [T] 1 to go with someone or a vehicle especially to make certain that they arrive safely or that they leave a place: Security guards escorted the intruders from the building. The police escorted her to the airport, and made sure that she left the country. 2 to go with someone and show them a place: People on the tour will be escorted by an expert on archaeology. Unit 13: Unit 13 stool (SEAT) noun [C] a seat without any support for the back or arms: a bar/kitchen/piano stool a three-legged stool Unit 13: Unit 13 cuff (MATERIAL) noun [C] 1 the thicker material at the end of a sleeve nearest the hand 2 US (UK turn-up) the part of a trouser leg that is turned up Unit 13: Unit 13 jug (CONTAINER) noun [C] 1 UK (US pitcher) a container for holding liquids which has a handle and a shaped opening at the top for pouring: a glass/plastic jug a milk/water jug 2 US a large round container for liquids which has a flat base, a handle and a very narrow raised opening at the top for pouring: a whiskey jug Unit 13: Unit 13 gin杜松子酒 noun [C or U] a colourless strong alcoholic drink flavoured with juniper berries (= small fruits): a bottle of gin gin and tonic Unit 13: Unit 13 lemon noun 1 [C or U] an oval fruit which has a thick yellow skin and sour juice: For this recipe you need the juice of two lemons. Would you like a slice of lemon in your tea? lemon juice Unit 13: Unit 13 hob noun [C] UK (US stove or stovetop) the top part or surface of a cooker on which pans can be heated: Most domestic hobs have four gas or electric rings. Unit 13: Unit 13 simmer verb 1 [I or T] to cook something liquid, or something with liquid in it, at a temperature slightly below boiling: Leave the vegetables to simmer for a few minutes. simmer noun [S] Bring the potatoes to a simmer. Unit 13: Unit 13 ubiquitous adjective FORMAL OR HUMOROUS seeming to be in all places: The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the ubiquitous spread of English. The radio, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age. Unit 13: Unit 13 bustle (BE BUSY) verb [I + adverb or preposition] to do things in a hurried and busy way: Thora bustled about the flat, getting everything ready. bustle noun [U] I sat in a café, watching the (hustle and) bustle (= busy activity) of the street outside. Unit 13: Unit 13 feather noun [C] one of the many soft light things which cover a bird's body, consisting of a long thin central part with hair-like material along each side: feather pillows (= those containing feathers) Unit 13: Unit 13 hiss verb 1 [I] to make a noise which is like the first sound in the word 'sing' but which lasts a lot longer: Why do snakes hiss? People in the audience were hissing their disapproval. 2 [T] to say something in a quiet angry way: "Shut up, Tom!" she hissed. Unit 13: Unit 13 cram (PUSH) verb [T usually + adverb or preposition] -mm- INFORMAL to force a lot of things into a small space, or to do many things in a short period of time: Eight children were crammed into the back of the car. The room was packed and we were crammed against the door. Unit 13: Unit 13 shriek noun [C] a short, loud, high cry, especially one produced suddenly as an expression of a powerful emotion: shrieks of delight He suddenly let out a piercing shriek. shriek verb [I or T] We shrieked with laughter when we realized how stupid we'd been. Unit 13: Unit 13 gush (FLOW) verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T] to flow or send out quickly and in large amounts: Oil gushed (out) from the hole in the tanker. Blood was gushing from his nose. Unit 13: Unit 13 issue (PRODUCE) verb [T] to produce or provide something official: The office will be issuing permits on Tuesday and Thursday mornings. Unit 13: Unit 13 eke sth out phrasal verb [M] to use something slowly or carefully because you only have a small amount of it: There wasn't much food left, but we just managed to eke it out. He managed to eke out a living (= earn just enough to live on) one summer by selling drinks on a beach. Unit 13: Unit 13 pastry noun 1 [U] a food made from a mixture of flour, fat and water, which is rolled flat and wrapped round or put over or under other foods and baked: Ann makes delicious pastry - you should try her apple pie. 2 [C] a type of sweet cake made of special pastry and usually containing something such as fruit or nuts: We were offered a selection of cakes and pastries with our tea. Unit 13: Unit 13 speckle noun [C usually plural] a very small mark of a different colour from the surface on which it is found, and which is usually found with a large number of other marks of the same type: A blackbird's egg is blue with brown speckles on it. speckled adjective covered with speckles: a bird with a speckled breast Unit 13: Unit 13 cannon (GUN) noun [C] plural cannon or cannons 1 a large, powerful gun fixed to two or four wheels, which fires heavy stone or metal balls, and which was used in the past cannon ball noun [C] a heavy metal or stone ball fired from a cannon Unit 13: Unit 13 blaze (BURN) verb [I] 1 to burn brightly and strongly: The sun was blazing down that afternoon. 2 LITERARY to be brightly lit or full of colour: Isaac's eyes suddenly blazed with anger. Unit 13: Unit 13 ignite verb 1 [I or T] FORMAL to (cause to) start burning or explode: The fuel spontaneously ignites because of the high temperature and pressure. 2 [T] to cause a dangerous, excited or angry situation to begin: The proposed restrictions have ignited a storm of protest from human rights groups. Unit 13: Unit 13 brandy noun [C or U] a strong alcoholic drink made from wine and sometimes flavoured with fruits Unit 13: Unit 13 custard noun [U] a (usually warm) sweet sauce made from eggs, milk and sugar and poured over sweet dishes: apple pie and custard Unit 13: Unit 13 goblet noun [C] MAINLY OLD USE a container from which drink, especially wine, is drunk, usually made of glass or metal, and with a stem and a base but no handles Unit 13: Unit 13 sputter (SOUND) verb [I or T] to make several quick explosive sounds: The car sputtered once or twice and then stopped. Unit 14: Unit 14 1. University word level 2.doc 2. Pick out phrases and collocations in the text. 3.about the author 4. Language Points 5. Vocabulary Unit 14: Unit 14 O. Henry (1862-1910) was a prolific American short-story writer, a master of surprise endings, who wrote about the life of ordinary people in New York City. A twist of plot, which turns on an ironic or coincidental circumstance, is typical of O. Henry's stories. Unit 14: Unit 14 beat (AREA) noun [C usually singular] an area for which someone, such as a police officer, has responsibility as part of their job: Bob has worked as an officer on this particular beat for 20 years. Unit 14: Unit 14 gust noun [C] a sudden strong wind: A sudden gust of wind blew his umbrella inside out. FIGURATIVE She could hear gusts of laughter (= sudden, loud laughter) from within the room. Unit 14: Unit 14 twirl verb [I or T; usually + adverb or preposition] to (cause to) give a sudden quick turn or set of turns in a circle: She danced and twirled across the room. He twirled the ribbon round the stick. He twirled his umbrella as he walked. She twirled her baton high in the air as she led the parade. Unit 14: Unit 14 intricate adjective having a lot of small parts or details that are arranged in a complicated way and are therefore sometimes difficult to understand, solve or produce: The watch mechanism is extremely intricate and very difficult to repair. Unit 14: Unit 14 thoroughfare noun [C] FORMAL a main road for public use or a passage through somewhere Unit 14: Unit 14 stalwart (STRONG) adjective FORMAL (especially of a person) physically strong Unit 14: Unit 14 swagger verb [I] to walk, especially with a swinging movement, in a way that shows that you are very confident and think that you are important, or to act in that way: They swaggered into the room. A group of young men swaggered about outside the bar. His swaggering self-confidence irritates many people. Unit 14: Unit 14 vicinity noun [S] the immediately surrounding area: There are several hotels in the immediate vicinity of the station. Unit 14: Unit 14 scarf (CLOTH) noun [C] a piece of cloth that covers the shoulders, neck, or head for warmth or appearance A heavy woolen scarf hid most of his face. pin (FASTENER) noun [C] a thin piece of stiff wire with a pointed end that you can stick through two things to fasten them together Mary put a pin in her hair to hold her hat on. A pin can also be decorative and used as jewelry: She wore a beautiful gold pin on her coat. Unit 14: Unit 14 Stanch (staunch (LOYAL)) verb [T] adjective strongly loyal to a person, organization, or set of beliefs or opinions a staunch defender of free speech Unit 14: Unit 14 bet verb betting, bet, bet 1 [I or T] to risk money on the result of an event or a competition, such as a horse race, in the hope of winning more money: She bet £500 000 on the horse which came in second. 2 noun INFORMAL a guess or opinion: [+ (that)] My bet is (that) their baby will be a girl. Unit 14: Unit 14 plod (WORK) verb [I + adverb or preposition] -dd- to work slowly and continuously, but without imagination, enthusiasm or interest: For years, he's plodded away at the same dull routine job. plodder noun [C] Dennis is a bit of a plodder, but he gets the job done in the end. Unit 14: Unit 14 groove noun [C] a long narrow hollow space cut into a surface: The window slides along a deep metal groove to open and close. be in the groove INFORMAL to be operating or performing successfully Unit 14: Unit 14 razor noun [C] a small device with a sharp blade for removing hair, especially from the face or legs: Do you use an electric razor or the kind that you have to put a razor blade in? razor-sharp (SHARP) adjective extremely sharp: These animals have razor-sharp teeth. Unit 14: Unit 14 drizzle (RAIN) noun [U] rain in very small light drops: Tomorrow will be cloudy with outbreaks of rain and drizzle. drizzle verb [I] It's been drizzling all day. Unit 14: Unit 14 puff (BREATHE) verb [I] to breathe fast and with difficulty, usually because you have been doing exercise: He came puffing up the stairs. puff noun INFORMAL be out of puff to be breathing with difficulty because you have been doing physical exercise Unit 14: Unit 14 dismal adjective 1 sad and without hope: a dismal expression 2 INFORMAL very bad: The acting was dismal, wasn't it? What dismal weather! dismally adverb Unit 14: Unit 14 absurd adjective ridiculous or unreasonable; foolish in an amusing way: What an absurd thing to say! absurdly adverb You're behaving absurdly. absurdity noun [C or U] There are all sorts of absurdities (= things that are ridiculous) in the proposal. Unit 14: Unit 14 snap (BREAK) verb -pp- 1 [I or T] to cause something which is thin to break suddenly and quickly with a cracking sound: You'll snap that ruler if you bend it too far. 2 [I] to suddenly become unable to control a strong feeling, especially anger: When she asked me to postpone my trip to help her move house, I just snapped (= got angry). snap (SPEAK) verb [I or T] -pp- to say something suddenly in an angry way: There's no need to snap at me - it's not my fault that you lost your wallet. Unit 14: Unit 14 A Roman nose pug noun [C] a small dog with a flat face and a short wide nose Unit 14: Unit 14 drop by/in phrasal verb INFORMAL to visit someone: I dropped in on George on my way home from school. Drop by and pick up that book sometime. Unit 14: Unit 14 Vocabulary 1.spectator 2.twirl 3.thoroughfare 4.stalwart 5.swagger 6.diamond 1. onlooker or a person who watches without taking part 2. turn round and round quickly 3. a busy main road 4. strong 5. a proud manner of walking 6. a very hard, valuable, precious colorless stone Unit 14: Unit 14 7.correspon 8.proposition 9.moderately 10.release 11.patrolman 12.plain-clothes man 7. exchange letters regularly 8. business undertaking: here the implied meaning is "place where fortunes can be made and adventures sought" 9. to an average degree, just "so-so" 10. set free, allow to come out 11. a policeman who regularly patrols a particular area 12. a policeman wearing ordinary clothes rather than a uniform while on duty Unit 14: Unit 14 episode21.rm Tim's treat Tim: Hiya folks. How's everyone this fine evening? Alice: Exhausted! I had to give someone mouth-to-mouth for the first time today! Helen: That's so exciting, congratulations! You must feel really proud. Alice: Yes I do. How are you Helen? Helen: I'm tired, I’ve been staring at finance textbooks all day. Unit 14: Unit 14 Michal: I think my head is going to expand from all my studying too. Tim: Well, how about a drink at the pub? My treat! Would that make you two feel less worn-out? Helen: You paying for all of us? That’s not like you. Alice: What’s come over you? Tim: Well let’s just say I got a special bonus at work. Unit 14: Unit 14 Vocabulary: a treat (n): something special and nice that you don't have very often worn-out (adj, informal): tired Unit 14: Unit 14 1. Pick out phrases and collocations in the text. 2. The most famous detective story 3. Language Points Unit 14: Unit 14 Sir Arthur Conan Doyal Most people like detective stories. A famous detective story writer was Conan Doyle, who was born in 1859 and died in 1930. He invented the famous detective Sherlock Holmes. The detective seemed so real that people wrote letters to him, asking for help. His address was known: 221 B Baker Street. It was a flat which he shared for many years with his friend Dr Watson. It is Dr Watson who tells most of the stories. Unit 14: Unit 14 Why were the stories so popular? Not only because Conan Doyle could tell thrilling events. The readers liked Sherlock Holmes as a person. He spoke little, he was a sharp observer and a clear thinker. He studied crime like a scientist. In his best stories he puts the facts before us so that we can try and solve the mystery ourselves. Moreover, Sherlock Holmes was fearless, a man of great courage. He even enjoyed danger. He was generous, a gentleman, always ready to help those who needed him and to fight evil. Unit 14: Unit 14 scanty adjective smaller in size or amount than is considered necessary or desirable: scanty evidence/information scantily adverb scantily clad/dressed, etc. wearing very little clothing: scantily clad dancers Unit 14: Unit 14 confront verb [T] to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person: It's an issue we'll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is. I thought I would remain calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I became very nervous. confrontation noun [C or U] a fight or argument: She actually enjoys confrontation, whereas I prefer a quiet life. There were violent confrontations between police and demonstrators. Unit 14: Unit 14 twilight (EVENING) noun [U] the period just before it becomes completely dark in the evening: I could make out a dark figure in the twilight. Unit 14: Unit 14 twilight (UNCLEAR) adjective LITERARY used to describe a way of life which is characterized by uncertainty and difficult or slightly illegal situations, and which is on the edge of normal society: Leaving a secure job for the twilight world of pop music was perhaps a mistake. Unit 14: Unit 14 subject sb/sth to sth phrasal verb [often passive] to make someone or something experience an unpleasant or worrying thing: The inquiry found that they had been subjected to unfair treatment. "I didn't want to subject him to such a long journey, " she said. Unit 14: Unit 14 stamp sth out phrasal verb [M] to get rid of something that is wrong or harmful: The new legislation is intended to stamp out child prostitution. (n.卖淫)Unit 14: Unit 14 cynical adjective DISAPPROVING 1 believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere: I think she takes a rather cynical view of men. I've always been deeply cynical about politicians. 2 describes a tendency to use someone's feelings or emotions to your own advantage: He praises my cooking but it's just a cynical ploy (policy) to get me to make his meals. Unit 14: Unit 14 05 曲目 5.wma Santa Clause is coming to town Santa Clause is comin' Santa Clause is coming to town Santa Clause is comin' Santa Clause is coming to town You better watch out, you better not cry. Better not pout, I'm telling you why: Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Unit 14: Unit 14 He's making a list, and checking it twice; He's gonna find out who's naughty and nice. Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Unit 14: Unit 14 He sees you when you're sleeping, He knows when you're awake, He knows if you've been bad or good, So be good for goodness sake! He sees you when you're sleeping, He knows when you're awake, He knows if you've been bad or good, So be good for goodness sake! Unit 14: Unit 14 Oh! You better watch out, you better not cry. Better not pout (v.撅嘴, 绷脸), I'm telling you why: Santa Claus is coming to town. Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is comin' Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is comin ' Santa Claus is coming to town! Unit 14: Unit 14 The kids in girl and boy land would have a jubilee! (n.50年节, (天主教)大赦年) they're gonna built a toyland all around the christmas tree Unit 14: Unit 14 You better watch out, you better not cry. Better not pout, I'm telling you why: Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is coming to town! Unit 14: Unit 14 Santa Claus is comin' Santa Claus is coming to town! Santa Claus is come Santa Claus is come Santa Claus is come come comin' to town Santa Claus is come Santa Claus is come Santa Claus is come come comin' to town Unit 15: Unit 15 1. Pick out the chunks in the text 2.About the author 3. Language Points 4. Vocabulary workUnit 15: Unit 15 Rachel Carson was born on a farm in Springdale, Pennsylvania. She graduated from Pennsylvania College for Women (now Chatham College), earned a Masters in Marine Biology at Johns Hopkins, taught Zoology at the University of Maryland, and eventually took a job with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. While there, she wrote three books about the sea which gave her the financial independence to quit her government job and begin the book which made her famous -- and infamous. In Silent Spring (1962) she challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world. Unit 15: Unit 15 fable noun [C or U] a short story which tells a general truth or is only partly based on fact, or literature of this type: the fable of the tortoise and the hare Unit 15: Unit 15 orchard noun [C] an area of land where fruit trees (but not orange trees or other citrus trees) are grown: an apple/cherry orchard Unit 15: Unit 15 oak noun [C or U] a large tree that is common especially in northern countries, or the hard wood of this tree: a mighty oak The timbers of those old sailing ships were mainly oak. an oak table/cupboard Unit 15: Unit 15 maple noun [C or U] a type of large tree which grows in northern areas of the world, or the wood of this tree: a maple leaf maple trees Unit 15: Unit 15 birch (TREE) noun [C] a tree with a smooth, often white bark and thin branches Unit 15: Unit 15 flicker vi.闪动, 闪烁, 摇动, 扑动翅膀, [美俚]昏倒, 假装昏倒 vt.使摇曳, 使闪烁 1 [I] to shine with a light that is sometimes bright and sometimes weak: I felt a cold draft and the candle started to flicker. 2 [I or T] to appear for a short time or to make a sudden movement: A smile flickered across her face. He'd been in a coma for weeks, when all of a sudden he flickered an eyelid. Unit 15: Unit 15 pine (tree) noun [C or U] an evergreen tree that grows in cooler areas of the world: a plantation of pines a pine forest pine noun [U] the wood of pine trees, which is usually pale in color: pine furniture Pine is a softwood. Unit 15: Unit 15 fox (ANIMAL) noun 1 [C] a wild mammal belonging to the dog family which has a pointed face and ears, a wide furry tail and often reddish-brown fur 2 [U] the skin of this animal used to make coats and hats 3 [C usually singular] someone who is clever and good at deceiving people: He's a cunning/sly/wily old fox. Unit 15: Unit 15 deer noun [C] plural deer a quite large four-legged animal which eats grass and leaves. The male has antlers (= wide branch-like horns). The female is called a hind or a doe and the male a stag or buck: a herd of deer Unit 15: Unit 15 reindeer noun [C] plural reindeer a type of deer with large horns, which lives in the northern parts of Europe, Asia and America: Father Christmas travels in a sleigh pulled by reindeer. Unit 15: Unit 15 laurel noun [C or U] a small evergreen tree which has shiny leaves and small black fruit Unit 15: Unit 15 Viburnum n.荚莲属的植物: any of a genus (Viburnum) of widely distributed shrubs or trees of the honeysuckle (n.[植]忍冬, 金银花) family with simple leaves and white or rarely pink cymose (adj.[植]聚伞花序的, 聚伞状的) flowers Unit 15: Unit 15 alder: n.[植]桤木 any of a genus (Alnus) of toothed-leaved trees or shrubs of the birch family that have catkins (n.[植]柔荑花(如柳絮等) ) which become woody, that grow in moist ground, and that have wood used in turnery (n.车削产品, 车床工厂, 车工工艺)Unit 15: Unit 15 fern noun [C] a green plant with long stems, feathery leaves, and no flowers Unit 15: Unit 15 berry noun [C] any of various small, round fruits that grow on plants and trees Unit 15: Unit 15 migrate verb [I] When an animal migrates, it travels to a different place, usually when the season changes: These animals migrate annually in search of food. In September, these birds migrate 2000 miles south to a warmer climate. migrant noun [C] These birds are winter migrants from Scandinavia. Unit 15: Unit 15 trout (FISH) n. 鲑, 鲑鱼 noun plural trout or trouts 1 [C or U] a fish that is a popular food, especially a brown type that lives in rivers and lakes or a silver type that lives in the sea but returns to rivers to reproduce: Thousands of young salmon (鲑鱼,大麻哈鱼)and trout have been killed by the pollution. 2 [U] the flesh of this fish eaten as food: I love smoked trout, don't you? Unit 15: Unit 15 barn noun [C] a large building on a farm in which hay and grain are kept Unit 15: Unit 15 blight noun 枯萎病, 不良影响, 打击 vt.破坏, 使枯萎 1 a disease that damages and kills plants 2 something which spoils or has a very bad effect on something, often for a long time: His arrival cast a blight on the wedding day. Unit 15: Unit 15 spell (RESULT) verb spell disaster/trouble, etc. to cause something bad to happen in the future: The new regulations could spell disaster for small businesses. This cold weather could spell trouble for gardeners. Unit 15: Unit 15 malady noun [C] FORMAL 1 a disease: All the rose bushes seem to be suffering from the same mysterious malady. 2 a problem within a system or organization: Apathy （冷漠）is one of the maladies of modern society. Unit 15: Unit 15 moribund （dying） adjective FORMAL DISAPPROVING (especially of an organization or business) not active or successful: How can the Trade Department be revived from its present moribund state? Unit 15: Unit 15 throb verb [I] -bb- 1 to produce a strong, regular beat: Both records have a good throbbing bass which is great to dance to. 2 If a part of your body throbs, you feel pain in it in a series of regular beats: His head throbbed, and his body ached. The throbbing pain in his leg was becoming unbearable. Unit 15: Unit 15 robin noun [C] (LITERARY robin redbreast) a small brown European bird with a red front, or a similar but slightly larger brown bird of North America: Robins mostly appear in the winter and are commonly pictured on Christmas cards. Unit 15: Unit 15 Catbird: an American songbird that is dark gray in color with a black cap and reddish coverts under the tail and is related to the mockingbird be (sitting) in the catbird seat American, old-fashioned to be in a position of power and importance He'll be sitting in the catbird seat when the boss retires. Unit 15: Unit 15 jay noun [C] Jay The common name given to the number of birds of the crow family found in Europe, Asia and of the Americas. In America the best known is the Blue Jay and the Canada jay. Unit 15: Unit 15 wren (BIRD) noun [C] a very small, brown bird Unit 15: Unit 15 marsh noun [C or U] ground near a lake, river or the sea, that tends to flood and is always wet: At the mouth of the river is a large area of marsh. Rain had been falling steadily all day and the ground had become a marsh. Unit 15: Unit 15 pollinate noun [U] (授粉）a powder produced by the male part of a flower, which is carried by insects or the wind and causes the female part of the same type of flower to produce seeds pollinate verb [T] Bees pollinate the plants by carrying the pollen from one flower to another. pollination noun [U] Many species of tree depend on the wind for pollination. Unit 15: Unit 15 angling noun [U] the sport of trying to catch fish with a rod, line (= plastic thread) and hook angler noun [C] a person whose hobby is catching fish Unit 15: Unit 15 gutter (CHANNEL) noun [C] 1 the edge of a road where rain flows away 2 an open pipe at the lower edge of a roof which collects and carries away rain the gutter noun [S] the lowest level, especially of society: Born to a poverty-stricken family, she dragged herself out of the gutter to become one of the wealthiest people in Britain today. Unit 15: Unit 15 eaves plural noun the edge of a roof that sticks out over the top of a wall Unit 15: Unit 15 shingle (STONES) noun [U] small round stones that cover a beach or the ground by the edge of a river: a shingle beach I love the noise of the waves on the shingle. shingle (PIECE) noun [C] a thin flat tile usually made of wood, that is fixed in rows to make a roof or wall covering Unit 15: Unit 15 granule noun [C] a small grain-like piece of something: coffee granules granular adjective made of, or seeming like, granules: a granular texture Unit 15: Unit 15 lawn noun [C or U] an area of grass, especially near to a house or in a park, which is cut regularly to keep it short: Will you mow the lawn at the weekend? Unit 15: Unit 15 grim (WITHOUT HOPE) adjective grimmer, grimmest worried or worrying, without hope: The future looks grim. Her face was grim as she told them the bad news. The expression on his face was one of grim determination. Unit 15: Unit 15 spectre UK noun 1 the spectre of sth the idea of something unpleasant that might happen in the future: The awful spectre of civil war looms over the country. 2 [C] (US specter) LITERARY a ghost Unit 15: Unit 15 stark (BARE) adjective bare, simple or obvious, especially without decoration or anything which is not necessary; severe or extreme: It was a stark room with its white walls, and a bed and chair as the only furniture. The stark reality is that we are operating at a huge loss. Unit 15: Unit 15 Vocabulary 1.bloom 2.abundance 3.migrant 4.malady 5.deserted 6.moribund 1.flower 2. a great quantity, plenty 3. bird that travels regularly from one part of the world to another according to the seasons of the year 4. an illness 5. left empty 6. at the point of death Unit 15: Unit 15 7. litter 8. angler 9. eaves 10.shingle 11.granular 12.spectre 7. all the newly born young ones of an animal 8. a person who fishes with a hook and line 9. the edges of a sloping roof which come out beyond the walls 10. small thin pieces of building material laid in rows to cover a roof or wall 11. grain-like 12. ghost Unit 15: Unit 15 1. Pick out the chunks in the text 2. Language Points 3. Translation work Unit 15: Unit 15 threshold (ENTRANCE) noun [C] the floor of entrance to a building or room Unit 15: Unit 15 Fascinating, Bewitching, Bewildering. That's Calcutta, the capital of West Bengal 孟加拉邦 and India‘s largest city, a seething沸腾的, 火热的 mass of activity with a cosmopolitan Atmosphere.Unit 15: Unit 15 West Bengal is one of the most culturally and ethnically diverse states of India. Different ethnicity, religion, languages and culture adds to this rich landscape and unifies the people instead of separating them. West Bengal nestled in the eastern part of India.Unit 15: Unit 15 1.抱很大期望 2. 超出某人期望 3. 辜负某人期望 4. 符合某人期望 5. 把钱存入银行 6. 兑换钱 7. 赚钱 8. 从银行提款 9. 筹款 10. 退款 11. 省钱 12. 喜庆日子 13. 欢乐日子 14. 庆祝某日子 15. 大好机会 16. 工作机会Slide780: 1.entertain great expectations 2.exceed/surpass one’s expectations 3.fall short of one’s expectations 4.answer/come up to/meet one’s expectations 5.bank money/deposit money in a bank 6.change moneySlide781: 7.make money 8.draw money from a bank 9.raise money 10.refund money 11.save money 12.a festal/festive occasion 13.a happy/joyful occasion 14.celebrate/mark/observe an occasionSlide782: 15.a capital opening 16. a job opening 2 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.